The attributive characteristics of the vital energy of a person are described in the article. The notion “personality» is analysed, as well as the adequate method of its investigation – genetic and modeling method. A personality doesn’t appear but is born as two personalities, continuing them and therefore all other people. That’s why a personality is a carrier of the history of the universe’s evolution. The universality and self-value have their source just from here: the world reflexes itself in a personality, and it’s the most valuable aim to exist and create. According to the original theoretical paradigm the basis of the personality’s development consists in the action of the vital energy as genetically initial unit of the human development and existence. Being an informational and energetic current the vital energy connects biological and social determinants of the human existence and is an initial motive force of the personality’s selfdevelopment as an individual human being. The controversial dialectic unity of biological and social, conscious and unconscious that is the “knot of the world» – the personality – generates the most important, attributive characteristics of the latter events. The constant energetic strain of the vital energy is determined to make real conditions for the formation of reciprocal mechanisms that are transformed in the ontogenesis into biological (morphological) and psychic structures.
Keywords: vital energy, attribute, personality, genetical-modelling method, development.
This article envisages a complex synergetic interaction between mental processes, that give rise to the relations between ideal image, image-me of a personality on the basis of mental reflection as a universal property of alive matter. The author presents the main points of the theory of reflection, quotes the researchers of such problem, the history of the forming of understanding and emergence of the term «reflection» in different kinds of knowledge and sciences from ancient philosophy till nowadays. The author points out a functional activity of the reflection as a property of highly organized matter, its property to determine mental states of personal consciousness etc. The author considers different points to the problem of reflection, its complex scientific character, ideal and material conceptions. Dialectical and materialistic paradigm is a leading in this research with its supplement means for psychology. The author shows a unity scientific dialectic and materialistic methodology and its realization in the psychology science, in such questions as an ideal image and their psychic character. Author thinks that system character of mental reflection determines the system complex of ideal sphere at whole. Reflection as an image is a rising of essence of the reflecting object and object that reflects one. Author considers that start reason of the reflection is an interaction.
Кey words: ideal, ideal image, image-me, mental reflection, social and cultural determinants of ideal, interaction.
The results of empirical research of gender distinctions of manipulative behavior of students are presented in the article. The received results testify that young men and girls have a positive attitude towards possibility of manipulation in behavior and have equally high level of a makiavellism. Gender distinctions are in primary spheres of manipulative influence, thus: the manipulative behavior of young men is realized in the professional and economic sphere and the manipulative behavior of young girls is realized in the family and in the relations with friends. Gender distinctions in students` motivation of own manipulative behavior is revealed. Men use manipulative behavior for achievement of domination, leadership, the power, a victory; and girls use it for achievement of useful result or implementation of rules of communication. Due to results of research authors come to the following conclusions: first, during studying in a higher educational institution students show rather high level of tendency to manipulative behavior; secondly, it isn’t revealed reliable distinctions between level of a makiavellism of the personality depending on a gender of the interrogated. Active application of manipulation by students can be connected as with age features, active development of communicative abilities, self-identity crisis, and with social and psychological adaptation during professional formation.
Keywords: tendency to a manipulation, susceptibility of manipulation, makiavellism, gender distinctions.
The theoretical aspect of problem of intrapersonal conflict is analysed in the article. The short review of approaches to the problem is given in foreign and domestic psychology. The key questions of the problem of intrapersonal conflict are considered in connection with theoretical conceptions of researchers, pre-conditions, reasons, nature, types of intrapersonal conflict, conditions to its overcoming are in particular found out. The essence of intrapersonal conflict is connected with the contradictory motives, ideas, aims, values of a personality. In most foreign theories of intrapersonal conflict such categories as contradiction, internal fight and concept of psychological defence are basic. Psychological conflict is considered to be connected with negative experiencing. In domestic psychology intrapersonal conflicts are considered to be connected with such aspects as intensifying of contradictory relations of personality, impossibility to achieve aims of self-realization, a presence in consciousness contradictory senses of Ego of a person; the category of experience as internal activity; contradiction in the system of role relations of individual. The social conditionality of intrapersonal conflicts is underlined. In Ukrainian psychology this problem is developed in connection with the problems of the age-old becoming by a personality, and in the context of problems of professional activity of a personality.
Keywords: intrapersonal conflict, contradiction, psychological defence, motives, necessities, experience.
С.Й. Гаваші, М.М. Лалакулич
The article deals with the analysis of creativity as the condition of personality self-realization based on psychological and pedagogical literature. The author determines the ideas and thoughts concerning pedagogical creation, special features of self-realization in the process of professional pedagogical activity. For the analysis the scientific approaches to defining the essence of the phenomenon of creativity were reviewed (the concept of creativity reduction to intelligence, J. Gilford and E. Torrens creativity concept, M. Wollach and N. Kogan creativity concept, A. Mednyk creativity concept, R. Sternberg and D. Lavert «theory of investment»),the understanding of the creativity as a condition of mental balance and personality self-actualization (A. Maslow, K. Rogers, A. Losev, V. Petrovsky) and as professionally meaningful characteristics of a personal mature specialist. The analysis of potential creativity concepts (V. Molyako, D. Bogoyavlenska, K. Gusykova, G. Glotova) defining ideas about readiness for professional work (A. Markova, V. Kan-Kalyk, L. Mityina) is performed. The creativity is determined to be a set of personality features, allowing its entry into the creative process and in accordance with the requirements of a modern society is a factor in teacher professional fulfillment. The creativity can not be effectively implemented without a teacher’s readiness to use their creative abilities.
Keywords: creativity, creation, self-realization, self-actualization, creative potential, readiness for creation.
А.В. Гордєєва, А.П. Єфименко
In this research there were explored some features of conceptions about meaning of life, degree of development and formation of personal potential’s parts with teenagers deprived of paternal care. The lower level of development of sense sphere and separate parts of personal potential (hardiness and self-effectiveness) was determined to belong to this children’s category contrast to children from complete family, namely these children image their life as less sense and effective, have difficulties with forming senses and regulating of activity. Also the teenagers devoid of paternal care don’t believe in their internal potency which contributes to developing and disclosing of all possibilities. The social environment in which children devoid of paternal care are growing influence negatively on correct understanding of meaning of life and don’t promote to opening moral potent which is the base of realization of personal potential. Moreover, a definite connection of meaning of life with parts of personal potential was determined. Children from full family devoid of paternal care who attend more significance to sense of life show higher level of such hardiness parts as involvement and control, higher results of selfeffectiveness. So they more bank on their powers, surmount life difficulties and believe in own personal potential. Thus, results of research certify that there is essential of practical work leveled at concreteness of senses and also at development of personal potential parts, namely hardiness and selfeffectiveness.
Keywords: meaning of life, personal potential.
In this article, we studied the meaning of psychological influence and manipulation as a form of covert psychological influence. We defined the criteria on the basis of which one can ground the expediency of distinguishing the manipulative influence over other types of psychological impact. The typical features of manipulation are described: the attitude to an object of manipulation as to a means of achieving one’s own goals; the desire to get a one-sided advantage; the hidden nature of influence; the use of psychological vulnerability; the desire to bring an interaction partner into psychological dependence; the creation of a manipulation recipient’s illusion of independent decision-makings and actions. Manipulative influence differs from its other types by the parameters of morality, awareness, criticism and social autonomy. Manipulation becomes dangerous not only because of the hidden nature of influence, but also, depending on a person’s identity resorting to it, on his/her purpose, aims and beliefs, values, personal properties, social status, etc. Thus, the study of psychosocial factors of persons, inclined to manipulations in interpersonal interaction, is the prospect of our future studies.
Keywords: psychological influence, manipulation, manipulator, мachiavellism.
The problem of meaning of life orientations is researched in the article. The theoretical approaches of scientists to this problem contextually to wider concept – meaning of life are analysed. Different scientist’s points of view on personal and social determinants of the meaning of life are discussed. The development of the meaning of life problem in Ukrainian and foreign psychology is revealed to cause the appearance of the new terms in psychological science – the meaning of life conceptions, the meaning of life strategies etc. The most dynamic and aggregated term dealing with meaning of life field of people’s consciousness are meaning of life orientations. The Ukrainian and foreign scientist’s points of view to content, structure, factors of meaning of life orientations are discussed. The psychologists’ attention is focused on research of this phenomenon in sensitive stage – youth age. The researches of the problem of interrelation of meaning of life orientations with another phenomenon of personal growth are analysed. The main device of meaning of life orientations is reflection. The investigations of meaning of life orientations as determinant of professional growth of youth are considered. The results of psychological literature analysis shows that in majority of investigations, devoted to the problem of meaning of life orientations, only one-two components of this phenomenon is analysed. It causes necessity of complex research of this phenomenon as the integral system, consisting of different components, conducting.
Кeywords: meaning, meaning of life, meaning of orientations, youth age, values, needs, motives.
This article envisages the peculiarities of emotional experience of the childless men in such a critical situation like divorce. In addition, relying on scientific conceptions of domestic and foreign researchers, the dynamic of emotional state of divorced men were divulged through the description of the stages of divorce. The cognitive and interactive strategies, the dependence of emotional experience from the attachment style and type of divorce were cited. In the article we described and explained the main reasons for men’s stress, ways of compensation of their inner anxiety and tension connected with the stress and also pointed out some other parameters of mental state of men who are divorced. The dissatisfaction with emotional relationship, which can give enough support, was found to be the main reason for distress among divorced men. The most preferable ways of compensation are avoidance of social and inner conflicts, aiming to seek oblivion through tense but inefficient activity, tireless search for new relationships. One more reason for divorced men distress is their intrapersonal conflict between the desire to make good impression on others and the fear of being condemned for coming to decision to divorce. As a compensation of this cause of distress men choose desire for independence in making decisions, avoidance of taking responsibility for both divorce and present psychological state.
Keywords: critical situation, the situation of divorce, psychological state, stress, compensation.
The article deals with the research results of psychological peculiarities of creativity phenomenon manifestation at senior pupils. During the research the definition of creativity was formulated and the choice of appropriate diagnostic procedures was proved. The psychological characteristics of creative senior pupils were empirically investigated: spontaneity, emotional impulsiveness, social courage, flexibility, originality. The phenomenon of creativity at senior pupils was shown to be the result of an important component of the adaptation mechanism that causes a balanced, uniform, harmonious development of personality without the expressed neurotic and mental abnormalities. The main directions of further research are determined: the developing of a simple and accurate diagnostic tools of creativity, and technology of its development in different age periods.
Keywords: creativity, the phenomenon of creativity, originality, verbal and non-verbal creativity.
UDC 159.922.7 (043.3)
In the article the information of theoretical and experimental maintenance concerning psychological problem of self-disclosure of growing up personality in different social cooperations is presented. The psychological features of the process of teenager’s self-affirmation are shown up in positive «Me» measuring (desire to understanding, structural intercourse, approval, to respect, authoritativeness, of prestige and others like that) and negative «Me» measuring (desire to the aggressiveness, conflict, impudence, rudeness, unprintable languages, scornful relation and others) in the educational process and in extracurricular time. The results of researches showed that junior teenagers’ self-disclosure in a structural format (positive facilities of self-affirmation), and senior teenagers, with the exception of structural, – elect the destructive format of self-affirmation and co- operations with reviewer surroundings and growing man association.
Keywords: self-affirmation of a teenager, self-disclosure, self-value, self-realization, self-respect.
The article envisages the problem of the principles of determinism where the main attention is paid to the development of a methodological basis of imaging studies. In the article the theoretical and methodological analysis of the approaches to the study of the semantic problems of motor actions is carried out. The searching problem is not new for psychology, but psychologists do not pay essential attention to the semantic problem of motor actions. The value of the studying paradigm of patterns and mechanisms of control motor activities with significant tasks are disclosed. The main point in the searching problem is the principle of determinism. The most important and essential features of the application of the searching principles of determinism, the systematic character, the development of a methodological basis of imaging studies, and special regulatory functions of the human psyche are observed. Rather great attention is devoted to the theoretical analysis of levels of implementation of semantic tasks. The most important tasks according to our research are sensory-perceptual tasks, imaginative tasks, cultural tasks, cognitive (verbal-logical) as well as hand shaped display tasks which in their turn include image-goal, conceptual model and the operative image.
Keywords: activity, significant tasks, motor actions, the principles of psychology, the levels of mental reflection, semantic task, sensoryperceptual task, verbal-logical task, conceptual model.
The problems of the concept of the personality’s orientation as dynamic trends that detect human behavior in the capacity of motives are described in the article. The indicators of students-psychologists’ professional orientation of predictive model are elaborated: needs, values and the students’ attitude to their chosen specialty, the characteristics of need and motivational sphere of students-psychologists, and the creativeness manifested in the educational and professional activity. The necessity of the integrated and eclectic approach usage is illustrated. The natural scientific and pertaining to the humanities models of methodology are described. The analysis of students-psychologists’ creative abilities was produced in order to study the peculiarities of creative activity towards professional sphere.
Keywords: needs, values, attitude of students to their chosen specialty, need and motivational sphere, abilities, training and professional activity, the social situation of development, cultural and historical determinism of the psyche, orientation of the personality.
In the article the theoretical analysis of psychological bases of confiding relations formation is carried out in the activity of agencies of internal affairs from positions of macromeasuring. The essence of confidence is exposed as a lead component of operative service activity of internal affairs agencies of Ukraine. A new scientific approach to the study and the prospects of the structure of confident relations problems in the law enforcement activity of internal affairs agencies of Ukraine are revealed. The current practice of a confident relations formation between objects and subjects of the law enforcement activities at different social levels is analysed. The author reveals a new non-traditional technological approach to the partner relations establishment between the internal affairs agencies and the population, based on psychosemantic basis that has proved its efficiency and effectiveness. The current status of the traditional approach to the theoretical foundations of confident relations in the operative service activity of the police is stated to require a technological regulation. The author defined optimal ways of the partner relations with the population setup, establishing, developing and maintaining of the confident relations with the objects of the operative service activity. The psychological principles of confidence in a discourse of law enforcement activity are considered.
Keywords: confidential relations, psychosemantics, psychological influence, partner relations with a population, image of militia.
The article envisages the results of a research of the corporeality and the mechanisms of its influence on the development of coping behavior, namely, the subjective importance for the individual his body structure, behavioral strategies and its mechanisms to cope with stress, the one that on the level of subconsious affect the formation on coping bahaviour of the personality as well as the diagnostics of the coping measures and the personal treatment of the inner «Me». The correlation analyis of the received data and the comparison of the results of studies of respondents belonging to different age groups are made on the basis of the U-Mann Whitney criterion. The study was used to allow efficient methods to explore the physical components of the personality’s structure, mechanisms and strategies of students behaviour in stressful situations, protective mechanisms and type of selfrelation, namely the coping strategies indicator (D.Amirkham), test study of coping mechanisms (E. Heim), test study of body image, self-relation test (S.Panteleev), life style test (Plutchik-Kelerman-Konte). On the basis of these tests empirical research was conducted to make possible to learn that the direct relationship between coping strategies, coping mechanisms and selfattitude exists and makes it possible to judge that the formation of coping influences on the type of perception of the relationship and the perception by the personality inner “Me”.
Keywords: coping, overcoming, constitutional representation, physicality, coping strategies, coping resources, coping mechanisms, selfattitude.
This article is devoted to the study of personality and behaviour of teenagers with mental retardation. Comparative analysis of personality development of younger teenagers with normal mental development and younger teenagers with mental retardation was studied. Individual agespecific features of younger teenagers with mental retardation, which have been discussed in special psychology in recent years, were analyzed. The measures to ensure non-traumatic transition to the middle level were presented. The goals and objects of psychological support were stated. The specific features of the personality of younger teenagers and the necessity for specific, focused preparation work with children with mental retardation to transfer them to the secondary school were determined.
Keywords: children with mental retardation, younger teenagers, characteristics of personality, misadaptation.
The author analyzes the main theoretical approaches to the definition of interpersonal tolerance. Tolerance, according to his analysis, is determined as a feature providing the success of his career and self-fulfillment. Stage of training is the best period in the development of a future professional psychologist, a period when the most efficient implementation and track the results of social psychological support. New studies represent the problem of tolerance of a professional, the social and psychological characteristics of the content. Tolerance in professional development depends on the goals, objectives, resources, activities, processes and outcomes of professional activity. The article summarizes the approaches to determine the mechanisms and functions of tolerance provided the structural features and functions of tolerance in professional psychologist. Social and psychological prerequisite for the development of tolerance is a basic human appropriation of value relations, was laid in the family. Most important to the individual in its development is a micro-society. A family acquaintance begins with the core values of human relations, culture, and ethnic differences. Personality development is characterized by the formation requirement of the motivational sphere, value; semantic sphere, orientation and activity in the relationship, the formation of identity and the image of «Me.»
Keywords: tolerance, personality, human, professional consciousness, intolerance, self-consciousness.
The peculiarities of the upbringing of adolescent boys and girls lies in psychological barriers on the way to gender egalitarian socialization as pupils experience the enforcement mainly from female educational staff and also mass-media. Therefore, a process of formation of gender identity of boys has more often negative (aggressiveness, cruelty) traits because it is accomplished on the basis of contradistinction to another sex, the defiance of «female» kinds of activities, ridicule «non- male» manifestations of character et cetera. The topicality of gender socialization of adolescent girls is a more various real space for self-identification with traditional models of mother, grandmother and «real woman» from tales, journals, literature, TV programs. In consequence, egalitarian female role looks not attractive and secondary. For adolescents of both sexes parents continue to remain the reference circle of intensive communication with both parents according to the indexes of communication with the nearest surrounding. The dependence of development of adolescents’ sex and role image «Me» on parental directions, traditional or egalitarian, agreed influence of both parents on them has been established. On the mother’s side there is the growth of positive interest to elder adolescents with the emphasis of aggravation of hyper care and by slight weakening of strictness. The psychological contact of mothers with daughters becomes closer and more proof und which states for mother’s reference in attitude to daughters, compared to father. Taking into consideration such kind of identification the real girls’ image-«Me» accordingly, acquires androgenic qualities: power, assurance, activity, more independence and autonomy et cetera.
Keywords: sex-role identification, gender identity, personal sex socialization, gender role conceptions, gender orientations, gender stereotype, gender image «Me».
In this article the gender features of today’s youth, manifested in the differentiation of instrumental and terminal values is analyzes. The questions that include the study of gender rights, their psychological differences and life orientation are highlighted. The terms “value” and “value orientations” are considered. Orientation as one of the most important characteristics of personality, which is decisive social and moral worth of the individual is underlined. The content reflects the orientation of the dominant, socially conditioned attitude of the individual to the environment is found. The value orientations, which find their real expression in active human activity with direction and become resistant based activities and become beliefs is emphasized. Typically “male” and typically “female” values are underlined. The question of value orientations of men and women associated with gender stereotypes is concentrated. Individual values that are common and different for both sexes are discovered. A large number of external factors from birth affects gender roles are accented but with each step forward, these boundaries are becoming increasingly blurred and gender differences are not as serious as previously assumed. Social and psychological aspects of the phenomenon that are insufficiently studied in terms of the dynamics of the social situation, through the prism of data by author of empirical research are viewed. It is proved that the society portrayed in values that are associated with gender stereotypes and inherent specifically masculine directed or feminine directed individuals. However, those that are common to the two sexes are defined.
Keywords: gender, gender stereotypes, values, terminal values and instrumental values.
The results of empirical research of the healthcare practitioners in the sphere of humor styles peculiarities are represented in the article. It was found, that healthcare practitioners prefer to use affiliative and aggressive humor. The individuals with high level using of humor as a coping resource were found to have higher levels of neurotic, depressiveness, femininity, the level of such symptom of emotional burnout as «be paint into a corner» and avoid to use self-enhancing humor style. The psychological peculiarities of respondents, which have polar indicators for different styles of humor, were defined: persons with higher level of affiliative humor are characterized with lower level of self-defeating humor and level of symptom of emotional burnout «anxiety and depression»; with higher level of self-enhancing humor have lower levels of neurotic, depressiveness and shyness; aggressive humor – higher level of symptom «be paint into a corner»; self-defeating humor – higher level of impatience and of the symptom of emotional burnout «anxiety and depression». The classification of respondents based on the preferred styles of humor level was empirically proved.
Keywords: sense of humor, affiliative humor, aggressive humor, selfenhancing humor, self-defeating humor.
The article deals with the research on the nature of fair and unfair actions at pedagogical interactions, their influence on personal traits attribution of subjects of interaction. Different approaches to the definition of attribution in interpersonal interaction are analysed. The pedagogic interaction and the attribution of situations, which it raises, have the social nature. The educational influence is considered not only to take place between a tutor and a student but through the interpretation of pedagogical situation by a student and his selecting of the appropriate strategy for the further behaviour, his actions cause the reaction of the tutor and affect him. The student’s interpretation of tutor’s just and the unjust actions is considered to take place in the pedagogical interaction. The fair or unfair actions of the tutors are outlined to be accompanied with the students’ estimates: fair actions are considered to be actions, which correspond to the interests of students; the attribution of unfair actions at the pedagogical interaction is reduced mainly to a lack of objectivity, to the bias of teachers, to their false professional steps. The study revealed, the priority of qualities of the teachers given by the students. We came to the conclusion that during the analysis of the actions and characteristics of the teachers, the students provide a subjective assessment of their own benefit.
Keywords: justice, pedagogical interaction, fair action, unfair action, attribution of action, attribution of traits, self-attribution.
UDC 159.923:331.101.264 – 053.88
The article envisages the features of the professional employment influence in the old age on the psychological characteristics of a personality. Getting older is associated with the emergence of normative crisis of mental development. It is a time when a person adapts to new conditions of life associated with the end of professional activity and retirement. But some in the old age continues to work. As a result of the diagnostics it was found that those who work at old age, in contrast to those who do not work, get more satisfaction from their own life in general, better understand it, notice more goals in the future, more often find themselves as source of their personality development and rely on their own strength in difficult situations, have higher self-control, and more sympathy to themselves. The professional employment at old age is revealed to influence considerably on the personality meaning of life orientations, life satisfaction, volitional qualities, self-control, sympathy to himself, communicative and organizational abilities, subjective feeling of loneliness, need for communication, dynamics of communication.
Keywords: professional employment of a personality, old age, normative crisis of mental development.
The article is devoted to the modern problem – the use of complex medical and psychic pedagogical approach that leads to improving performance of supervision (treatment and rehabilitation) of somatic patients with comorbid mental disorders. This study confirms the efficiency of incorporation of medical, psychological and educational components as essential aspects of a more complete and thorough approach to curation of patients and a comprehensive medical and psychic pedagogical approach to the process of curation of somatic patients with comorbid borderline personality disorders. The data presents that the implementation of psyhoeducational program reduces the total intensity of psychological defenses, stiffness of the coping strategies and create conditions for a more adequate treatment of patients to rehabilitation and receive supportive medical therapy and counseling. A significant effect was revealed to influence on the efficiency of application psyhoeducational functioning of patients in the work and learning and the nature of their interpersonal functioning after discharge from hospital. The application of complex medical and psychic pedagogical approach to somatic patients with mental disorders was proved to provide steady and sustained improvement in the efficiency of the whole process of curation. The effect of psyhoeducation eventually had leveled confirming the feasibility of psychotherapy training in the period of hospitalization and after the discharge of patients from hospital. The present complex medical and psychological assistance is proved to include the use of special pedagogical skills with the help of which doctor and psychologist in each case must use the most effective means of influencing on the patients.
Keywords: complex medical and psychological approach, somatic illnesses, comorbid mental disorders, compliance, psychoeducation.
In the article the actuality and prospects of the development of professional and personal qualities of future leaders are proved. The problem of the use of applied methods and techniques of the formation and development of professional qualities of a future leader is considered in the article. The professional quality is proved to be an important indicator of specialist’s professionalism. The successful implementation of professional activity of a person depends on the mastery of their qualities. The need for active forms and methods of training and education, which are seen as an effective way of purposeful development of professionally important qualities of personality are analysed. Professional qualities are some dynamic features, some mental and psychomotor qualities that meet the requirements of a particular profession and influence of the successful mastering. New skills, knowledge and skills that participants receive training, contribute to the assimilation of new information into practice, rethink their ideas about themselves and others, as well as promote selfimprovement and personal development.
Keywords: professional qualities of a personality, active forms and methods of education and training, training, training technologies.
The theoretical analysis of the concepts was done for more understanding of the notion of suicide in psychology, as well as the features of interpretation of suicide were considered from the perspective of Christian doctrine. The attempt to compare and integrate these approaches was made with the prospective study of the prevention of potential suicide. The Christian doctrine is established to be the most powerful preventive factor of suicide among Christians. But psychological assistance concerns the prevention and prevents recurrence of suicide in each separate case and is not of a mass character. That is why the faith of Christ and the scientific achievements in psychology complement each other and should act in cooperation while solving the problem of suicide. Only on this condition, in our opinion, the percentage of committing suicide may be significantly reduced.
Keywords: suicide, self-aggression, motives of suicidal behavior, psychology, Christian doctrine.
The content of the article is an empiric research of features of teenagers’ communicative personal qualities. The researched characteristics are: personality’s trend on communication, on action and on him/herself; empathy; self-control in communication. Subjects are students at the age of 13-15. It is shown that it is necessary to take a psychological age into account when comparing girls and boys. Male and female teenagersandrogynes are more different between each other than masculine boys and feminine girls. The difference between boys with different gender types is higher than between girls. The considered communication indicators of teenagers’ personality are shown in a different way «sensitive» to the sexual and gender identity. The differences in the level of empathy act as intergender, not related with psychological sex.
Key words: teenagers’ intersexual differences; psychological sex; gender; gender type; feminine; masculine; androgyne; personality communicative qualities; personality’s trend on communication, on action and him/herself; empathy; self-control in communication.
The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the approaches in the psychological literature concerning the determination and characteristics of the extreme environment and activity conditions. The necessity of the professional extension of the border guard staff that is psychological preparedness to the extreme conditions of the border guard service performance is based. The psychological essence of the extreme conditions that is based on destruction of the habitual relationship patterns, transformation the motivation of the professional activity and standards, which are usually managed by person, is determined. It is mentioned that the concept of “the extreme conditions” except the situation also includes activity aspect that discriminates “extreme conditions” from “extreme situations” that have neutral meaning relatively to the activity meaning. On the basic of the scientific sources analysis and the operative-investigative activity of the border guard mobiles experience the essence and contents of the “extreme conditions of the border guard service performance” is refined. The most dangerous extreme situations during the border guard on duty service are designated. According to the specifics of tasks and duties of each of the border guard mobile the main extreme situations that mostly occur during the state border guard protection discharge are emphasized. The peculiarities of the border guard on duty activities in the extreme conditions and factors, that cause the extreme border guard professional activity. It is stated that results of the border guard mobiles activity in the extreme conditions mostly depends on the level of their psychological training.
Keywords: extreme conditions, border guard service, professional activity, extreme situations.
The problem the influence of locus of control features on the senior pupils’ achievement in learning is presented in this article. The results demonstrate the success and failure of pupils from subjective psychological factors, such as their focus on the attribution of responsibility for the results of its activities to external forces (for external locus of control), and the attribution of responsibility of exciting (for internal locus of control). The senior pupils with high academic achievements were found to have a high level of subjective control emotionally important events and situations, and these pupils are making significant and outstanding results, they are persistent in achieving goals and solving educational problems. These pupils include a significantly higher level of cognitive motives. Another driving force that helps these senior pupils are competitive motive: they seek recognition as well as to their work worthily appreciated. The senior pupils with low academic achievements are empirically proved to tend to attribute responsibility for events that happen to them other people, or as a consequence of their bad luck, they put unstable, not always constructive purposes, in such a spontaneous behaviour of pupils and their actions, they do not pay attention to the standards and guidelines, demonstrate increased direct and indirect aggression. Thus, a research found the relationship that exists between the subjective locus of control and academic performance.
Keywords: locus of control, motivation, self-esteem, academic achievement, senior pupils.
The article deals with the notion of tolerance in the light of different interpretations. The emphasis was put on the essence of different conceptualized approaches in accordance to the study of tolerance, they are: axiological, ideal typological, conflictologic, ontological and historical, existential humanistic etc. Two components were distinguished in the structure of the tolerance phenomenon: sensual and dispositional. Five levels of ethnic tolerance were considered. Tolerance is associated with the resistance to the effects of the individual environment of weakening response to some unfavorable factors, such as negative effects of interpersonal business activities by reducing sensitivity. The inevitable difficulties are revealed to accompany any interaction between people that carry different national and cultural spaces. Particularly relevant are the difficulties in manifestations of intolerance towards people who speak other languages, have different religious beliefs or other social democratic values. Those are the difficulties caused by speakers of other national and cultural spaces. Particularly sensitive to the issue of ethnic tolerance are college students. Expansion of international contacts and signing international agreement sin the field of education has gradually led to an increase in foreign students studying in local universities. The main approaches to the ethnic tolerance study were signified on the ground of theoretical generalization.
Keywords: tolerance, ethnic tolerance, ethnically tolerant personality, ethnic identity, ethnic prejudice.
UDC 159.922 + 165. 24
The professional consciousness is evaluated in the context of lifeconstruction of personality as a basis of professional development and construction of professional world image. The last one was interpreted as a factor that mediates the interdependence of a given individual and a professionally defined external world. The professional world image engulfs operational models of subjects of professional activities, the object of work, the process of work and a self-image of a worker. Ability to perform a professional life-construction is based on perceptions of ones’ own professional, social, psychological and moral qualities. One of the most acute social practices is a professionalization of students in which positive self-reference becomes the base of construction of professional individuality. These phenomena were studied as a stand-alone system of meanings – a subjective symantics of proffessional consciousness in its development stage. Future psychologists tend to have a positive self-perception, autosympathy, self-interest, low level of self-control, self-respect and self-confidence and a fear of negative evaluations. A general instability of positive self-attitude of students was noted.
Keywords: professional world image, self-perception, students.
The article envisages the problem of empathy and empathic feelings as a response to the experiences of the people. The concept of empathy is revealed as an integral phenomenon that connects conscious and subconscious instances of the psyche, the purpose of which is a «penetration» into the inner world of the other person. The approaches of domestic and foreign researchers to the meaning of empathy are analyzed, especially in teenagers, at different stages of psychological science development. Two main directions in the research of the problem of empathy are presented: the cognitive and emotive. The results of comparative analysis of the features of empathy in teenagers – the representatives of various conditions and forms of socialization are represented: those who are brought up in families and are trained in secondary schools, as well as teenagers living in children’s homes, orphanages and boarding schools. On the basis of the obtained results we made conclusions about the differences of the development of empathy in teenagers of different social groups.
Keywords: empathy, empathic feelings, socialization, boarding schools.
UDC 159. 9
Theoretical aspects of Me-concept formation as a necessary condition of a successful socialization of the personality are revealed in the article. The definitions, features and components of consciousness and Me-concepts are considered in various theories. The theoretical aspects of the formation of Me-concept as a prerequisite for successful socialization are revealed. The purpose of this study is to determine the theoretical and methodological foundations of Me-concept in the structure of self-consciousness in the domestic and foreign science, especially Me-concept of students of South and East regions of Ukraine. The author provides a definition, identifies the features and components of identity and Me-concept in different psychological theories. The approach to solving the problem of psychological issues of self-awareness is considered as a function of the general philosophical position, which is determined by this psychological concept. The author examines the structure of consciousness, which consists of three components: selfawareness, emotional and value relationship to itself and self-regulation. The ethnic problem of «Me» is proposed to consider at several levels: at the level of the individual, at the level of the ethnic group as a whole, at the level of individual social groups. The author also provides a definition of personal and ethnic self-concept, their features and components; covers the components of ethnic «self-image» of a man as one of the substructures of its total Me-concept. The data of the empirical studies of Me-concept of students who identify themselves as Ukrainian and Russian ethnic communities and live in the Eastern and Southern regions of Ukraine are represented in the article. The conclusions about similar features of Me-concept of Ukrainian and Russian students of Eastern and Southern regions of Ukraine are made.
Keywords: self-consciousness, Me-concept, personal Me-concept, ethnic Me-concept, self-esteem, self-knowledge, self-control, identity.
In the article a survey on the problem of theoretical conceptions of the personal «Me» and specific features applying a reconstructive psychotherapy in clinical psychology is presented. A dynamics of person’s self-understanding and the influence of different diseases on the destruction of personal «|Me» are being traced beginning from the works of W. James and up to the modern researches. The aims of psychotherapeutic and psychocorrectional work depending on the primary, secondary etc. personality features of a patient or on the nozological and etiological roots of the sufferance are defined. The interaction of several groups of factors essential for a psychological therapy is analysed. Individual features of a competence together with a stress, internal locus of a control, all kinds of professional and social abilities and peculiarities of a social support are shown to be capable to mitigate a pathogenic influence. A fundamental protective factor is determined to be positive relations with referential persons. We reached a conclusion that relative success of adaptation in the process of development lasting all life long depends on a difficult interaction between pathogenic and protective internal and external conditions.
Keywords: reconstructive psychological therapy, personal «Me», personal features, etiology of sufferance, stressor.
The problems of the formation of personal identity in terms of parental dThe article envisages the problems of the formation of personal identity in terms of parental deprivation. The forms, mechanisms and symptoms of self-deprivation are analysed. The fact of parents’ frustrating of child’s needs, namely parental deprivation, determines the mechanisms of selfdeprivation developing individual psyche. The phenomenon of self-deprivation is defined as the process disintegrating psyche of the subject and determining the formation of a false loneliness or a fictitious identity. The connection between self-deprivation with the basic defect, trend of psychological impotence and psychological death is noticed. The problem of self-deprivation of a subject’s psyche is directly related to the phenomenon of mental deprivation. These concepts are similar, but not identical. Conditions of deprivation are determined from outside, the social environment and therefore most susceptible influence on the deprivation of children, immature psyche. The subject first experiences related to the presence of the mother, initiates object relation to it and forms the patterns for all the later relations with the outside world. Child growing up in the emotional and parental deprivation has no inner positive reinforcement. Denial of the world increases, gradually resulting in the lack of love for yourself and hate for others. Psychological defense system is considered to absorb the effect of frustrating effects, which determine the development of a fictitious identity as a subject of the self-false (masking true Ego).
Keywords: basic defect, Oedipus dependence, self-deprivation, fictitious identity, disadaptability, addictive behavior.
The analysis of well-known foreign studies of coping in the family as a collective phenomenon is represented in the article. The forms of family coping, the development and coping in family dynamics, the assessment of the coping effectiveness are described. The principal concepts of family coping are formulated. The results of foreign studies of coping behavior in the family as a collective phenomenon are submited. Coping behavior in crisis situations as a family group is a new trend in psychology that integrates family systems approach (considering the family as a whole system), the concept of stress-coping process and developing the domestic psychological science subjective approach. In modern psychological science coping behavior is interpreted as a behavior that enables the subject by conscious action in ways appropriate personal characteristics and situations to cope with stress or difficult situations. Psychological appointment mastery is to adapt with the requirements of the situation, allowing it to master, reduce or mitigate these requirements, try to avoid or get used to them and thus repay stress influence the situation. In the studies dedicated to the integral study of coping behavior in family in the situations of normative family crises (during main stages of life cycles) different forms of behavior that are used in situations of stress in close relationships are defined.
Keywords: the concept of coping, family coping, dyadic and family coping, stress, effectiveness, the dynamics of coping, family life cycle.
The development of diagnostic component of the technology of socialpsychological estimation of a leader in the field of public administration is described in the article. The diagnostic component of the technology includes the approved authorial technique «Social-psychological estimation of a leader in the field of public administration» and other methods and techniques of social-psychological estimation (when an estimation is given by inferiors; colleagues, levels ex officio; top managers; experts in industry), which can be used to receive more complete social-psychological portrait of leading personnel. Authorial technique «Social-psychological estimation of a leader in the field of public administration» is based on qualimetry factor-criterion model of evaluation and M. Lebedyk’s technique of the diagnostics of integral personality development. The tools of the technique are questionnaires «Self-appraisal of leader», «Leader by the eyes of inferior», «Leader by the eyes of colleague» and «Leader by the eyes of top management». An eventual index is an index of social-psychological estimation, which turns out by comparing of self-appraisals of leader to the expert estimations after the only criteria of evaluation. The less divergence is in estimations, the higher index is. For optimization of work with collection, treatment, interpretation of finding data and appearance of results the computer program PublicATEST is worked out.
Keywords: technology, diagnostic component, social-psychological estimation, leader in the field of public administration, qualimetry, factorcriterion model of evaluation, M. Lebedyk’s technique.
The article envisages the actual problem on study the role of personality structure. The views of domestic scholars concerning this issue are considered. We draw attention to the historical and philosophical origins of role perspective. Analyzing philosophical views on the process of self-identity, we note that the main prerequisites for self-determination is self-awareness of himself and the availability of social cultural environment in which it distinguishes itself from other people. From a philosophical point of view while self-determination refers to the awareness of himself, his value-semantic orientations. So, despite the long history of development and different approaches to the meaning of life in general and self-determination rights in particular philosophical thought still agree with such critical situation: a person endowed with a certain activity (that is, according to some philosophers, the divine nature), which provides people from other wildlife, and this activity is a source for knowledge of the world and determine their place in it (his role). Based on the analysis of experimental data, the researchers concluded that the quality of the individual specific role depends largely on how it understands its specificity and the extent to which this role it is accepted and assimilated.
Keywords: the personality, the role, the social role, the locus of the role conflict, the role development.
UDC 159. 923: 81’22
In this article structural and semantic context of proverbs and sayings was characterized. Two types of proverbs and sayings with the component “activity of the person” were described. Structural characteristics of proverbs which can be described on lexical, grammatical, structural and stylistic level of the language were proved. We proposed training studying and seminars with valuable and sense context (among them there is reflexive and poetic training), in the process of which we can use proverbs and sayings with the component “activity of the person”. The involvement in similar educational conditions will allow to increase a personal competence as a basic component of future professional activity: to provide the pupils’ abilities to solve a variety of professionally oriented tasks, to the foresight and forecasting, to the decision-making. All the components in their interrelation and interdependence were considered as the creation of axiconditions, that is, conditions, aimed at the progressive personal growth of pupils, the formation of their individual image of the world, represented by values, meanings, semantic constructs and instructions, as well as the personal experience that naturally leads to the positive dynamics of the personal development of senior pupils, in particular the value-semantic sphere of their personality, bringing pupils to the transcendental spiritual subject with the formed axipsyche.
Keywords: proverbs and sayings, structure of proverbs and sayings, anonyms of proverbs, proverbs with the component “activity of the person”, training studying and seminars with valuable and sense context, reflexive and poetic training.
In the article the specific study of the semantic space role positions of a primary school teacher. A factor structure of roles, composed by the determinants (actions and deeds) that cause them are established to reveal the content of each role, and indicate their relationship with teachers. Such roles as «an expert in child psychology» and «facilitator» are proved to refer to the role group «psychologist», as a «mentor» and «didactic» united in the «teacher,» and as a «nanny» and «partner» – in the group «Social.» The methods for studying the semantic space of primary school teachers are worked out; the determinants (actions and deeds) of a career are defined: to educate children, to improve the self-esteem of the child, feel more confident and safe, provide expert advice and exercise patronage of pupil, to provide children with the opportunity to believe in themselves, to design with children social relationships in peer group, maintaining the quality of personal professional responsibilities provide expert advice students to have information about the nature and experience of everyone to adhere to standards of professional ethics, care for and educate their children, to positively influence the general mood of the class, to promote effective operation of everyone to strive for self-improvement, to achieve a high level of psychological culture.
Keywords: semantic space, role positions, determinants, role, primary school teacher.
The article deals with the motivational background of the aggressive behaviour development. The aggression is defined as a motivated destructive behavior. The author stresses on that there are two different motivational trends, associated with aggressive behaviour: the tendency to aggression and to its braking. The motive is determined as a concept taking an interim position between the concepts of behaviour and personality (individuality). The stages of the formation of the aggressive behaviour motive are envisaged. The analysis of psychological research, which studied various aspects of the relationship between the aggressiveness and motivational peculiarities of the personality has been done. The role of personality traits in the formation of aggressive behavior is determined. We came to the conclusion that the criteria for the assessment of the character of that or other aggressive excess are the objectives pursued by the individual, the driving motives and values implemented in the process of aggressive impulses detection.
Keywords: aggression, motive, behavior, intelligence, self-esteem, stages of forming of aggressive behavior motive, empathy, anger.
The analysis of speech therapists teacher training in Europe showed that the system in Russia, particularly in Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University develops according to the innovative directions, focused on the implementation of key provisions of life long learning model, and preserves, according to the Maastricht Treaty, the sovereignty of their educational systems, which have strong national traditions and develop under the influence of such factors as local and industry characteristics and the involvement of social partners. The University, guided in its activity to the new Federal target program for the development of education, where the priority is learning throughout life, at some of the basic problems, on which it is focused, is shown to solve three problems. The first deals with General education, socialization of children, the second – with vocational education. A third task is aimed at formation and development of the system of quality assessment and management of quality of education. Innovation is the fact that the University is represented by experimentally probation platform where advanced methods and forms of modernization of the higher school are develop.
Keywords: life long learning, vocational training, unified educational space, active learning technologies at the workplace
The analysis of studies of foreign and domestic experts, presented in the article, shows that, among the factors which can affect the success of lie detection, important place is occupied, perhaps, not by demographics (gender, age, and profession), but personality factors. It has been established that men and women differ by the creation of situations of lie and level of awareness of their own statements, but not by the success of lie detection. At the study of age characteristics it was established that the ability to detect a lie is formed in humans to adolescence and small increases subsequent. Therefore at research the success of lie detection should be involved people over 18 years old. Paradoxically, the profession does not affect the success of lie detection: judges, police, psychiatrists and psychotherapists detect lie not much better than students. Some personality factors have not been investigated, but in this area of research have found interesting results. It has been established that the «truth bias», experience and positive thinking increase successful of lie detection. The relevance of identification personality factors increases at the present stage of development of psychology, which is characterized by the growth of interest in implicit methods for study of personality.
Keywords: hidden mental images, lie detection, personality factors, truth set up, interpersonal communication.
In this article our special attention is paid to the issue of future socionomic specialists’ professional personality formation. It has been determined, that when the future socionomic professions specialists cognize themselves and form a definite attitude to themselves as future professionals, self-affirmation and change of self-rating promote better personality formation and professional development of a personality of future professional, which is based on the desire to be prepared and responsible for the performance of professional duties. It has been proved that the harmony of a personal and professional maturity of a subject of labor is very important for personal development of a professional and his professional activity, which will make possible not only effectiveness and reliability of labor, but also the development of personality in activity, creation and formation of a standard concept “I – professional”, self-assertion, self-realization and complete adaptation of a specialist personality to the social and professional environment. It has been studied that the professional formation of a specialist’s personality is a perpetual and complicated process of forming those qualities, based on individual and psychological peculiarities of a personality, which cause successful performance of professional tasks and the feeling of being satisfied with your work. It has been proved that the professional activity determines the development of a future socionomic specialist’s professional personality formation, which is a means of forming a subject of activity, and it may become a need, a purpose, value and sense of life.
Keywords: professional, personality formation, future specialists of socionomic professions, self-rating, self-assertion, self-regulation, selfdetermination, professional formation, professional activity.
The article deals with the features of the age dynamics of selfimprovement as one of the forms of a personal self-creation through the prism of such content components of structure of a psychological age, as «the social situation of development», «age-related neoplasms» and «leading activity; established the fact of the continuity of the duration of this process throughout all stages of ontogenetic development: the emergence of prerequisites to its in childhood, the tendency to increase in teenage years, reaching a peak in the period of adolescence and adulthood with the subsequent extension in the maturity and old age; clarifies the basic individually- and social-psychological factors, as well as the leading motives of activities and the most important components of selfconsciousness, which respectively to each separately taken stage оf age crucially determines a content, main stages, a quality and efficiency of the flow of the process, determines the final result, the prospects of manifestation and realization in the subsequent periods of ontogenesis; identified promising aspects of this problem, which consist in the necessity of more detailed and comprehensive study of the impact of individualpsychological factors and components of self-consciousness on the quality of self-improvement at every stage of ontogenesis and in the development of their individual strategies for its effective implementation.
Keywords: self-improvement, self-creation, self-development, selfawareness, individualization, self-realization, self-actualization.
The dynamics in the structure of motivation in the process of sporting activities and the categories of motivation of achievements with the boyskarate at the beginning of the forming experiment and after finishing it is considered in the article. The dynamics of the motives of sports activities is proved to be explained by the specifics of psychotraining, namely, the peculiarity of the training exercises, their direction on the development of certain motivational structures and motives. During the analysis of the K. Khekhauzen thematic aperceptive test the categories were revealed to characterize a desire to achieve success and avoid the failure of boys-karate in experimental and control groups and the cetegories have significant differences. The strengthening of the categories of achievement motivation is caused by their appliance to the sphere commitment to success and sportsmen assimilation of methods of reflection, introspection, management of their own motivation. Range positions of the sporting activities’ motives and the categories of motivation in the sporting activities are also shown. The data for the control groups of boys-karate and experimental ones are represented too.
Keywords: dynamics, structure, motivation, sporting activity, boykarate.
In the article the basic terms and concepts of V. Frankl speech therapy are revealed. The goals, the position of a psychologist and a schoolchild are defined in the theory of speech therapy. The fundamental methods (dereflection, paradoxical intention) and techniques (the «Socratic dialogue», a personal comprehension of life) of speech therapy are proved. The theories of modern science of suicide are considered. The leading methods and techniques for the prevention of suicidal behaviour are represented: 1) listening to the schoolchild; 2) the normalization; 3) the aesthetic approach; 4) a mentioning about their parents and friends; 5) weighing; 6) the view from the future; 7) methods of contrast and provocative; 8) the use of available experience of the problems decision; 9) bringing to the point of absurdity; 10) a positive future; 11) switching the client to help others; 12) the extension of the circle of interests. The basic stages of V. Frankl’s life and creative way, focusing on those who are of key importance for the creation of the speech therapy theory are found out. The classification system of actions’ world of the man in speech therapy is given.
Keywords: V. Frankl, speech therapy, method, technique, schoolchild.
The article envisages the characteristics of value orientations as a central component of psychological personality structure, peculiarities of social determination of human behavior, self-regulation and its prediction of an analysis of motivational value structures adequate to the new situation, and studied the motivational value states and processes of formation of civil identity, the influence the content of value orientations to professional identity of future teachers in learning in high school, including the analysis of specificity values of modern students Technicalities, identified hierarchy «significant values» depending on the purpose for which these values are focused, determined the distribution of specific activities that are required to implement a particular value. Reveals the essential characteristics of values, in particular, based on value orientations are subjectively chosen and taken steps to meaningful for the individual values, value orientations are expressed for the purposes of behavior and activity as well as the means to achieve them, are based on choosing the appropriate course of action, inner sense of value orientations serve personal meanings, manifested in personal settings, in readiness to act in a certain way. Addressing a factor of socially active young man’s position, values affect her relationship needs and development and identity formation on life choices.
Keywords: values, valuation, professional values, life purpose, the structure of the individual, professional and pedagogical orientation.
The research focuses on personal factors of life values in early and middle adulthood. The priority for 21-60-years-old men is their own prestige and social contacts which are revealed in the field of entertainment and physical activity of people. For women of utmost importance is preserving their individuality and self-development in the field of their interests. Importance of financial condition is indicated only by women of early adulthood. In the period of going from early to middle adulthood value of self-development for men is decreasing. In early adulthood life values of men are mostly influenced by extraversion, expressiveness, self-control and commitment; in middle adulthood – by expressiveness and emotionality. In early adulthood men with weak self-control pay insufficient attention to personal achievements in education. Personal features have very little influence on women in early adulthood; in middle age the most influential are extroversion and expressiveness. In early adulthood introverted and less expressive women do not pay enough attention to the social field and social contacts. In the period of going from early to middle adulthood the role of these life values is growing significantly. In late adulthood (41-60 years) introverted and practically minded women do not pay enough attention to their education, their cognitive activity is decreasing and is oriented towards specific results. Creativity is more valued by expressive men of 21-60 years of age and women of 41-60 years of age.
Keywords: life values, extraversion, expressivity, self-control, adulthood.
The article reveals the role of inner speech and internal speech activity in the development of the dialogue thinking as a basis of intellectual development of a future psychologist, his professional, psychological and informational preparation for the professional activity. In the process of cultural studies and on the basis of generalization of the experiment the consciousness and self-consciousness are established to become the dominant of the inner life of the personality, the formation of the cultural intentions, becoming the definitions of the subject of training, and inner speech is a significant identification and mutual enrichment of a consciousness in a dialogue. The consciousness is proved to become a phenomenon of internal intercourse of personality’s consciousnesses, which should go beyond its limits and address to another consciousness of the personality. Realizing myself, I can address to myself, see and hear my being from my second I. The totality of the consciousness is achieved by the fact that everything is seen from the other side of consciousness and is the communication of the various Me, of different consciousnesses.
Keywords: the development of inner speech, culturally oriented educational dialogue, dialogue learning strategy, professional development of a future psychologist, dialogue intercourse, dialogue thinking.
The psychological characteristic of the subject of the managing activity in the IAB was made. The analysis of the scientific views on the basic requirements for the personality of the head of the IAB or its department was conducted. The most significant requirements were determined. The most significant professionally important qualities of a manager are identified: a high level of intellectual development, the ability to communicative interaction, stable motivation and high moral standards, the ability to take quick management decisions. Only the presence of a personality professionally important qualities is established not to be able to provide high efficiency of management activity if in the process of learning and training for management activity they were not developed to the highest level of professionalism. Professionally important qualities of the leaders of the internal affairs agencies of Ukraine are established to develop during the period of service. The aim should be put at the development of professionalism in the future leader in the course of their training that will become a highly effective management.
Keywords: manager, personality of a manager, management, managing activity, professional duties, professionally important features and skills.
The author characterizes the features of neurophysiologic and psychological development of the human psyche at early mature age, analyzes basic communication skills and knowledge required by young people of this age group, consideres the dominant factors of production and processing of information by a person of the age of 22-30 years, and the role of communications in the formation of its personality. The author raises issues of independence as a factor in adaptation of mind to psychic space that develops a number of key personality traits, and the problems of the active life position. As far as the mind will actively represent the creativity in this period of time, it will gain the personality characteristics. The most important role in the formation of the personality at early mature age is the significant event for the psyche as a family formation and raising of children. Therefore, the author analyzes the main problems associated with this indicator of personality development. In the period of youth importance of sexual intimacy is updated. It so happened that the physiology of the body after twenty-two years, especially for men, requires constant sexual intimacy. This requirement encourages men to the constant search for a sexual partner, to create a stable long-term relationship. And if such relationships are comfortable for men, first of all, as the satisfaction of sexual needs, removal of this issue for more important, global problems, the woman considers the tendency of men to constant intimacy with a completely different point of view. For her, it is important not initially meet the physical and sensoryemotional component relationships. The woman sees man’s behavior as a willingness to create a family for the purpose of procreation.
Keywords: communication, early mature age, personality, intercourse, information, information space, psychic space, image, internal “Me”.
The article deals with the study of the impact of stressful experiences on the emotional state boys. The attention is paid to determinants of psychotrauma and its possible implications in the future of man. Possible ways of correcting these states using the method of active socialpsychological studies (ASPE). The basis of this method is the internal model of the psyche. T.S. Yatsenko developed this model. The actual problem is the individual trauma. Often it is associated with child-parent relationship. Working in a group of ASPE, a person is able to activate the positive potential and return it to solve a specific problem. Also, this paper reveals the features of the psyche in adolescence. The psychologist can choose the best correctional approach with the help of them.
Keywords: active social and psychological training (AFS), trauma, youth.
The results of the study of self-attitude of people with borderline mental disorders were represented in the article. 50 people (25 patients are from mental hospital and 25 people are those who never complained on mental health) took part in the research. The authors used methods: indirect measurement of self-evaluations КISS (E. Sokolova), multifactorial questionnaire SMOL (adapt. by V. Zaitseva), self-attitude questionnaire ОSО (V. Stolin), Time Perspective Inventory ZTPI (P.Zimbardo, adapt. by O.Senyk). Statistical processing was realized by using correlation, cluster and univariate analysis of variance. 60% of patients demonstrate lower, comparing with conventionally healthy people, level of self-esteem, selfacceptance, self-interest, more pessimistic expectations about the attitude from others, low level of self-understanding. They are mostly committed to negative past and fatalistic present, which means they are more likely to learn and reproduce emotionally negative experience, depend on the circumstances and take a passive position. The other 40% of patients are mainly characterized by strong tendency to self-reproach and manifest time orientation to positive past, but do not differ much from apparently healthy individuals by level of self-esteem, self-acceptance, self-interest, self-understanding and other indicators, they also expect better attitude towards themselves. We can assume that the tendency to experience positive interpretation operates as a compensatory mechanism that allows these individuals to maintain positive self-attitude.
Keywords: self-attitude, self-esteem, self-acceptance, time perspective, borderline mental disorders.
In the article the understanding of the structure of intelligence in the factor analysis and experimental psychological approaches is disclosed. Interpretation of a hierarchical model of intelligence supporte rs of factor approach is presented. The general factor of intelligence and its relationship to the other components in the structure of intelligence is described. Supporters of the factor approach (C. Spearman, R.B. Cattell, F. Vernon) claimed the existence of the general factor of intelligence, which is interconnected with other intellectual abilities. The specific of the experimental psychological approach to analyzing the structure of intelligence is revealed. In this approach, scientists (Thorndike, J. Guilford, H. Eysenck, L. Thurstone, G. Gardner, R. Sternberg) show that in the structure of intelligence, there are quite separate types of intell igence. Social intelligence is recognized as one of them. In each of the approaches the place of social intelligence in the structure of intelligence is defined.
Keywords: structure of intelligence, factor theories of intelligence, experimental psychological theory of intelligence, the hierarchical model of intelligence, the general factor of social intelligence.
The results of the study manifestations of the “C-metric”, for example, nefrourological disorders in different periods of the disease. The acute illness or coincide with the end of the current large biological cycle, or to the end of its current quarter is experimentally proved. Results of the study are convinced that different individuals of their “preferred” disease manifest themselves with a certain “C-frequency” when the body is at a minimum of its features. The results demonstrate that the majority of the patients with psychosomatic diseases common is that the clinical manifestations of the disease not only coincide with the end of a quarter long cycles and their ends, but also begin to recur at intervals ¼ C, ½ C 1/16 C, ¾ C depending on the membership of typological groups. The disease takes a chronic nature, because not diagnosed in the early stages of ontogeny. Thus, discrete counting individual time leads to the fact that the level of subjective experiences and behavioral manifestations of human life passes unevenly, i.e. lifelong clearly distinguished periods in the middle of which a person is in optimal psychosomatic form, and at the beginning and at the end – minimum in its capabilities. These findings have established a system of interrelated and interdependent manifestations of psychosomatic diseases chronopsychological characteristics of the subject, including his time parameters in nefrourological violations.
Keywords: nefrourological diseases, chronopsychological prediction, C-metric, a large biological cycle of life.
The article утмшіфпуі the theoretical aspects of the motives and results of empirical studies of sex and age characteristics of the motives and motives for choosing the profession. The aim of our research is to find sex differences in the motives of the profession and training in and to identify changes in the structure of these motives in training pedagogics. In our empirical study, it was found that teaching and professional work of higher school students teaching specialties is polimotivational, with a change of motivation structure of today’s college students, and there are gender differences in the prevalence of internal and external reasons of the profession and their combination, in the high process in high school significantly increases the percentage of students with low motivation for the profession, learning and obtaining a degree, in the training of students is one of the dominant motives for learning and one of the reasons for choosing a work. These findings may suggest the need for psychological support for building motivation educational activity of students in training, the feasibility of mandatory professional selection when entering the teaching profession and career guidance for future entrants.
Keywords: motive, motivation, sex differences, the motives teaching at the university, the motives of career choices, external and internal reasons, professional motives, educational motives, pragmatic motive.
The article is devoted to the problem of relations between parents and adolescents in modern families. The study was conducted as part of an approach to structural psychological consultation and psychological therapeutic practice and work with the family. The most important features are their families vary depending on the stage of their life. Adolescence is a difficult stage of the child in family life. As the research hypotheses acted assumption that the balance of the family system and function determine the characteristics of relationships of adolescents and their parents. Comparative analysis of the results of empirical research has confirmed the hypothesis: the relationship between parents and adolescents differ in families with the most balanced and functional system in families having the most unbalanced and dysfunctional family system. In families with the most balanced and functional family system between parents and adolescents are more positive and more contribute to the development and establishment of the adolescent’s personality.
Keywords: family, parent-child relationship, family structure, adolescents.
The process of a teacher’s self-realization is reviewed in the article. The article researches personal features needed for successful professional selfrealization. The meaning and specifics of the concept of self-realization are defined in the article. The analysis of theoretical approaches concerning the phenomenon of self-realization is presented. The formation of selfrealization is determined to be dependent on the level of development of certain psychological features of a person. The empirical results that help to define the tendencies of the future teacher development and determinants of the process of his or her self-realization are presented in the research. A significant number of personal characteristics of students from the Educational Faculty was determined to be located at a such level of development that is not conducive to effective self-actualization, which in turn makes negative affects on professional self-realization of a young teacher. As a result of the empirical study the development of professional identity of students was determined to be significantly slow at all stages of education. The skills of emotional self-control are underdeveloped that is unacceptable for the individuality of a teacher, years of study at the university do not provide effective educational influence in the light of overcoming such negative personality traits as depression, irritability, shame. These features are expressed in all courses in almost the same way.
Keywords: self-realization, self-realization of a teacher, selfrealization of the future teacher, factors of the future teacher selfrealization.
In this article we discuss the theoretical aspects of junior pupils’ abilities, their kinds, diagnostics and results of research of pupils’ creativity and intellectual abilities. The comparison of results of creativity and intellect is conducted. Some advices concerning gifted children are given to parents and teachers. The study uses methods that allow making an effective investigation of creativity, intelligence of junior pupils, such as: research methodology of creative component – “Finish the drawing”(P.Torrens), method of determination of the mental development level (E.Zambatsiavychene), the determination of the imagination level (O.M.Dyachenko), the determination of cognitive abilities and cognitive activity. The empirical research based on the above procedures allowed to define «speed», «flexibility», «originality», «elaboration» and the capacity for logical operations of junior pupils. We came to a conclusion that pupils with high intelligence are not always creatively gifted, and vice versa creatively gifted pupils does not always have a high level of intelligence. The article provides the basic theoretical principles of self-oriented research of creativity and intelligence. Main national and international scientists, who were engaged in this issue, are defined. The types of abilities and given practical advices to parents and teachers about gifted children were described.
Keywords: abilities, creativity, gifts, intellect.
In the article the scope of modern victimization studies, aspects of victim behaviour and ways of its prevention are analysed. The author pays attention to the lack of research problems preventing victimization behaviour of college-age people, as one of the most vulnerable population. On the basis of theoretical analysis of problems in one of the areas of victim behavior prevention allocated mastery students adaptive coping strategies (coping strategies). The state of knowledge and academic sources characteristics of coping behaviour and coping resources are examined, life issues and coping mechanisms of psychological defense are a review of existing classifications of coping strategies. A great attention is paid to the need to study the coping behavior not only in extreme stress, crisis and difficult situations, but in the victimization. The lack of research of different coping strategies use influence on the level of propensity of students to victim behavior. The data flight empirical study confirming tracing. In the course of ascertaining the study identified lack of ownership by students adaptive coping strategies, their inability to use coping strategies adequate to the situation. Insufficient knowledge of students adaptive coping strategies increases their risk of victimization, increasing their individual negative personality traits. The results confirm the relevance and necessity of further victimization studies in the designated direction. The author believes that the acquisition of adaptive coping strategies is an effective method to reduce the propensity to victim behaviuor of student age representative.
Keywords: victimology, victim behaviour, coping strategies.
This article is theoretically ground on one of the basic components of mental health of the child – emotional well-being in family communication. Distinguishing various significant aspects of mental health problems in the family that are often drawn attention of researchers (structural components of mental health, psychological mechanisms of adaptation, the family as an integrated system, the role of emotions in social situations of child development, the primary role of emotions in the mental life of the child, the dependence of the marital relationship satisfaction from emotional and psychological needs). The author underlines the problem of mental health of a child under school age in the present. The family is considered important for proper development of the child most complex, holistic and psychological systems. The factors (social, psychological, social cultural, social economic) that affect the mental health of the child and, in particular, the emergence of neurotic reactions are analyzed. The style of parenting in the family (authoritative, authoritarian, lively) is disclosed. The parameters of attitudes of children are extracted from parents (parental control, parental demands, how to communicate with children in the nurturing, emotional support). The known effects of defective communication adult with a child of preschool age are described. The coherence methods of education are emphasized among parents of the child and the negative impact of parental conflict on child development.
Keywords: family, child mental health, neurosis, social and psychological factors, social cultural factors, social economic factors.
UDC 159.942 : 37.015.3
The article reveals the psychological mechanism of the influence of teachers’ positive values and «strong» character traits on the pupils’ optimal functioning as subjects of educational and cognitive activity. The results of the research of teacher’s positive values influence on the formation of pupils’ positive values and «strong» character traits. As a result of the empirical study the expression of teacher’s positive values is at the core of positive values corresponding to the formation of pupils’ optimal self-esteem and thus provides them with the subjective well-being. A special role is played by the triad of teacher’s positive values: «Wisdom», «Humanity», «Justice.»
Keywords: positive personal potential, positive values, «strong» personality traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being.
The results of theoretical analysis of conceptual approaches to the study are presented in the article: readiness of young people to create a family, identifying the factors influencing the formation of readiness to marriage, the psychological characteristics of students’ families functioning. The article deals with the results of psychological characteristics of students’ families. The comparison between the research results of «Satisfaction of marriage» and levels of anxiety is conducted. Based on the questionnaire «Satisfaction of marriage» (V.Stolin, T.Romanova, H.Butenko), and methodologies for evaluating the level of situational and personal anxiety (Ch. Spielberg, Y. Hanin) the psychological characteristics of students’ families functioning were examined. In the article a number of categories of students’ families for the criterion «Satisfaction of marriage» are defined: dysfunctional, transitional, and prosperous. The anxiety level of the members of students’ families is analyzed. The comparative analysis of these techniques, self-determined situational and personal levels of anxiety are described in the article. The categories of satisfaction of marriage and levels of anxiety are defined. Based on these results we came to the conclusion considering a number of factors that affect the psychological readiness of university students to create families. Their knowledge will help students to avoid erroneous decisions in choosing a marriage partner, and get rid of the problems in the planning and organization of family life.
Keywords: «young family», «students’ family», readiness to marriage, «satisfaction of the marriage», levels of anxiety.
The article envisages the results of the research of professional studentspsychologists’ self-identity formation. The research of the professional self-identity formation, with the help of special psychodiagnostic methods, includes the study of the type of professional identity, its formation during the training at higher educational establishment, diagnostics of personal egocentrism as one of the personality traits that may affect the quality of professional psychologist, professional motivation, learning the factors of the profession attractiveness, their impact on the development of professional self-identity. A summary of the results of comparative analysis of medium Kraskal-Wallace H – criterion was realized. Examining the features of the formation of professional self-identity through psychodiagnostic techniques and conducting a comparative analysis of the mean values for the H-criterion Kraskal-Wallace revealed peculiarities of index egocentrism in various specialty courses «Applied Psychology» and revealed the dynamics of egocentrism growth with increasing age. The authors studied the type of professional identity in each group, and found that the most positive type of identity was achieved in the last year teaching at the university. The authors revealed the predominant type of motivation and dominant motivational complex, such as «internal positive motivation», which is the best option. Also the most important factors of the profession attractiveness for each of the groups were found to have been studied among students-psychologists.
Keywords: self-identity, professional self-identity, the type of professional self-identity, personal egocentrism, motivation, factors of the professional attractiveness.
The results of the empirical research of psychological features of professional thinking formation in future teachers are represented in article. The diagnostic tools which can successfully be used at psychological support of students of higher educational institutions are presented. A developed diagnostic program has allowed establishing psychological factors, which influence on the development of professional thinking: individual properties of thinking (reflexivity, mental abilities, understanding of metaphorical sense, speed and rigidity of thinking, intellectual liability; combinatorial abilities); styles of thinking, as well as individual typological properties of a personality. There are significant correlations between the development of individual psychological features of a personality and individual qualities and styles of thinking in students. The development of students’ individual styles of thinking is established to influence significantly on the development of their professional qualities, and an insufficient level of indicators’ development in the individual properties of thinking and the use of one style of thinking in students testifies to the need to create a development program aimed at the development of professional thinking.
Keywords: professional thinking, formation of professional thinking, diagnostics, styles of thinking.
In this article the main trends of management psychology research are considered. The psychological aspect of the head’s activity is thoroughly solved. The classical styles of management are analysed. The significant factors of management decisions are defined. The formation of the professional readiness to management is revealed. The value of responsibility as the main criterion of the management system is reviewed. The empirical results on the research of future professionals’ responsibility viewed through the prism of leadership styles organization are presented. Psychology of management and leadership style features organization contains a large number of theoretical and empirical developments that are presented in the works of local and foreign psychologists. Functional content manager organization requires a particular way of implementing the basic functions of management, which is reflected in the style of leadership – how to interact with subordinates and solving production problems. In today’s competitive market, the individual leader, the level of his skills and especially the style and focus of its activities are dependent growth, quality and business income. Professional readiness is expressed primarily in management to promptly take appropriate decisions in a constantly changing social conditions, assuming the responsibility for the process and the consequences of those actions. Prospect for the further research is the study of responsibility through the prism of leadership styles organization.
Keywords: management, leadership, leadership style, professional readiness to management, professional responsibility.
The article proves the relevance of eating disorders for today. It also shows the necessity of their studying in terms of psychosomatic disfunction of the body. The article analyses the opportunities to use metaphors while working on eating disorders. A generalized analysis of opinions about their origin and symptomatic treatment has been developed. It is shown that the functional meaning of metaphoricity of inner corporality is based on the ability to transform the interceptive senses from the extramental language to the perceivable language of the interceptive senses. The conclusion was made about using a metaforicity method in the system of diagnostic and psychocorrective work with psychosomatic clients including obesity and other eating disorders.
Keywords: eating disorders, interceptive senses, metaphoricity, symptom utilization, transformation.
The main idea of the material is to present the concept of separationindividuation on material of modern mainly western researches. The theoretical and methodological fruitfulness of the approach are discussed. The separation-individuation is described as a process of intrapsychic changes. We examined how these changes influence on the development of individual’s autonomy in relations with parents. Originally it was considered that development of autonomy correlated with worsening of parent-child relations, but a lot of modern studies argued that normally it correlated with positive changes in current relations, such as frequency of communication, emotional closeness, the feeling of pleasure in relations. Personal autonomy becomes a result of emotional closeness and encouragement of autonomy in parent-child relations. The studies of factor models of the separation are described. The studies proposed to understand the separation as a process of development more cognitive, behavioral, emotional independence and regulation of emotions. There are also presented Ukrainian studies of parent-child relations during adolescence. We try to discuss their results through the perspective of the initial concept of separation. Similar results and ideas can be found in Ukrainian and Western studies. Both studies prove the crucial role of positive parent-child relations during individual psychological development. The concept of separation-individuation is offered as a good theoretical and methodological perspective for studying the phenomena of growing up.
Keywords: separation-individuation, older, child-parent relationships, autonomy.
The author examines the actual problem of resourceness of personality. The article contains results of theoretical analysis of resources of different types. Personal resourceness is described in the context of the concept of S. Hobfoll «conservation of resources». The author concluded that: 1) personal resources should be characterized as tangible and intangible rights provisions that allow her to feel able to deal with stress, 2) psychological aspects of resource types not associated with components of psychological resources and their temporal orientation. The results of an empirical study of the specific features of communication and personal psychological resources of the individual. It was found that the effect of psychological resourceful personality is a high level of personal social resources. However, psychological resourceful not related to social and personal with internal resources, which combined with the ability to upgrade their human psychological resources. The author shows its psychological resourceful with interpersonal relationships, the ability to support, inspire, motivate others and help them. The level of tangible personal resources determines the highest level of development of psychological resource of «working people». Psychological resources are more substantial in the characterization way to the individual ability to support others through self-understanding.
Keywords: personal resource, psychological resourceness, personal resourceness, social resources.
In the article the results of remedial developmental studies in children with abnormal intellectual development are represented, as well as the dynamics of neuropsychological processes and higher mental functions under adequate methods for adaptive correction. As the leading symptom of mental retardation is a disorder of cognitive activity, psychological and pedagogical work should be aimed at stimulating the development and formation of cognitive activity. The development of thinking in special classes becomes especially important. As a result of corrective measures in children with mental retardation of varying degrees according to the situation of strength and mobility of nervous processes, i.e. the group of children with RVD and CRA were changes in motivational and behavioral components. The dynamics of neuropsychological systems was experimentally been investigated by the M.V.Makarenko method and a number of psychological studies were determined by the mental capacity of children of these groups as a result of corrective surgery. For this purpose Ye.Krepelina methods and correcting table are used. Children are of the average type of power of neural processes in both groups respond best corrective exercises. Children with CRA of nervous system (NS) below average show quite good results in corrective effects, whereas children with a weak NA both groups react poorly to correction. This preference is gevin to neuropsychological methods of psychological criteria in the accuracy and sensitivity of neuropsychological processes.
Keywords: intellectual defects, neuropsychological processes, higher mental processes, correctional effect, children with intellectual disabilities.
Social, economic and psychological descriptions of an enterprise are being analysed in this article. In the present work we defined enterprise and entrepreneurial activity, we also showed their distinctions from the contiguous types of activity. The article presents details form domestic and foreign researches of different enterprise. Here the basic effects and functions of entrepreneurial activity retained in economic circulation are shown, the psychological features of entrepreneur personality are also defined. The different variants of determination of enterprise are generalized and the following basic descriptions which are assigned to an enterprise are selected: innovation, noninteraction, risk and control. A few ways of classification of enterprise innovations are presented. We showed the differences between the concepts of inventor, capitalist, manager and entrepreneur, descriptions of control and risk of entrepreneurial activity are analysed. The work presented different types of risk, which an entrepreneur assumes, convincing people, following him, in inevitability of success. The aspects of domain, management and control in entrepreneurial activity are separated. It is shown that the further study of the phenomenon of enterprise can be related to the research program development for more detailed study of the motivation-valued sphere of entrepreneur, attitudes toward an enterprise risk and by a control method.
Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurial activity, inventor, capitalist, manager.
The article envisaged the psychological impact of art as a kind of psychological impact on the whole. The classification of psychological influence of G.O. Kovalev, T.S. Kabachenko, F. Zimbardo and M. Lyayppe are analyzed. The possibility of their application for the analysis of the impact of art is represented. Different nature of works of art, appropriate classification of Kovalev, which takes into account various possible principles of influence, is given. In considering the psychological impact in the art one should also take into account the peculiarities of form as a component of a work of art and its relationship to the content. The author analyzed the correlation between «influence» and «perception», their mutual mediation, and mutual conditionality. The possibility of a complex nonlinear relationship between them is theoretically revealed: the less controllable perception of works of art, the more forced could be the impact on the recipient. Therefore we can evaluate explicit and implicit aspects of the psychological impact of works of art, if we assume that they would be conducted according to known psyhoaesthetic theories. For example, the theory of T. Lipps «vchuvannya» (Eng. «Empathy») suggests – instead of realistic perception – hold themselves (i.e. selfcontrol) in compassion object – such as a positive «right» character. But then sooner or later the person who perceives a work of art, there will be a natural attraction to the negative, «wrong». This is no problem if the aesthetic and realistic perception is the same.
Keywords: psychological influence, art, perception, image, control.