The philosophical-methodological grounds for the study of psychological features of internal space of individual freedom are viewed in the article. The views of thinkers are analysed since the epoch of Antiquity up to New time. The importance of the category of vital energy for the realization and development of the internal space of a personality’s freedom is grounded. The author ascertains the fact that our comprehension of the category of vital energy enables to talk rather about modeling than about assigning: psychic, caused by the needs, provokes particular – personal activity of a man. This activity from the outset (in the early ontogenesis) is shown to appear exceptionally affectional and the meeting between this activity and an object causes not only satisfaction from this “part” of the vital energy but cognition producing cognitive need, developing intellect and creating complete cognitive sphere of the personality. Everything is considered to start from expressing the vital energy, i.e. personal activity, but in order to research everything empirically you need an adequate method – genetics and modeling experiment. The peculiarities of an internal space of personality’s freedom are stipulated from the perspective of psychological analysis by the existing of the vital energy constituting the possibilities of free personal activity, free choice of individuality and free development of a person.
Keywords: freedom, personality, internal space, psychology, philosophy, methodology, vital energy.
This article envisages the interrelations between an ideal image and a phenomena of the psychic reflect, their social and cultural nature. The author uses domestic and foreign science sources and concepts, showing objective character of useful methodology of science. The domestic concepts of «image-me», its place and role in the consciousness of a personality are represented in the article. The researcher prefers Italian ontopsychology of A. Manegetti, the relation between ideal image and consciousness and unconsciousness in his theory. In this work the author introduces dialectical and materialistic theory of reflect, its conceptual and methodological role and functional potential in the reseach of psychical nature and psychical relations of the processes of ideal images and personal «Image-me» forming. The author proves with his arguments the scientific actuality of such research direction and further necessary of the study of such problems. For example, activity approach by A.N. Leontiev as a main methodological position of the science is analyzed in the psychology and for the next sciences. The theory of reflect is a domestic accomplish in the world of science too. The theory of the «cultural psychic» by L.S. Vigotsky is a domestic deposit to world philosophy and science too. P.K. Anokhin worked out a conception of «2 signal system» and etc. The author submits a group of the domestic researchers to study a problems of ideal (psychical), ideal images, image-me of a personality, their conceptual relationships.
Кeywords: ideal, ideal image, image-me, psychical reflect, social and cultural determinants of ideal, interaction.
The association between mental health of two groups of factors: objective and subjective is established. Objective factors are: a major competition, saturation of extreme situations, information uncertainty, and biased judges. Subjective factors are: worrying about the results of own performance, the ability to counter the impact of stressful factors. Identified adverse change in the psyche of athletes due to their athletic experience, qualifications and the specific sport they practice. An increase in temporary employment particular sport and improve athletic skill is accompanied by increased degree of manifestation of these qualities and conditions as anxiety, depression, stiffness, frustration, mental fatigue, aggressiveness, professional stress. Conditions for maintenance and preservation of the athletes mental health are the mastering of techniques of improving the psychological and emotional stability and ability to self-regulate their mental states and processes.
Keywords: mental health, sports, self-regulation, psychological stability, psyche.
Main existing tests for personal grothestimaion – the Cartwright’s “Senses-Reactions-Beliefs” (SRB) and Shostrom’s Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) – are examined. The necessity for creation of a questionnaire for complex estimation of personal growth by evaluating the totality of its characteristics is justified. In its basis there is a set of personal growth and personal development psychological concepts. Primarily, it is concets of Russian and Ukrainian psychologists (V.M Bekhterev, A.F. Lazurskyy, V.N. Myasishchev, B.G. Ananiev, A.N. Leontiev, S.L. Rubinstein, G.S. Kostyuk, G.A. Ball, S.D. Maksymenko, T.N. Tytarenko etc.), as well as existential-humanistic psychology direction (K. Goldstein, K. Rogers, A.Maslow, F. Perls, S. Gynger, J. Budgental et al.). Were also taken into account the views of William James (functionalism) and K.-G.Jung (analytical psychology). Questions of the questionnaire are pointed, scales and method of processing are described. The proposed questionnaire evaluates the main characteristics of personal development: awareness, adaptation, self-fulfillment, transcendence, gentle and environmentally friendly focus, sensitivity, acceptance, adequacy, capacity for self-development, internal locus of control, self-regulation, resistance to stress, creativity, open emotional expression, offset dominant needs from deficital to beingness, intuition. Author’s questionnaire “Complex Self-Estimstion of personal growth” includes all scales of SRB and POI with only two exceptions: scales of sets on human nature and cognitive needs, which has no direct relation with personal growth.
Key words: personal development, research, survey.
The results of studies of the effect on the performance of psychophysiological indicators of psychological testing. Provided analysis of the impact indicators electroencephalogram left and right hemispheres on individually – typological features of the personality. The attention paid to the analysis of certain connection – relationships between indicators of electroencephalogram and psychological factors five-factor personality questionnaire methodology MakKrae – Costa «Big Five.» Results of the research were the basis of mathematical modeling. Studying neurophysiological providing mental acts and states need to identify the specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. Mathematical modeling can be considered correct approach in determining lateralization.
Keywords: electroencephalogram, individually-typological features, impact of right and left hemisphere, hemispheric lateralization, specialization of the brain hemispheres, neurophysiological provision of mental acts and states.
The article envisages the importance of professional competence of speech therapists for children speech development and factors affecting the efficiency. The specialists language training is of particular significance: without knowing the development and functioning of the linguistic system as a standard one cannot be professionally competent in the correction of speech disorders of various types. All of this dictates the need for teaching special organization for the students on a speciality “Special (study of mental effects and physical handicaps) education”.
Keywords: professional competence of speech therapists, speech development, communicative competence.
UDC 159. 923.: 37. 013. 42
The theoretical analysis of problem of the emotionally-valued conditionality of development of humanism orientation of future social teacher is given in the article. Influence is examined on development of humanism orientation of such personality internalss, as: sensitiveness, sincerity, tolerance, empathy and altruism. Certainly, that the important feature of humanism orientation of future social teacher is forming of such character trait as sensitiveness which is examined as ability to feel and understand the state of other man through realization of the own experiencing. It is distinguished among the necessary internalss of successful social teacher is sincerity. Certainly, that sincerity is one of aspects of honesty, veracity, absence of contradictions between the real feelings and intentions in relation to other man or group of people. Certainly, that tolerance is included in the competence of modern social teacher in quality major to the component professionalism and requires the high level of humanism from him. Important professionally meaningful personality quality of social teacher is empathy, which assists to development of humane relations, altruism style of conduct. Certainly, that the necessary condition of social work is altruism, which shows by itself the most general form of display of humanity. Thus, certainly, that development professionally of important for a social teacher internalss of humanism aspiration will assist forming for the future social teacher of the valued attitude toward other and to itself.
Keywords: the valued attitude toward other, social teacher, humanistic orientation of personality, sensitiveness, sincerity, tolerance, sympathy , altruism.
Marked the passage of science in our time of postmodern stage of development, the main methodological guideline which the humanitarian paradigm, and the main task of the humanities is comprehension «deep content» text. Revealed that the main means of research in the humanities is a semiotic-hermeneutic method. It is determined that its main feature is the direct knowledge of the psychic reality of another that modeling done by researchers in the psyche psychic reality investigated. Hermeneutics finds psychological mechanisms of understanding and interpretation of verbal and nonverbal messages, their dependence on the personal characteristics of the person. Possibilities and limitations in applying the hermeneutic method in psychology. The connection of the application of hermeneutics in psychology with an understanding of how mental processes. It was found essential individual differences in subjects using hermeneutic method. Shown that variations hermeneutical method is handwriting and physiognomic methods psychoanalytic interpretation, a set of projective techniques, analysis of the products. biographical method and psychological interpretation. It is concluded that each concept derived from this method is psychologically specific, is suitable for describing psychic reality and behavior are just some of the psychological type of people.
Keywords: hermeneutical method, psychology, understanding, interpretation, individual characteristics.
The study found professional reflection as a psychological mechanism of professional self-perfection and self-actualization, manifested in the ability of a specialist to hold an analytical position in relation to themselves and professional activity. One of the criteria of its formation is the psychological readiness for the implementation of this activity; professional reflection is an essential component of many professions psychogramma, interpersonal relations, related to the professional field and joined coordinated activities within it. The professional readiness is established to be an integration quality of the students’ personality – a future teacher, the quality structure of which includes the components determining the success of the professional activity in the whole and ensures the development of professional reflection in particular. The reflection is proved to gain a fundamental nature becoming a personal basis of the expert’s professionalism.
Keywords: reflection, pedagogical activity, professional activity, professionalism, expert.
In the article an overview of studies of national and foreign psychologists which are in search of socialization opportunities in teenager period due to identifying the conditions of interpersonal interaction, the structure of the design process of interpersonal space, the mechanisms of mutual understanding and forms in traditional and modern psychological science, qualitative empirical evidence of this phenomenon is envisaged. Recognition is proved to be gained due to rivalry, ambitiousness, aggressiveness concerning subjects who oppose to plans’ realization. The top point in the development of interpersonal communication of teenagers is established to be such organization of life, activity, attitude to each other, in which teenagers would acquire an experience of socially significant emphatic behaviour. A school psychologist as an organizer of the correction of pupils’ behaviour plays an important role in this process.
Keywords: interpersonal communication, interpersonal space, the mechanisms of mutual understanding, forms of interaction.
The article envisages the correctional orientation of education and upbringing that provides a qualified knowledge and consideration of the defect structure of an abnormal child, identification and use of its potential. The teachers try to put the idea of preserved functions in the basis of the corrective work, including means of medical, physical, psychological and social impact on a personality of a pupil. The corrective care is provided according to the nature of violation. During the experimental research the children with the violation of the development are established to get an improvement of all peculiarities of attention and indices of motor sensitiveness due to the balancing influence on the brain activity. Exercises on a balancing board of F. Belgau give an opportunity to train and improve the attention, motor sensitiveness, motor skills and balance.
Keywords: children with disabilities, mental retardation, sensory integration, balametryka, development, correction, dyzontohenez, motor sensitivity.
UDC: 101.1; 371.13
The purpose of this article is to consider the Stepan Baley’s conception about nature of the complex personality. The researcher explains this complex approach to personality developing as the unity and the combination of psychic, anatomic and physiological features of the man. The personality is stressed to be presented as a concept of multiaspected, usual abstract form which is connected with life realities and social nature of the person. The attention is paid to the position of developing and self-developing of the person and due to this Stepan Baley considers the aim and the task of education. He proposes conceptional tips of humanitarian pedagogy which observes the inner potential and the nature of the personality, his able to transgress. The accentuation of the free personality development, creating the conditions for its creative self is capable alternatives to overcome the phenomenon of alienation knowledge. Article deals with the heuristic potential of Stepan Baley’s theoretical investigations, which are productive in creation of system of preventive education, which can help a person living in the world full of risqué, be successful. The article focuses on the creative potential of pedagogical transgression as such, which creates conditions for self-development and self-alignment of the individual. The dialogue in education is the desire to attract people to active learning of the world. Creativity as an integral part of personality existence allows lifting up abstract knowledge, making an educational process interesting as clear, the one to be related to a child’s life experience.
Keywords: personality, integrity, psychic, education, transgression, development.
In this article the personal culture of the teacher in the professional activity of educators in the psychological literature were analyzed; the revealation of the personal culture of the teacher as the mean of the development creation which was promoted better mutual understanding and a valuable thorough realization of the pupil’s personal potential which was reflected on the successful mastering of studying objects for example foreign language; the main factors of the development creation’s of a teenager were characterized; the collective work in conditions of the special psychological climate which was created by virtue of variational, personal and creational ways. The collective work limited a competition and turned into a cooperation where everybody would try to do as that as expressing individuality. Everybody would try to answer for expecting of group and would try to attain successful aims of a mutual action. The factors defined a positive motivation and satisfaction from a mutual act: the realization of the aim, the attaining success in the work, self-assurance, positive mark of your possibilities, the manifestation of interest to action, the positive attitude to the action and the positive mark of group and place in its were distinguished by scientists; the development of creative activities in psychological science was proved.
Keywords: convergencental thinking, divergencental thinking, creation, creative activities
The effect of motivation on the activity of the leaders was examined. The historical aspect of the study of human activity was scrutinized. The views of domestic and foreign scientists on the issue of motivation were studied. The link between motivation and anxiety are human, and the optimal level of anxiety was revealed. Links were theoretically noticed between: anxiety and frustration and its various aspects were reviewed; the frustration and perfectionism, the notion of perfectionism was examined as a personal quality and as personal problem as well; perfectionism and laziness, also the attitude to laziness in the historical aspect was discussed. The attitude to laziness from the point of view of the dysfunction of the development of mental processes and social factors was described. Were examined the peculiarities of motivation, social frustration, anxiety, industry and perfectionism with the top-managers, managers and directors at the age from 34 to 59 years in Odessa. It is shown, that the majority of top-managers react to the arising difficulties emotionally stably, trying to avoid the failure more than achieve the desired goal and have an average level of perfectionism.
Keywords: motivation, perfectionism, social frustration, anxiety, and a top manager.
The theoretical analysis of the creativity and the creative thinking importance in professional crime analysts of search operational staff, its place in the system of professionally important qualities of those categories of operatives are envisaged in the article. The thinking of the criminal analyst should be characterized by problematic thinking; dynamic thinking that are factors of the accelerated understanding of the events, which is especially important in the extreme stress situations of the current situation, when it is necessary to solve problems. The creative thinking and the psychological mechanisms dependence from the criminal intelligence and priority features of subjective qualities, creative potential of criminal analysts, the success of the implementation of which results in the performance of tasks in the field of operational and strategic crime analysis.
Keywords: creativity, creative thinking, creative potential, professional activity, professional qualities, criminal analyst.
The article deals with the analysis of target-setting problem in modern psychology. Empirical research of student abilities to target-setting has been carried out in Kazan University. The recommendation of organization training for development of personal target-setting skill at various grade levels has been worked out. The training technology for development of personal target-setting skill has been worked out and approbated. Feature of training is that influence is carried out on all components of ability to a goal-setting: intellectual, activity, personal. Possibility of development of this ability, formation of its positive dynamics in the conditions of training work is proved.
Keywords: target-setting, development of target-setting skill, technology, training, educational activity, self-realization.
UDC 159.923 : 316.64 – 32
The problem of individual-psychological determination of geopolitical consciousness is analyzed in the article. The phenomenon of geopolitical consciousness is considered by author as a reflection form (mental representation) of events and phenomena of “political world” through the prism of “geographic world” by identifying specific geographic territory with a specific policy that is held there. There are results of author’s empirical research of geopolitical representations of students with different individual models of world and levels of “Big Five” traits. It was shown the moderate correlation between this factors and geopolitical representations peculiarities. In particular, the representations about geopolitical actors among persons with organismic type of world model were more positive, and among persons with chaotic and antagonistic models – more critical. Besides, the quantitative and qualitative differences in geopolitical representations among students with high and low levels of Second («attachmentness–separateness») and Third («controlablenessspontaneousness») Big Five Factors were found. At the same time, the majority of geopolitical representations, ideas and estimates among students were similar. The moderate impact of personal factors on the geopolitical representations of youth the author explains by the fact that most of them are stereotyped social representations.
Key words: geopolitical consciousness, individual model of world, «Big Five» factors.
Psychologists consider the high conflict as an integral objective and subjective unit with different levels, which are determined by personal features and it is revealed in person’s communication, interaction, relation. The high conflict is revealed as emotionally acute way to react the conflict factors. The main parameters of high conflict psychological content are extra individual, individual and meta individual components; biological level, level of psychological processes, experience level; constructive and destructive sides; active, passive types, types of personality high conflict; destructive, conform, constructive stages of high conflict development, inner and outer factors. Our data showed that the majority of student conflict begins by influence of such outer factors as breaking of learning and other student activity norms (34,9%), relation norms (65,1%). The questions of justice of students’ successes estimation and awarding (78,2%), reliable fulfilling of learning quests, industry and others ethical persons features (70.0%) are very strong conflict factors. The normalization of high conflict means its socialization, e.g. the growth at person’s behavior the part of social and ethical ways to react the conflict situation, the strength of constructive components, and the transition from biologically determined and weak controlled forms to conflict competence. The analysis of high conflict psychological content is an important part of elaborating of high conflict psychological model.
Keywords: conflict, high conflict, high conflict psychological content, personality, conflict factors, interaction, interpersonal relations.
The value orientations of parents of different social and economic status at upbringing of their own children are considered in the article. The results of a questionnaire polling parents and expert review of children’s supervising instructors indicate the existence of differences in plans for children’s future. Among the main circumstances complicating education is considered to be the child’s resistance, an actual load, and focuses on the undesirable influence of the children of the same age and some family members. The parents of high social and economic status families are analysed to evaluate in a high level the development of their children and allocate many opportunities for their upbringing, material as well. The difficult interrelations in some high social and economic status families are examined to have a really bad influence on the teenager’s upbringing.
Keywords: social and economic status of the family, values of parents, style of upbringing.
This article deals with the problem of difficulties of parents’ adaptation, where a child was born with disabilities. Upbringing of handicapped children is a big challenge for parents and requires some changes in the perception of the problem and changes in the organization of family life. It also emphasizes the role of social workers in helping to implement these changes. The author discusses principles that should assist proceeding in the mental and physical functions of child and marks the necessity of psychologist role for overcoming the negative emotional states of parents. It is determined that quality of a social worker help depends on his well-grounded education, professional competenсe, and also empathy, that is based on awareness in problems, which every family faces with at the beginning of difficult way to the acceptance of fact of the child’s inferiority.
Keywords: disability, mental disability, family, social assistance, social work, adaptation, Down’s syndrome.
The image of professional is basic category which underlies professional identity, and influences on professional identity formation. The image of a professional is part of «imageof professions» that contains the idea of a professional identity, his most important professional qualities, conditions, ethical principles, and is the result of mental actions. In article types of images of the psychologist were determined by the following criteria: adequacy, meaningful, realistic, stereotype. The different factorshave an impact to formation of adequate professional image at different stages of learning: for first-year students– the self-esteem and emotional intelligence, for the third course – the verbal creativity, for the fifth cource – the spont aneity.Idealization of professional image caused communicative emotional intelligence and spontaneity.Aspiration to acceptance by people around, the sensitivity and spontaneity have influence on formation of stereotype of an image of the professional. Formation of an image of the professional at different grade levels depends from different determinants: components of self-updating of the personality, creativity and type of career orientations.
Key words: professional image, image psychology, self actualization, creativity, emotional intelligence, motivation of affiliation, career orientation.
This article is devoted to the studies of the formation of social and psychological competence components features of young adolescents with mental retardation at special school, compared with normally developing children of the same age. The content of each of the component of the social and psychological competence is described. The aims and objectives of psychodiagnostic methods that have been selected to study the organization of the components of social and psychological competence were considered. The features of SEC of children with mental retardation were defined. The results of the formation of social and psychological competence components of junior adolescents with learning disabilities obtained during an experiment were analyzed.
Keywords: children with mental retardation, junior teenagers, the components of social and psychological competence.
The article analyzes the specific features of Internet addiction, defines the stages of its formation and the criteria for assessing the degree of its formation. Uncover the features of Internet environment conducive to the emergence of Internet addiction. Consider the views of foreign and domestic scholars on the issue of Internet addiction, determined individual personality traits that may be a prerequisite of addiction. Analyzed personality changes that occur under the influence of dependence is determined by its impact on the interpersonal relationships of the individual and his way of life. Compared different views and interpretations of the factors that could cause Internet addiction.
Key words: Internet addiction, addiction, addicts, psychological addiction, computer addiction, online environment, online communication.
The article deals with the empiric study of the influence of parentalchildren relationship on gender development of adolescents’ image «Me». The sex differentiation of the peculiarities of gender behavior in interpersonal intercourse and also perception of the images of the parents as of models and standards of sex and role behavior has been revealed. The empiric study of the parents influence on gender upbringing of adolescents according to the ADOR test the considerable correlation in the evaluation of gender behavior standards in the mutual cross lines «mother-son/ daughter», «father-daughter/son» has been indicated. The imprinting of the image of parental-children relationship in the eyes of adolescents defines the peculiarities of gender orientation. The mother’s autonomous style which narrowly correlates with a positive interest in gender line «mother-daughter», on the contrary to the relationship «mother-son» has been established. The results of the investigation have certified the sex differentiation of gender behavior peculiarities in the interpersonal relationship and model and standard of sex-role behavior. The level of parental demands as to girls’ adherence of the traditional principles of behavior is higher than to boys has been identified. The value of parents as the models for gaining types of gender adolescents’ identity is more connected with gender behavior peculiarities of interpersonal relationship.
Keywords: sex-role identification, gender identity, personal sex socialization, gender role conceptions, gender orientations, gender image «Me», gender stereotype, the relationship between parents and children.
The theoretical analysis of the problems of psychological protection and the concept of temporary prospects was held. It is established, that most of the definitions of psychological protection are not defined. The research gives the possibility to divide the subjects into two groups: the subjects of the first group are more oriented towards the negative past that involves the assessment of the past from the point of view of regret, it is treated as containing a trauma, grief and pain and more focused on the fatalistic of this that involves the assessment of this from the point of view of helplessness and hopelessness. The second group is less focused on «the Negative of the past» and «the Fatalistic present». Statistically the differences in the severity of psychological defense: compensation, the projection of the substitution and at the level of statistical trends of exclusion. The subjects of the first group are more compensation, projection, substitution and to a lesser degree of crowding out, and the second group of subjects on the contrary. Suggested that the temporary prospects are connected with the psychological protection and may reflect different forms of adaptive behavior in the response of individuals in stressful situations.
Keywords: psychological protection, the temporary prospect.
Theoretical concept of coping behavior in family studies of foreign and local psychologists are analyzed in the article. Different points of view are analyzed based on the concept and the emergence of family stress, coping resources of a personality as factors in helping a person in stressful situations in family situations. The role of social support in solving different problems, especially in family situations in gender aspects is proofed in the article. Different factors of interaction between parents and adult children and social supportare defined. The conflict, especially in a family life as a first sign of stress in reviewed.The attempt to analyze the features of the effect of risk factors or difficult situation for resistance to stress is made. The concept of stability of the family and family coping is analyzed considering different approaches to the given problem, they are: sociological, adaptive and family. There were analyzed two types of social support: perceived, the one imagines and real, the one can really use in the field of human relations. The number of stressors that affect family life, marked symptoms and signs of family stress are identified in the article. Made a conclusion that social support makes people less vulnerable to the difficulties of life and also offershuman being real help in solving problems. The structure of coping with difficult situations in family life is given.
Ke ywords: coping behavior, coping resources, stress, social adaptation, exclusion, crisis, conflict.
The article examines peculiarities of corporal identity of women who have dependent love relations. The features of body image for dependent women have been studied and have been determined the level of satisfaction with their own bodies in the experimental group of women. It is revealed that corporal identity of dependent women doesn’t have sexual erotic components. The women identify themselves with such parts of body as arms, faces and necks while specific body identification of independent women is connected with genitals. For women who are in dependent love relationship the negative attitude and low level of attention to the body had been observed. Body has an instrumental function for dependent women, whereas independent women associate body with pleasure. It is also shown that in both task groups satisfaction of sexual life and satisfaction of state of health are represented as two alternative notions and it can be connected with certain social and cultural peculiarities.
Keywords: corporal identity, dependent love, emotional relations, satisfaction of own body, instrumental function of body.
The article envisages the dynamics of changes in a definition of concepts like meaning of life and death from antiquity till nowadays. The development of humans’ notions associated with death uncovers human perception of the meaning of life and its basic values. The transformation was held directly from understanding the conception of death as a natural continuation and completion of life, until they break, or separate in human mind. Nowadays the problem of death is studied not only by the philosophers but by the medical men, biologists, ethnographers, archeologists, historians of the literature and even by the physicists, and the psychologists kept and continued an experience of philosophical thoughts about life and death. The dynamics of philosophical and psychological concepts concerning the meaning of life and death was analysed to have passed the way from the thoughts about the soul’s life to the present notion of people’s material dependence, to the opposing of life and death. The representatives of the existential tendency are proved to consider emotional experience connected with death as a way to human existence, a deeper notion of the character and value of life.
Keywords: meaning of life, values, philosophy of death.
The article examined and presented personal characteristics of successful businesswomen of Ukraine. Reviewed studies of foreign and domestic representatives of psychological science, concentrated on entrepreneurship. Publications about the new generation of entrepreneurs (businessmen), which authors called “self-made”, as well as a new concept of «Self made woman» were analyzed. Empirical research with successful women-entrepreneurs was carried out, and set their psychological characteristics. It showed, that the majority of our probationers (62%) have a high degree of resistance to stress, they expressed desire to achieve success (92.4%), they are purposeful, highlighting the meaning of life and its direction. Modern women-entrepreneurs belong to the power-leading type of personality, which has sufficient freedom of choice. Was ascertained that predominant type of behavior in conflict for a Self made woman was compromise and accommodation. They were compared with entrepreneursmen. We believe that these features contribute to the success and stability of entrepreneurial activity.
Keywords: success, woman entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, psychological characteristics, psychological portrait.
In the article the study of features of delinquent behavior of teenager’s personality is carried out, the views of foreign and domestic researchers to the problem of social rejections of teenagers are analysed. Some researchers follow the conception that delinquent behaviour is a kind of deviant behaviour and is presented as a totality of illegal actions and crimes that don’t correspond to the formal social and legal standard. Other researchers consider the delinquent behaviour as repeated asocial delinquencies that violate the legal norms and in some cases are subjected to criminal responsibility. The teenagers’ delinquent behavior is established to be accompanied with various manifestations of social disadaptation, and it causes performing illegal actions – thefts, vandal actions, fights, misusing of alcohol, that break social and legal norms and make a threat for the public order and well-being of people.
Keywor ds: deviations display, delinquent behavior of teenagers, social deviations.
Н.М.Макаренко, О.О.Андрійченко, М.В.Торяник
This article regards the analysis of the communication barriers as a problem occurring in the intercourse between the Ukrainian students and native (English) speakers and the ways of managing with these barriers: main causes, means of overcoming. The analysis of theoretical research of this problem is represented by means of classifications which provide the information and the description of communication barriers. On the basis of foreign and native scientists’ research of this problem an empirical research of listening process was presented and listeners’ personal profiles were worked out. A detailed analysis of the difficulties associated with a foreign language perception and practical recommendations regarding the overcoming of the communication barriers can significantly influence the understanding of a foreign language and improve the communication process.
Keywords: communication, intercultural communication, barriers, thesaurus, native speakers.
UDC 159. 9
The theoretical aspects of social identity as necessary condition for successful socialization are revealed in the article, the views of scientists at the features and components of social identity in different directions of psychology: psychoanalytic, behaviourist, cognitivist, symbolic interactionism are represented. The theoretical basis of a problem of social identity in foreign and domestic psychology is specified. We propose a theory of national identity, which is considered within two basic approaches: primordialism and modernism. In scientific theories of modernism the constructivism and instrumentalism are represented. The major differences between ethnic and national identities are identified: national identity is aimed at the present time, is dynamic, is in the process of changing, adapting and shaping, and ethnic identity is formed during primary socialization, awareness of belonging to a particular ethnic group, and is one of the first manifestations of social human nature. The author defines the stage of the social identity development in accordance with the Hegel teachings concerning the stage of the transition from being into the concept and features of different levels of identity at these stages: ethnic, national, of civilizational identity.
Keywords: identification, social identity, identity, socialization, national identity, ethnic identity.
The article deals with the problem of therapeutic reconstruction of «Me» in the clinical process of non-psychotic personal disorders, caused by stress, relations, conflicts etc. Personal features of a patient which influence on a dynamics of coping with psychological trauma both with mechanisms of psychotherapeutic interventions and models of personal transformations are being analysed. Differentiation of the notions «factor» and «mechanism» of therapeutic influence are being introduced and discussed. The revealing of psychotherapeutic mechanisms of therapeutic influences and interventions is established not only to distinguish universal components of psychotherapeutic process but to set points of intersection between phenomena «treatment of a soul» and «treatment by a soul» within the limits of different psychotherapeutic paradigms. As a result of the analysis of reconstructive psychotherapeutic approaches and mechanisms of interventions and personal changes we came to a conclusion: among various theoretical and methodological principles and philosophical sources, categorical devices and nomenclature, and properly psychotherapeutic practical experiences one can distinguish basic sources which are worth of a special research attention and give possibilities for further experimental researches.
Keywords: non-psychotic personal disorder, psychotherapeutic reconstruction of «Me», psychotherapeutic mechanism, psychotherapeutic factor, personal transformation.
The article envisages the results of the study focused on the motivation of the policemen’s professional activity using indirect method, particularly analyzing the perception and evaluation of the activity by future policemen (undergraduate cadets). This research was based on the theory of motivation and stimulation of labour activity of Clayton Alderfer. As a result of the research the satisfaction of social necessity (R) is determined to be possible due to an extension of the status of a policeman in a society, a consolidation of the militia authority and respect to the profession of militia from the state. The necessity of closer interconnection between subunits of home affairs and higher educational establishments of Ministry of home affairs has arisen.
Keywords: motivation, the professional activity of policemen, the theory of motiva tion and stimulation of labour activity of C.P. Alderfer.
The article reveals the main theoretical and empirical study positions of neuroticism of a personality and such its variant as sport neuroticism. Defining the limits of methodological analysis of personality’s neurogenesis, psychological features and psychological indicators of neurotic behavior gives the opportunity to specify the indicators and factors of sports neurotic behavior. While studying professional neuroticism under conditions of stress the analysis of stress situation is shown to get an important meaning. Any mentally healthy person is researched practically impossible to get used to thought about his or her death at any moment. The instinct of selfpreservation is established to lead to the rise of interior conflict: from one side it is a danger, from other it is a necessity to do work that is a strong stress factor and can lead to neuroticism in future.
Keywords: neurosis, neurogenesis, neurotic behavior, neuroticism, sport neuroticism.
The description of the professional identity becoming of the students of humanitarian specialities is made in the article. These researches are directed for elaboration and analysis of methods complex for diagnostics of professional identity in the future time perspective context. There is a description of the conditions contributing to the harmonization of their own time perspective, the formation of the corresponding motivation based on building a positive image of the future of its participants, as well as on the development of anticipatic ability, reflection, responsibility, sense of life, the design of the image of professional future and updating of their professional resources. The effective establishment of the professional identity is based on the implementation of the training forms and methods of work, which contribute to the high personal activity in self-projecting; positive critical relation to the important characteristics of the projected ME; the extension and harmonization of time prospects: the search for alternatives of the future, creating a system of professional plans; high level of anticipatic competence.
Keywords: professional identity, anticipation, time perspective.
The junior pupils` emotional area has been studied under the psyсhological experiment circumstances. It has been revealed that types, characters and metaphors create the positive informational response in children`s emotional sphere. Mental development of children of primary school age is characterized by prevailing creative thinking that allows the child through role-play to create a model of the reality which he deals with. Successful pupil’s playing the role from a fairy-tale is provided with an adequate approach of practical psychologist to the junior pupil’s personality, providing the latest psychological comfort, helps to relieve mental barriers of anxiety, fear and uncertainty. The article can comprehensively and systematically consider the roll approach to psychotherapy for anxiety children of primary school age. An evaluation of the impact of fairy tales on the level of personal anxiety of pupils is done. The Analysis of the survey results of the control group, which was not conducted with a corrective program showed in homogeneity mainly negative indicators. Instead, the performance study of the experimental group showed some positive changes. Correctional programs are based on the approach affects of all indicators of the junior pupils’ emotional sphere. Thus, the proposed corrective program with role approach of psychological treatment of junior pupils’ anxiety is found to be positively effective.
Keywords: emotions, junior school age, fears, anxiety, fairy tale, informational resonance.
В.Р.Міляєва, Н.К.Лебідь, Ю.В.Бреус
The theoretical analysis of the concept «potential of personality» is done in the article. In particular, it was found that the potential is seen as an integrative system formation, which contains a set of individual psychological characteristics; manifested in the process of overcoming the adverse conditions of personality development and success causes mental adaptation; is defined operationally by the success of self in activity; is associated with age and psychological characteristics of the personality, with its own activity of the individual serving as the conditions governing the extent of potential; has two quality states that provided resources of personality: actualized and potential. Potential of the individual is considered by the author as a dynamic integrative formation that ensures the success of the process of individuation, socialization and professionalization. The structure of individual potential, which includes three parts: motivation, style, tool is presented and developed by the author. The basic types of personal potential, depending on the focus of its implementation (human potent ial, social potential, potential activity) are underlined. Motivation and style parts in the structure of the individual will be identical in content to all three of these species. Specificity associated with the orientation of potential, provided instrumental part and dominance of certain properties that its form.
Keywords: potential of personality, potential resources, personal potential, social potential, potential of activity.
UDC 159.9: 159.94
The article envisages the peculiarities of cynologist-rescuers professional activity. The psychological description of the profession of the rescuer with a dog is done on the basis of the interpretation analysis of the operational and technological activity contents. Potent traumatic factors influencing on the psyche of the cynologist-rescuer are the situations of professional activity: falling under the rubble; search and rescue operations in difficult weather conditions; the failure of the dog or getting the damage, injury; provision of first aid to victims; seizure and the location of the dead; preparation for the cynological calculation certification; the need for decision making under conditions of information deficit; monitoring of the environment in places dangerous for life. On the basis of the allocated stages of professional activity of cynologic units we have defined their main professional tasks and analyzed their psychological content.
Keywords: psychological analysis of the cynologist-rescuers, professiography, psychogram, professionally important qualities.
The mechanisms of modern reliability scales functioning, their specificity and disadvantages are analyzed in this article. A special attention is paid to the reliability scales in the MMPI and MMpi-2 tests. The mentioned problems are considered from the modern psycho-diagnostics point of view and from the global humanity trends of contemporary point of view as well. The determination of record’s reliability in MMPI-2 is shown to be a compound mechanism of balanced scoring of distorted test’s results from the point of view of its motives, understanding or misunderstanding and the psychological content. The outlined problems are considered from the point of view of present psychodiagnostics as well as modern global humanitarian tendencies. The proposed mechanisms of analysis can give additional deep psychological information concerning a person under study who gave wrong answers.
Keywords: reliability scales, MMPI-2.
In the article the for social psychology issue of the day of correlation of individual and superindividual is analysed in the process of socialization of personality. As known, socialization is a process becoming of social properties, due to that a man becomes the subject of social relations. The mechanism of this process is co-operating with other people. Looks are examined to this question of home and foreign psychologists. Various looks are illuminated to nature individual and superindividual in history of psychology: from claim of absolute noninteraction of these phenomena to her denial, understanding individual as part superindividual. The problem of correlation of man and world is analysed. The problem of unity of individual and superindividual is examined in conception of social identity of Henry Tajfel and John Turner, in that three basic concepts are entered: social categorizing, social comparison and social authentication. The new understanding of social identity that swims out directly from the social categorizing and looks as a causal base of group processes opens up. The process of acquisition of social identity, that is accompanied by depersonalization of personality, is examined as an increase, but not loss of individuality. She signifies passing to new, more adequate for this situation level of co-operation, on the basis of that social properties of group appear as system unit.
Key words: individual, overindividual, the process of socialization of the personality, the system «Man – the World», world character, communicative state, nearindividual space, social identity, and the concept of same categorization.
In this article the context of the term “the ecological consciousness of the person” was described. The ecological consciousness of the person was substantiated according to some approaches: а) the approach in which the ecological consciousness of the subject was analyzed as the condition of forming the ecological outlook; b) the approach in which the ecological consciousness of the person was shown as a complex psychological structure with the help of which we can describe the attitude of the subject to the world, to the activity of other people, the consequences of this activity, society in the whole; c) the approach which is connected with the process of the development of the person ecological thinking, his / her creative potential; d) the approach which we analyze as valuable, because according to it the ecological consciousness of the subject is considered as the personal value.
Keywords: consciousness, ecological consciousness, ecological outlook, ecological thinking, creative potential, valuable approach.
The article envisages the specific functions distribution between human and technical facilities, the principal psychological characteristics of an operator which influence on the effectiveness of modern compound technical systems operating. A direction of the creation of compound informative management systems is considered to be are on the base of extrapolation of originate possible situations. The definitions of management and conditions of the ergatic system in the process of functioning are distinguished. The directions with the account of mental and physical features of a person-operator allowing to formalize the processes of complex mantechnical systems functioning and to predict in advance the result of the perfect operator control, with regard to the risk are established.
Keywords: ergonomics, ergatic system, informative management systems, human factor, man-operator.
UDC 159. 922. 7(045)
In the article the program of senior child’s under school age adequate self-appraisal forming was theoretically proved and experimentally verified. The combination of different forms of work with parents of those who are under study is determined to be an optimal way of forming the adequate self-appraisal and the development of mentality, cognitive activity and stable positive emotional states like its psychological conditions. Completing the tasks of system program is shown to promote positive changes while forming adequate self-appraisal, the development of cognitive activity, mentality actions, positive emotions. The effectiveness of system program including in educational process in order to provide a personality development of senior children under school age is proved. This program was recommended to implementation in the system of preschool education.
Keyworlds: adequate self-appraisal, systematic program, senior child under school age, level of requirements, emotions, interests.
The article runs about an actual problem of forming professionalism and psychological training of future specialists of socionomic professions. It has been researched that in the conditions of the modern higher education it is necessary to form a specialist of new type, which would harmoniously combine initiative and independence, professionalism and creativity, well-developed human values, high level of culture and responsibility. It has been denoted that among the disadvantages of an educational process organization at university, which are the reason why their graduates don’t have such qualities as professional responsibility, lasting interest to a professional activity, appropriate professional outlook, tact, creative individuality, initiative, aspiration for professional self-perfection, for creative quest, there is a stereotypical teaching, which is an obstacle to an introduction of modern technologies and nontraditional ways of teaching to an educational process, rather weak level of use of the problematic tasks, scientific-research work of a student, that contributes to the formation of a creative thinking and professional liability of a future professional; rationale for the influence of psychology on the training of a future specialist and under-utilization of its potential in implementation of this task. It has been determined that the formation of an individuality of future professionals of socionomic professions is regarded by researchers as a long and gradual process, which provides a combination of pedagogical and psychological courses using active forms of learning , involving students in scientific-research work, the participation of students in a social work, which is of great importance for solving a problem of forming professionalism and formation of individuality of future professionals of socionomic professions,
Keywords: professionalism, psychological training, future specialists of socionomic professions, professional training, individuality formation, teaching, development, abilities, skills.
The investigation of intelligence development of children with autistic disorder spectrum (ASD) has been carried out. The level of mental development of children with ASD was shown to correspond to age category in one degree less than biological age of children. The use of mental development level was substantiated as criteria of age limits for education of children with ASD at preschool and general school. The development of children with ASD was established to differ substantially from normal, but has common features, in particular crisis of 3 years, associated with the formation of the right hemisphere and the intensification of interhemispheric interaction in healthy children, includes children with autism of 3-5 years old, resulting in a significant delay of such parameters as adaptation to changes, auditory reaction, memory, acoustic gnosis and identification of items, due to physiological disturbances in the rear hemisphere of the brain that are responsible for the distortion of a holistic perception of objects in children with autistic spectrum disorders.
Keywords: children, autistic disorder spectrum, level of mental development.
The article deals with the psychological characteristics and dynamics of the formation of value orientations future teachers during training, analyzed the meaning of self-actualization, self-actualization highlighted the impact on the level of training of future professionals in his personal and professional growth, series connection value orientations content with the level of self-actualization, The comparative analysis of the general index of self-actualization of future teachers with indexes scale values, analyzed the results of an experimental study of the effect on the level of self-actualization orientation values of a future teacher, identified and a comparative analysis of levels of self-actualization of the student on the first and final year of study, we show that between the level of self-actualization and meaningful orientation value orientations there is some connection, in particular, of students with high, middle and higher middle-actualization vyyavyleno common phrase, professional values, the presence of altruistic values, emphasis on spiritual values, ie the prevalence of humanisticdemocratic orientation of value orientations. Analysis of values, showed that students with higher than normal rates of self-actualization growing confidence, desire for independence and a critical assessment of events and actions as his and other people.
Keywords: values, professional values, orientation values, professional self-actualization level.
The main theoretical and methodological approaches to economic consciousness of the individual are presented in the article. Theoretical evidence and empirical data to determine the structure, form and function of the economic consciousness of the individual are offered and central trends of economic socialization are proved. The personality integration to the economic system of society is researched to be a process of formation and development of its economic consciousness. The value of most scientific works is established to be an emphasis on the studying of personality’s economic culture that must provide a corresponding adequate attitude of a person as a subject of economic relations to economic objects and situations, and accordingly a process of effective economic socialization of a personality.
Keywords: consciousness, economic consciousness, economic socialization, economic culture of a personality.
The article envisages the results of an empirical study of the problem of students’ strategic life decision-making. The results of an empirical study of students’ life goals making and realization are shown in the most important areas of life: professional self-determination, choosing a marriage partner and the determination of own life position. The students’ readiness for decision making is established to depend on the development of value and motivational, informational and cognitive, goal-making and effective components of this disposition. We came to the conclusion that the necessity of activities introduction in the practice of higher educational establishments concerns the students’ training for the formulation and realization of life goals lying in the basis of strategic life decision-making and determining the personality way of life.
Key words: goals, life goals, decision, students’ strategic life decisionmaking.
The article envisages the features of neurophysiological and psychological development of the adolescents’ psyche, basic communication skills and knowledge required for the children at this age, the dominant factors in information obtaining and processing by the child of 16-22 years, and the role of communication in shaping his personality. The author raises issues of intercourse as communication, considering its basic functions and uses, as well as the basic criteria of the communicative culture of a man as the subject of morality and law. A significant role in the personality of adolescents formation belongs to the quality of psyche egocentrism, that for the most part is not compatible with established psychoenvironment in which the mind of the new generation is trying to show their inner potential. Therefore, the author offers the solutions to this problem for a young mind. The teachers provide «occurrence» of the mind in adult life, such high quality in the future will be the implementation of their mental capacities. It is important that psychoenvironment doesn’t «break» the psyche, doesn’t impose their values, goals and objectives, because all imposed during this period of time is not deep, does not affect the foundations of the subconscious, therefore temporary and superficial. In this case, a belief system, laid for 16-17 years, which inherently determines opposed belief system that is imposed by the psychoenvironment. As a result, society will have a destructive personality, which, on the one hand, would be afraid to express their individuality (the internal «Me»), on the other hand, put on a mask of hypocrisy that present themselves in a very different, not typical for her image.
Keywords: communication, youthful age, personality, information, information space, internal «Me», sign, symbol.
This article describes the approaches of domestic and foreign researchers to the psychological factors that influence the formation of self-consciousness of young people. The concept of «factor» and its characteristics and the concept of «identity» and its modality are determined. The mechanisms of formation of a personality’s selfconsciousness and mechanisms of the development of a personality’s selfawareness are analyzed. Modern psychologists distinguished such factors which influence on the formation of personality’s worldview: education system, state ideology and politics, mass media, interpersonal relations, culture and valuable orientations.
Keywords: personality, youth, identity, self-consciousness, selfawareness, factors.
The article envisages the methodology aimed with identifying students’ current level of language skills. The comparative analysis of the results obtained in the research and the final cut of the formative experiment are made in the article. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of specialized training use, aimed at the formation of language skills of the future experts in the field of practical psychology.
Keywords: communication barriers, emotional contact, dominant strategy of psychological defense in communication, communication instruction.
The age-related crisis of transition from preschool childhood to the junior school is connected both with the features of social situation and with exogenous circumstances that strengthen a destabilizing situation directly. The possibility to estimate, diagnose and correct crisis difficulties of children of this age-related group most effectively through facilities of аrt-therapy allows a child in a safe for his psyche form by means of images to express causes of the crisis reacting. The author reveals that with the help of projection on creative work the child makes certain symbols that undoubtedly affect his or her unconscious psychic actuality. The work and interaction between an art-therapeutist and a child is called diagnostic and psychotherapeutic work, and the interrelation between them is based on turning to a symbolic material. The realization of determinants and mechanisms of psychological difficulties is established to take place in correlation with the symbolic character of a psyche.
Keywords: аrt-therapy, crisis, age-related crisis of «seven years».
The article envisages the prognostic manifestations of reactive and personal anxiety in patients with psychosomatic diseases from the perspective of the psychology of time. The forms of anxiety are experimentally proved to be consistent with the localization of psychosomatic diseases in the continuum «τ – type», which made it possible to construct a «psychological profile» of these patients personality. The construction of a chronopsychologic portrait of patients with psychosomatic diseases lets establish the system of interconnection and interdependence among individual and typological features of a subject, time parameters, and somatic disorders.
Keywords: anxiety, «τ – type», psychosomatic illnesses, «psychological profile» of the individual.
The problem of economic self-determination of student young people is examined in the article. The structure of economic self-determination of student young people understands as multidimensional personality formation that includes functionally mutually constrained and mutually conditioned components (cognitive, highly emotional and behavioral). In particular, the cognitive component of economic self-determination of student young people is examined as realization of social value of the economic competence, individual experience and activity, estimation of own financial and economic status and to potential. The results of research of features of influence of socialdemographic descriptions of personality of student young people are analyzed on the cognitive component of economic self-determination. In particular, comparison of results of research of structural elements (an idea is about riches, idea about poverty, meaningfulness of money, source of profit and idea about a proprietor) is conducted cognitive component of economic self-determination of student young people depending on sex, faculty of studies and course of studies. The results of cross-correlation analysis lead to dependence of certain structural elements cognitive component of economic self-determination from socialdemographic descriptions of student young people.
Keywords: economic self-determination, economic consciousness, economic activity, idea about riches, idea about poverty, meaningfulness of money, source of acuests, ideas about a proprietor, соціально- demographic descriptions.
The professional self-determination during the period of studying at higher educational establishments may be considered as vocational education and preparation for the professional work, as stage of knowledge, abilities and skills mastering in future profession. The application of educational forms of work of such system is established to be differentiated and step by step depending on the volume of accumulated knowledge of students. Necessary conditions of the development of students’ creative activity are: the differentiation of objectives, scope and forms of students’ independent work; a comprehensive study of all forms of activation and independent work control. The fault of education system is established to be a personality with insufficiently developed creative thinking, who in the future may have difficulties in perception of the world, in making decisions in non-standard situations, unable to find the connection between the unusual concepts and phenomena.
Keywords: self-determination, motivation, motivational factors, creativity, creation, personality, students.
UDC 159. 923
The article investigates the history of the development problems of the national character of modern psychology. The ideas concerning the learning of the culture of the various ethnic groups by F. Boas Historical School are represented. R. Benedict analyzes the ideas about the formation of the character of a person under the influence of ethnic culture and theory of human behavior as a product of a particular culture, the theory of Mead on the uniqueness of different cultures and national character. The characteristics of the basic ideas of Freud who entered the basis of ethnic psychology (dynamic concept of personality, concept psychology symbol mechanism, concept of formation of the unconscious) are explicated. There are two main directions in the study of national character: the cultural-centered and student-centered. The ideas of А. Kardiner (model links child care practices, such as personality, dominant in a particular culture and social institutions), C. Dubois (the term “modal personality” – the most common type of personality in the society), A. Inkels and D. Levenson (interdependence of national character to the degree of prevalence within a society of certain personal characteristics), R. Linton (the concept of communication between the hidden psychological processes and human behavior) are discovered in the article.
Keywords: ethnicity, ethnic psychology, personality, national culture, national character.
The article envisages the content interpretation of the handicap displays empiric study research in relation to people with the special necessities by means of the handicap degree manifestation survey. The inhabitants of the villages and countries believe that persons with disabilities are able to communicate with healthy people as equals, feeling no discomfort or anxiety and not waiting negative manifestations from them. Such people perceive man with functional limitations as sufficiently adapted, can adapt to the conditions of life, self-actualize and show their abilities and possibilities. The obtained results at a sufficiently representative sample (n = 1217) allow to establish the regularity that the manifestation of the handicapping is directly proportional to the quantity of the population in the place of personality residence: the inhabitants of the villages and small towns are more tolerany towards people with special needs than residents of megapolises.
Keywords: handicapism, handicap, handicapping, disability
UDC 159.94: 159.947
The analysis of the problem of ethics in various areas of social practice is represented in the article. Specific ethical standards of behaviour in basic groups of occupations, the vector of which aims to help are considered. These groups include doctors, lawyers, teachers, psychologists. The problem of the improvement of ethical standards to professions, directed on help, has an important applied value. The peculiarities of the activity in special conditions put forward a number of specific tasks which will provide a reliable moral and ethical functioning in the process of providing a psychological assistance. The specificity of professional activity of extreme psychologists and the necessity of moral and ethical regulation of these professionals are analysed in the article.
Keywords: ethics, professional ethics, psychologist’s code of ethics, extreme psychologists.
The psychological, educational and cultural foundations of a teenager’s development as a subject of cognitive activity are analyzed in the article. The essence of the basic psychological features of a dialogue interaction in the educational process as a necessary component of teenagers’ subjectivity in cognitive activity is envisaged. The teachers are recommended to pay attention to the development of pupils’ dialogue speech, their dialogue interaction in cognitive activity and the development of pupils’ dialogue mentality in a period of teenagers’ forming as subjects of cognitive activity. The necessary precondition of the pupils’ subjectivity is determined to be the formation of their educational activity, managing of their activity and abilities to transfer from educational activity under teacher’s guidance to self-education.
Keywords: personality’s subjectivity, cognitive activity, dialogue interaction.
The main theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of M. Feldenkrais method are analysed and distinguished in the article. The characteristic features of the method possible applications in prevention, rehabilitation and personal growth are investigated. The essential characteristics of the Feldenkrais method are: many-sidedness and multi-functionality, the attitude to a man in its integrity, respect to the personality freedom and its choices, the creation of developing educational environment through indirect support, the uncovering of developing educational potential of a person at any age, the person’s realization of body movements according to the small changes in the position of the body, the reversibility of the body movements. The application of the Feldenkrais method is established to introduce an adaptive, preventive, therapeutic, rehabilitation and perfecting effect as to the professional activity, so to the private sphere of human existence and can be considered as one of the leading methods of personality’s life quality improvement.
Keywords: studying, self-development, awareness of movements, indirectness, proprioception, reversibility.
The article focuses on different definition approaches concerning the effectiveness indexes in modern professional training. In order to get more objective picture of the strong and weak sides of the training, it is necessary to use methods of obtaining feedback, which meet the following criteria: provide useful information for the analysis; provide the participants with the freedom of expression, is not excessively detailed; give an opportunity to receive structured and standardized information with the help of complex of techniques. Based on analysis of available approaches and personal experience there have been singled out a complex approach to the definition of training effectiveness. Its effectiveness is defined by three basic factors: an emotional factor (positive and negative emotional experience), a cognitive factor (residual knowledge, skills and abilities), a connotative factor (behavior in post-training period).
Keywords: training, effectiveness, factors, indexes (criteria), evaluation.
The analysis of new theoretical and methodological approaches to the meaning of the nature of mental states is represented in the article. The using of potential of poliparadyhmal, methodological pluralism, ideas of postnonclassical psychology to its conceptualization is substantiated. Postnonclassical paradigm and pluralistic methodology of knowledge determine the disciplinary blurring of the analysis in the study of psychological phenomena. New tendencies in explanation of psychical are sonsidered in the article: an intention to step back from the explanation of psyhical on the basis of reflex; the recognition of substancionality of psychological reality; the consideration of psyche from the position of information andenergetic processes; the recognition of occassionality as a principle of explanation of psychical, the determination of psychical by psychical; giving up the rationality in explanation of psychical and its replacement by metaphorical, irracional, intuition, mythologization of psychical phenomena and consciousness; an intention to distinguish psychology from psychophysiology.
Keywords: pluralistic methodology, postnonclassical psychology, postmodernism, poliparadygma, psychofraktal, occassionality, psyche, reflex, psychical phenomena.
This article is devoted to analysis of the experience of construction and standardization procedure of author’s methodology concerning women’s conception about sexual relationship. This methodology includes research of types of erotic fantasies motivation of sexual behavior and values that are important for choosing a sexual partner. The detailed descriptions of each type of concept based on previous science researches are submitted. The development expediency of this methodology and diagnostic potential are proved in the article. The article contains a description of main stages of methodology development. This publication particularly describes the sample, which was used for standardization procedure. This sample has strict quotas of age, quantity of sexual partners and presence of sexual partner on the moment of research conducting. A statistical data is necessary for test standardization procedure is represented. The article has a detailed description of all test standardization stages: preparatory stage, pilot testing, repeated testing and final data analysis. Great attention is devoted to the ethic aspects of research and maintenance of anonymity and confidence of research participants’ data. The results of discriminatively indicators, internal coherence, retest reliability, evident and constructive validity that were identified by alfa-Cronbach’s coefficient calculation, percentage of typical answers, correlation and factor analysis, means calculation and content analysis of open questions are analyzed.
Keywords: conception of sexual relationship, erotic fantasies, motivation of sexual behavior, values important for sexual partner preference, discriminability, internal congruence, factor analyses, retest reliability, obvious validity, constructive validity.
The authors reveal the administrative law aspects of the health protection of food products consumers in Poland, since the introduction of rules by the European Union for the regulation in the sphere of food legislation, that founded a new branch of law covering all the areas of administrative law, i.e. material, of social order and procedural in parts concerning the health protection of the food products consumers. The authors note that it is necessary to remember, that in the nearest future will happen a centralization of legal regulations, which apply to this sphere.
Keywords: food legislation, administrative legislation, the protection of the health of food products consumers, food quality control, intended for sale.
UDC 159. 922. 6
The author conducted an integrative analysis related to environmental education, which should begin in the preschool age and last throughout a person’s lifetime. He considered the factors of the environmental focus, environmental culture, environmental awareness and environmental competence of the individual. The author explained the problem of the efficiency of the process of teenagers’ environmental awareness formation increasing and its socially important functions. He found a vital need for green education, sustainable development and environmental imperatives for changing consciousness from the anthropocentric to ecocentric. The future of each country, therefore, the future of civilization in the whole is established to be depended on the success of the training, education and youth development, its intellectual, spiritual and moral qualities. A high level of environmental education will be a guarantee of ecological balance in the world and the means of overcoming the ecological crisis, and therefore, stable and harmonious life on the Earth.
Keywords: environmental education, environmental orientation, environmental culture, environmental awareness, environmental competence.
In the article the problem of differences in moral development of junuor pupil and his individual activity in social relations are examined. The leading theories of moral development of a man are described. They are analysed as an absolute payment in research of psychical reality so their defects. An attempt to look at moral development of junior pupil through the prism of differences in going near sexual education and gender stereotypes that are in any culture and Ukrainian culture in particular is done. Also the attempt of analysis and description of decent woman and decent man comes true, qualities that their society and requirements provide them and to which they must submit. A special attention is paid to the motivational and volitional component in the structure of moral act of a junior pupil. The stages of moral act realization are shown. The personality of a child the most clearly manifests itself in deeds.
Keywords: deed, motivation, moral choice, aim, intention, socialization.
In the article some aspects of the study of personality’s mental health are envisaged, different interpretations of the concept are examined, the criteria of mental health and the factors influencing its development are defined. The state of mental health problems is reviewed in modern conditions of personality’s life. Mental health is analysed in psychological context as relatively stable state of a personality giving a person a possibility to satisfy the individual, biological and social requirements due to normal fuctioning of psychophysical systems providing achievement of emotional well-being. Mental processes of a healthy person are considered to be characterized of subjective images’ maximum approaching to the reflection of the objects of reality, an adequate self-perception, developed abilities to concentrate attention, to keep information in mind, capacity to logic processing of information, critical mentality, creativeness.
Keywords: health, mental health, psychological health, mental health criteria.
The analysis of health in two groups under research showed that because of the falling of harmony level one can watch the significant growth of various psychosomatic and somatic diseases, the increasing of the risk of behavioral disorders and reducing the quality of life because of the action of troublesome factors. High personal anxiety reduces to falling the mood and emotional disorders. The high situational anxiety is researched to be the most pronounced in a group of disharmonious teenagers that contributes to the reduction of purpose, a weak belief in their own strength, low success and prevents the expression of personal potential, and reduce the adaptation of this teenagers’ group in a society.
Keywords: mental health, personality infantilism, disharmonious development, personality harmony, troublesome factors, quality of life.
The article theoretically investigates the features of backup motivation in comparison with the phenomenon of resignation, the effects of autonomy motive and «feeling of the flow» in terms of «presence-absence of personal interest in the job» and «hard external requirements-inner freedom in the choice of the job». The results of approbation of the author’s questionnaire of personality reserve motivation are given in the article. The differences between reserve motivation and adaptive behavior are empirically shown. The contents of the backup motivation as motivation of critical life situations overcoming are manifested in the provision of the purpose of man’s own actions of the personal meaning. Four main types of backup motivation and its components are characterised, namely motive creativity, motive of promising results, the motive of self-understanding, self-motive, motive of overcoming difficulties, motive of cooperation, motive of helping others.
Keywords: backup motivation, motivational crisis, overcoming of critical life situations, personal meaning.
UDC 159.922.7: 316.47
The psychological, personal and social factors of shyness of senior pupils are considered in the article. The self-esteem of shyness reasons, physical and behavioral manifestations of shyness were analyzed. The social shyness factors of senior pupils are high indicator of the personal significance of the opinions and evaluations of other people; psychological shyness factors are the subjective evaluation of one’s own thoughts, feelings and actions at senior school age children. The factor of «social interaction», combining negative aspects of the scales of the «reactive aggressiveness» and «openness» is established to be an indicator of the shyness factors in a group of senior pupils. The senior pupils under investigation are characterized to have an increased identification with the social standards, conformity, synthesis, dependence, and a narrow range of interests.
Keywords: shyness, senior pupils, psychological, personal, social factors of shyness.
The article is devoted to the problem of intellectual development during the period of intellect’s representation. The theoretical approaches to the problem are analyzed. The psychological characteristics of person’s intellectual development during the period of intellect’s representation are revealed and the peculiarities of the intellectual action are cleared up through images. The main mechanisms of intellectual development are established to be intelligent actions of assimilation and accommodation and characteristics of the representative intellect are: an ability to work with images, mentally to transform them, to plan actions, decisions of mental tasks in view; the development of reasons, curiosity; transition from the use of ready-made ties and relations to more complex; preconditions are in place of independence, flexibility, originality of thinking, curiosity.
Keywords: representation of intellect, intellectual actions, assimilation, accommodation, figurative thinking.
The article envisages the theoretical analysis of the process of internet-trust formation in the context of the impact on its components (trust beliefs, dispositional, system and situational trust) such specific virtual communication interaction, as the physical lack of representation, anonymity, limited sensory experience, textuality and others. The forming components of a trust relationship – trusting belief and the confidence suffer from significant changes, because the principal is in the peculiar conditions of the trust intentions formation. The disposition confidence remains stable in the virtual environment, as the Internet becomes the principal continuation of his social space of communication, means of awareness and objectification of personal experience.
Keywords: Internet, trust, social and psychological components and factors of the trust building process.
The article deals with the actual problem of deviations of children with sensory impairments from the point of view of psychophysiology. At present, the education of children with mental and physical developmental disorders should be based on a clear diagnosis, psychological and pedagogical support of the family and early corrective work with the child. The compensation violations of percepive and cognitive development of children is a complex problem that uses the system features of the functional activity, that depends on the organization and structural-functional state of interneuronal connections that are the most intensively developing in early school age, which is important for the formation of all sensory systems. The violation of the adequacy of the perception, reflection, lack of effective regulation, the inability of perceptual action are established not to be able to provide full training, education and work, and this proves the necessity of individual approach to the development and education of children with sensory disorders and the need to create certain conditions for their development.
Keywords: sensory defects, neurophysiological mechanisms of development, compensation of psychophysiological disorders, perceptual perception, plasticity of the brain structures.
In this article the main principles of traditional empiric associative psychology which influence on describing creativeness by the representatives of the associative approach were characterized. The peculiarities of the analysis of creative features of the person, creative thinking of the subject were described by the representatives of the geshtalt-psychological approach. The factors of forming of the creativeness in the paradigm of psycho-analytical and cognitive approaches were proved. The content of features of the creativeness according to psycho-metric approach was shown.
Keywords: creativeness, creative features of the person, creative thinking, associative approach, geshtalt-psychological approach, psychoanalytical approach, cognitive approach, psycho-metric approach.