The author states that personal action is the mental phenomenon that actually implements some aspect of poverty, «holds» the unity of affective and intellectual components of the personality and provides their joined interaction. It is shown that whatever the subject acted in a psychological research – motor actions, analyzers’ work, personal actions, that they are, ultimately, personal actions that in the unity of inner mental contents reflect and implement unified biosocial nature of poverty, and therefore – the whole personality. Genetic and modeling analysis is noted to distinguish the initial meaningful unit of the personality as an open system, self-developing, creating itself. This unit is established to be the poverty as overall energy force of life that is a contradictory unity of biological and social. It is concluded that genetic and modeling analysis allows to connect ontogeny and creativity: it turns out that the real force that creates the personality and determines its existence is love as a subjective poverty. It is noted that the analysis for units is the study based on logical and psychological analysis of the controversial unit – a poverty that holds a primacy of integrity of biological and social in the abstraction in undeveloped form. The special place in the study of mental development according to the genetic and modeling method takes putting into the logical built-in system of psychological concepts the relevant system of actions and operations, adequate to the childbirth activity aimed at the creation of these concepts in the history and culture of the tribal capacity as a result of their mastering in the process of training. The actual formation of the same mental abilities is established to be carried out in an experimental study, structured as modeling (forming) experiment. It is concluded that the formation of mental abilities (which are intimate psychological equivalent of integrated activity) consists of two phases: constructing models of these capabilities and implementation in the educational (experimental) material their formation in educational activities concerning mastering the material, and psychological and pedagogical research, having the task of the formation the integral mental activity and its psychic equivalents – abilities, is possible only when building the genetic and modeling study by its method.
Key words: theory, psychology of poverty, genetic and modeling method, process of mental abilities formation, biosocial nature of poverty, existence, ontogeny, self-development, personality, genesis.
The given paper investigates the eating behavior psychological aspects. Actuality of the research problem lies in the fact that healthy eating provides a healthy personality functioning while unhealthy eating leads to overweight or underweight, ill health as well as to progression of various diseases. The objective of our research was to study the psychological aspects of eating behavior, its types, disorders and disfunctions. The volume and frequency of the food consumption depends on such phenomena as hunger, appetite and satiation. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa etc. are singled out among the eating disorders. The following types of eating behavior belong to the eating disturbances: restrained, emotional and external. The author of the work has made an attempt to distinguish the terms of «disorder» and «disfunction» of eating behavior. Study of the eating behavior disturbances with the help of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire allowed to make a conclusion that 43% of the ratees have the eating behavior disturbances. Study of life satisfaction of the ratees with different body-weight index has shown that there is a significant feedback between the life satisfaction level and bodyweight index. The given fact illustrates that individuals with heavy weight are less satisfied with their life than individuals with lighter weight. Causes and effects of the given relation can be considered in two directions. Overweight can serve as a factor which prevents from life satisfaction sensation. However, life dissatisfaction can act as a factor which influences the eating behavior disfunctions.
Key words: eating behavior, disorders of eating behavior, disfunctions of eating behavior, overweight, hunger, appetite, satiation, body-weight index, feeding stereotype, life satisfaction.
In the given article the results of empirical research of differences and peculiarities of loneliness are analyzed. In this research we consider two varieties of loneliness that create methodological controversion. The conclusion is done that these two varieties represent the single loneliness phenomenon and in one case it is the reflection of the need in self-expression, in the other case it is the reflection of communication needs. It has been established that dissatisfaction of demands causes loneliness initiation which carries out signal and catalyzing functions. It has been confirmed that loneliness variety caused by individualization and domination of personal identifications is linked with reflection, mechanisms of psychological defense and self-expression demand. The conclusion has been done that mechanisms of psychological defense can suppress selfexpression need while the level of loneliness is growing, which indicates the unsatisfied demand. The variety of loneliness caused by domination of social identifications is linked with unsatisfied communication demand. If this demand is not satisfied then the loneliness level will grow up and sense of life will be lost. Basing on these results we have introduced the loneliness model which corresponds to the ontological concept of personality. Loneliness can occur on the level of personality and then it is considered as the social loneliness, and on the level of individuality – then it is considered as the existential one. These varieties are opposed in the modern psychology, creating methodological problem, because in one case it is stated that loneliness has negative sense for the personality and in the other case it is stated that loneliness has positive sense for the personality and is the condition of its development. The built model lets us solve this problem using diversity and integrity of loneliness. The results from this article may be used in loneliness research and intervention work with the people who faced loneliness.
Key words: loneliness, personality, development, mechanisms of psychological defense, self-attitude, reflection, individualization, identification.
The actuality of the research on social and psychological and individual determinants of children and teenagers’ victim behaviour with the purpose to prevent its formation is grounded. It is shown that social and psychological mechanisms of teenagers’ behavioral victimization have not been sufficiently studied from the scientific and theoretical point of view. The essence of the categories «victimization» and «victim behaviour» is considered. Social and psychological reasons and factors of children and teenagers’ victim behaviour development are revealed and analyzed on the theoretical level. Teenager’s victimization is defined as a property of his personality. In the complex of social and psychological and individual determinants of teenagers’ victim behaviour the following are foregrounded: high level of anxiety and aggression, low or understated self-esteem, and the bent to self-blaming. The results of empirical research directed to identifying the character of correlation between teenagers’ victim behaviour and their individual and personal features are described. It is revealed that teenagers’ bent to self-injurious and self-destructive behaviour is a form of teenagers’ victim behaviour that is expressed in the highest degree; the bent is related with the characteristics as follows: the display of aggression, anxiety, and self-blame. The results of the conducted psychological diagnostic research served the ground to working out and presenting recommendations as for prophylaxis of children and teenagers’ victim behaviour. It is emphasized that the psychologist’s professional activity on the prophylaxis of children and teenagers’ victim behaviour must have a permanent character and include comprehensive work with children, their parents and teachers. The empirical studying analysis was resulted in concluding the ways of preventing teenagers’ victimization. Perspective directions of further scientific studying the reasons and factors of teenagers’ behavioral victimization and the prophylaxis of children and teenagers’ victim behaviour are outlined.
Key words: victim behaviour, victimization, the factors of victim behaviour, the psychological determinants of victim behaviour, the types of victim behaviour, the forms of victim behaviour, the prophylaxis of victim behaviour.
UDC 159.923.2 +159.922.1
The article presents the results of an empirical study of peculiarities of the formation of unconscious component of boys’ gender identity from single-parent families, in comparison with the formation of similar component of boys’ gender identity from complete families. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the author’s theory of gender and gender identity that are functioning in three mental dimensions: depth, cognitive and behavioral. On authors’ opinion gender identity is the specific relation between gender as a psychical representation of sex and different representations of Me in mentioned dimensions. Considering the depth component of gender identity as an experience of relation between self-image and gender-based image in someone’s personal psychical reality the researcher had found the development of boys’ gender identity since primary school to adolescence in complete and incomplete families. In the present work there is for the first time published author’s method of diagnostics of unconscious component of personality’s gender identity by means of the analysis of psychodrawings series of «Me», «Man», «Woman» (DUGIP), the form of this method is filed and principles of scoring are described. Based on the mathematical methods of data analysis (U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test) and on the results of previous studies of this problem the author identified on a representative sample of 240 persons the features of formation of the unconscious component of boys’ gender identity depending on the fact in what type of families they are growing up. In particular, the author made the conclusion about the presence of significant differences in this process related to the gender asymmetry of depth dimension of the psyche of boys from single-parent families that means the increasing compliance between the depth self-image and the image of a man and the weakening of matching with the image of a woman. Meanwhile gender identity of boys from complete families is a constant in development even if the objects for identification – depth images of men and women – have destructive, neurotic characteristics. Summary of these findings and results of previous studies let the author conclude that there are some regressive gender processes in the unconsciousness of a boy from single-parent family in the age of 17-18 years old.
Key words: gender, gender development, gender identity, psychodrawing, single-parent family, unconsciousness.
The article is devoted to the investigation of the main psychological approaches to the study of the personality creative activity. The urgency of the study is determined by the fact that creative activity is relevant and not well-developed and creative activity is one of the least defined concepts of psychological science. Taking into consideration the variety of research approaches to the study of the creative activity and ambiguity of the scientific definition of the term, within our study we provide the definition of the creative activity as a self-sufficient form of the personality’s activity and the ultimate goal of adaptation processes. One of the main approaches to the study of the creative activity in the age and educational psychology there have been defined the subjective, action, personality-action, empirical, androhohical, semiotic and action-semiotic approaches. It is concluded that in order to show the creative activity of the people of old age, the most effective approach is the subjective one of the study of the personality creative activity within the «creative-gerontological» direction of acmeological aspect of human development. The result of our theoretical study was the identification of the possibility of the study of the old people creative activity within the subjective approach using psychological and pedagogical impact including people of old age in different kinds of purposefully organized thematic creative activities based on cognitive, emotional and volitional and physical capabilities of the personality, using them to participate in the process of creativity.
Key words: creativity, activity, creative activity, action approach, subjective approach, self-realization, self-development, old age.
This article is devoted to finding out a psycholinguistic meaning of the adjective «playful». The obtained results of the lexicographical description of the meanings of the adjective «playful» using the method of vocabulary definitions generalizing allow it to be presented in the following way: (1) sharp-witted, zippy, skittish, irrepressible, lively, passionate, frisky, quick; (2) fast, easy, movable; (3) ingenious, fanciful, bizarre, varied; (4) changeable, unstable; (5) light-hearted, carefree, cheerful, thoughtless, sprightly …; (6) naughty, gamesome, funny, mischievous, waggish, frolicsome; (7) laid-back, easy, joking; (8) flirtatious, sexy; (9) frivolous, loose, equivocal, suggestive, flippant, indecent, sexy, provocative, scabrous, frivolous …; (10) cheerful, fun, blithe, merry; (11) rebellious, audacious, risky; (12) exciting, thrilling; (13) fresh, vivid, bright; (14) arch, cunning. The meanings of the word «playful» cover the playful behavior of an animal, the nature and material objects, the sounds of musical instruments and the sounds of nature … everything that directly concerns perception and feelings of a person; his mental activity; imagination; character, temperament and mood; a person’s lifestyle; expressive movements of a person and his speech content; the products of art that reveal the distinctive features of creativity of the writer’s personality … ; a person’s expressive movements, and the spirit of a person (but with a negative connotation). At this stage of the research the given meanings can be used to group associative responses to the word-stimulus playfulness obtained in a free associative experiment. The findings of our experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that that playfulness can be one of the unique personality traits, ensuring successful functioning of activity subject in the modern world.
Key words: playfulness, playful, psycholinguistics, lexicographic description, method of dictionary definitions generalizing, psycholinguistic experiment.
UDC 159.923: 123.1
The article considers the psychological analysis of the concepts of «freedom» and «responsibility» as the factors of constructing meaning of life, in the context of рostnonclassical psychology, in which an individual is regarded as the creator of his own life, as selfcreator. The striving to implement the meaning of life is an initial stimulating motive in the life of individual. Within the constructivist approach in psychology, the meaning of life is a complex integrative concept that is constructed through the prism of personal qualities, cultural patterns and models, based on past experience of the individual, forms a vision and priorities for the future. The area of meanings for the terms «freedom» and «responsibility» is explored in the article. Freedom, as a factor of constructing the meaning of life by an individual, is the ability to act as the primary source, the author of own actions, be an active creator of own life. The acquiring of freedom is carried out through act, which is the form of activity that leads to freedom. Constructive and pathological solutions of individual regarding to the problem of his freedom and unfreedom are analysed. Responsibility arises along with the freedom of the individual. Responsibility is considered as the ability of an individual to take the decision, which are adequate to the situations, to foreknow the consequences of his acts, and the willingness to be responsible for these acts, in front of world and of himself. Responsibility is a response to a situation that is in resonance with the values of the individual and with the meaning of life. Freedom and responsibility, if they have reached their developed form, are inseparable, they act as a single mechanism of self-regulation and self-determination of the individual. The conclusion is substantiated, that freedom and responsibility are essential factors for the construction of meaning of life, done by the individual, as well as for the implementation of that meaning.
Key words: social constructivism, рostnonclassical psychology, individual, act, meaning of life, freedom, responsibility, construction of the meaning of life.
The article envisages that official cooperation in the military and professional environment can exist as coordination between departments and within individual units. This second type defines the direct unit programme carrying out. According to the analysis of theoretical sources it was established a considerable practical and theoretical perspective towards the study on the same service interaction. There were grounded the methods of the empirical research, which explains that due to the novelty of the research an extended range of techniques and methods, namely, questioning, psychodiagnostic methods and mathematical computation of statistic data were chosen. It is concluded that official cooperation in military units is a kind of professional interaction, social and psychological process that is integrated into the process of joint implementation of military tasks confronting a military unit. Its components are social and psychological characteristics of a collective body, cognitive processes, motivational characteristics and interpersonal relationships. There have been found the tendency towards an increase of the level of service interaction which formed with the increasing of the level of danger of tasks. The author also determined that organizational culture by a hierarchical type promotes the formation of service interactions, such as characteristics of this type of organizational culture as clarity, regulation, concreteness, structuring are the most necessary for the activities of military units in terms of implementation of tasks set before them. In addition to these the preconditions for the formation of the service interaction are defined not from a position of formal but informal leadership.
Key words: service interaction, psychological components and aspects in service interaction of the professional activities in the military departments.
The results of the research of teenagers, adolescents, and adults’ coping behavior are discussed in the article. Methodological tools to test the features of coping behavior of the personality are defined. Personal problems which respon- dents perceived as the most significant events of their own living space are characterized using content analysis. Major stressors, as well as behavioral responds to them are highlighted in the article. The results of the study state that college students are more sensitive to academic stressors, when teenagers and adults appreciate events that take place in the family as the most significant stressor in their own living space. Therefore the results of content analysis found that the whole nature of the problems and difficult life situations of teenagers and adolescents is similar, while the content and the expressiveness are specific. Using standardized methods, features of coping behavior with difficult situations by teenagers, youths and adults are defined. The comparison of the results of the study on the basis of personal and situational approaches to determinants of coping phenomenon is made. The results below norms on the scales of problem-oriented coping indicate low level of the focus on the real action in difficult situations, lack of the skills to form algorithms and to define, recognize and solve subjectively important situations. The most alarming negative indicators of coping behavior of the adults are: insufficient use of social coping resources, increase of the rate of the indirect manipulative actions in the repertoire of one’s coping behavior, decrease of the positive revaluation of a difficult situation and pessimism. The results of the study proved that all categories of the studies respondents have problems with a repertoire of coping behavior which can be characterized as partially unproductive.
Key words: coping, coping behavior, stressor, living space, coping strategies, personality.
The article considers the problem of distinguishing the structural components of the expert’s translation competence. Particular attention is paid to the psychological analysis of the structural components that is an important precondition in the process of training future professionals. The article contains the summary of the main trends in the psychological structure of translation competence of the future expert and examines the structure of «translation work» in terms of various psychological approaches. The article examines the components of translation competence and the place of translation competence among other competencies. The analysis of the concept is made with the consideration of the points of view of various native and foreign scholars. The number of requirements to be met by competent expert translation is recalculated. The general principles of translation learning, the formation of translation competence in a foreign language of the professionals are presented. Different problems of the native and foreign psychological and educational research in the field of training of competent professionals are solved. The general characteristics of the structural components of translation competence of the expert are presented in the article, the basic characteristic softhemodern professional are shown in which the demands to the professionals are displayed. This article investigates the psychological characteristics that defines in a different way the translation competence of the professional. The conclusion about the insufficient investigation of the psychological components structure and the expediency of further research and deeper singling out of the structural components of translation competence is made. The material is presented in the main stream with the model that treats translation as a means of interlingual communication, the specificity of which defines a set of knowledge and skills that an expert receives in the process of training.
Key words: translation, the Theory of Translation, linguistic identity, communicative activitiy, competence, worldview, means of communication, semantic perception, professional activity.
The theoretic and empiric analysis of aspects of the problem of psychological peculiarities of hardiness and values of self-actualization of a personality is presented in the article. It is marked that stress situations, as a rule, produce requirements which go out outside possibilities of a personality to manage with them, even at presence of necessary for this purpose resources. The analysis of concepts of hardiness and values of personality is carried out. It is noticed that the concept of hardiness represents psychological vitality and extended efficiency of a man, and also is the index of its mental health. In psychology the concept of hardiness is followed by the most near concepts: subjection, sense of life, stylistic conformities to law, life of creative work, co-operation of a personality and situation, self-relation, self-realization of personality. It is analysed, that hardiness hinders from the origin of internal tension in stress situations. It is noticed that hardiness is a key personality variable which determines influence of stress factors. The valued orientations of a personality is analysed to characterize it from the point of essential vital principles which it uses as orientations of the vital way. It is marked that self-determination foresees self-realization and selftranscendention. It is analysed that the value orientations are one of major factors of personality self-determination. The personality characterized by a high aspiring for self-actualization is studied to have, at first, low indexes in the expression of nevrotization; aggression and frustration as mental conditions; irritability; verbal and indirect aggression; authority, and, secondly, high indexes in stability to stress. It is investigated, that values of self-actualization, meaningfully related to hardiness, creativeness, requirement in cognition, altruism, sociability, autonomy, impulsiveness, self-understanding, aspiring to self-actualization. The peculiarities of correlation between values of a self-actualized personality and its hardiness are analysed.
Key words: personality, values, hardiness, stress, situation, control, self-actualization, self-realization.
In the article there have been described the gender features of the teenagers’ becoming in the socialization process. The purpose of this work is to highlight teenagers’ gender peculiarities in the socialization process. The concept of a gender socialization and gender at all is reported in this work. The process of gender qualities’ formation in a human being is also described here. In this article the problems of the younger generation are reported as well. The influence of the institutions on the development of teenagers in the process of socialization is shown in the work. With the help of such techniques as an observation, surveys, interviews the psychological characteristics of the teenagers’ gender development were identified. Also, important components of a personality growth during the whole life are shown in this article. The influence of socially significant and socially definite creative activity on teenagers is reported in the work. The role of gender labeling of things is also described in this article. The understanding of the gender belonging by teenagers is the way to develop a harmonious, well-developed personality. Gender qualities of a human being are formed during the process of socialization, which is influenced by the social and cultural environment that sets up the individual requirements as representative of male or female. Staunch personality traits in the process of gender socialization are manifested in socially organized activities and are regulated with socially normative system of society. Thus, socialization is a many-sided, long-term process, through which the teenager should understand his gender identity, learn and understand his roles and reproduce them in his behavior. This is the way not only to the harmony gender rights development, but also to the harmony life of the whole and to the harmony relations with the representatives of opposite sex and the social world in general.
Key words: gender socialization, gender, institutions of socialization, gender typification, regulatory pressure, masculinity, femininity.
The external and internal sources of moral and psychological development of an adult man are analysed in the article. The intercommunication of morality and civil development of a personality that opens up in the sphere of socio-political options is investigated. The importance of socio-political influences in a society is exposed in relation to forming of moral and civil consciousness of the Ukrainians. Every social and political order is studied to form its type of moral and system of values that determine the relation of a concrete personality, as a representative of the generation, to the modern events in a country and the place of own civil position. The mechanism of moral norms influence on human activity is determined not to be closed only by external regulators: from one side, it is provided by a compulsion or recommendation of active personality from the side of public opinion, from another side – by self-motivation, as by an internal source of a duty, based on the realization of duty of personality before himself and society. We draw to the conclusion, that moral contains the individualized beginning that correlates with a selected method of life of a personality and with his special social features. The psychological mechanism of mastering moral norms is the emotional experiencing by a personality, as a result this norm acquires a personality sense for a man, becomes an absolute value and transformed in the socially important actions carried out by him. Actions, in turn, form personality values (moral features) that come forward as regulators of behavior. Moral consciousness and self-consciousness of an adult man are the result of his own self-development, aspirations for personality and civil self-realization.
Key words: moral, morality, moral sources, moral development, moral consciousness, moral values.
Arkadiusz Marzec, Ryszard Stefaniak
The concept of addiction was first introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1968, which defined it as a mental and physical condition that resulted from interactions between a human and a chemical substance (alcohol, nicotine, medicines, drugs) that are followed by changes in behaviour and other responses, including the compulsive using a particular substance (continuously or periodically) in order to experience its effect on the mental state or to avoid unpleasant symptoms that accompany the abstinence from the substance. The definition above did not take into consideration the risk of becoming dependent on particular behaviours. WHO regarded solely the psychoactive substances as contributing factors in development of addiction. A different definition was proposed by Philip Zimbardo. This researcher considered addiction as a physical and mental compulsion to repeat a particular behaviour that an individual cannot control. This means a strong desire for continuous use of a particular substance or repeating particular behaviours that allow the person to reduce negative states and provide them with feeling of pleasure. In the course of time, these behaviours or frequency of using a particular substance are intensifying while abstention from them is becoming more and more difficult. The most essential fact in this definition is that Zimbardo also considers the possibility of getting addicted to various types of activities rather than merely to chemical substances. The problem of addiction to computer and Internet use started to be discussed in the early nineties of the 20th century. Problematic Internet use leads to numerous consequences of physical nature. Much more worrying, however, are the risks of mental and social character, which can turn out to be even more harmful. They have the most destructive effect on children and young people. Apart from family, an environment that plays an important role in prevention of Internet abuse is school. It is important that, during computer science lessons, students are taught how to properly use modern technologies. Teachers should outline the rules of netiquette that should be used in the Internet. They should also make young people realize that the Internet contains both true and false information and it should not be accepted uncritically.
Key words: addiction, prevention, Internet, educating to use multimedia.
Danuta Marzec, Magdalena Pluskota
Sociopedagogical phenomenon of Henryk Jordan. Henryk Jordan was a Polish physician, social activist and a founder of sports theme parks for children. He was a great advocate for children’s rights to physical exercise and recreation. As a practitioner interested in new tendencies in the field of education and the changes that were occurring during the second half of the 19th century in pedagogy, Jordan saw health benefits of athletic activity and playing outdoors as very important to modern societies exposed to various negative effects of the developing technology. With regard to Polish tradition of physical education, he used the most recent achievements of science from the Western Europe and North America. Furthermore, Jordan used his own analysis of social needs in this field and developed his original, universal, extracurricular educational system in the city of Krakow. Thanks to the projects and activities implemented right to move and recreation among many generations of children and youth of Krakow and Galicia and other Polish lands in late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Particularly noteworthy increase Jordanowska concept of physical fitness of Polish society by spreading hygiene care and modern system of physical education of children and youth in the open air, in the open, in the sun and water in motion during sports games and exercises. A new concept of Jordan combined physical education with health concerns, because physical activity was regarded as one of the most important factors in the education of health contemporary youth. Work which the Jordan and the ideas that he implemented in the lives of young people are still relevant, retain their value until today. Examples include pleasure gardens throughout Poland. Fate Gardens playgrounds, as the fate of famous people ran wildly, were the years of fame, but the years fall. But the most important seems to be the fact that the idea of Jordan «opened» children rise to fully belonging to them rest, relaxation and fun. Contemporary pleasure gardens are other children in a different way, different from the original, but in spite of all the kind of tradition continue the main thoughts and ideas of its creator.
Key words: physical exercise, recreation, sport, health benefits, physical education.
This paper presents the results of a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggression as a means of personal self-regulation in teenagers. The results of an empirical study of main aggression manifestations in personal self-regulation of teenagers with intellectual disabilities are presented. Types of aggression and their intensity in teenagers with intellectual disabilities are described. It is found that guilt, resentment, suspicion, physical aggression are most typical for teenagers with intellectual disabilities. The feeling of guilt is based on teenagers’ unconscious belief in their little value; this belief determines destructive internal conflict which is based on a small self-value of a teenager and recognition of their own insignificance. It is found that the offence is a form of aggression and hostility of teenagers which is based on unrealistic envy and hatred of others for their actions. Offense is a motivational aggression, increasing level of which indicates a certain level of destructive tendencies of a teenager’s personality. It is determined that the highest level of destructive offence occurs in a personality with psychotic type of personal self-regulation. In this case it has an aggressive character and focuses on the goal achievement by any means. Suspiciousness in these teenagers often serves the basis for the emergence of paranoid traits of their personality. It is found that suspiciousness of the teenagers serves a determinant of anxiety, phobic and panic disorders and is the basis of unconscious aggression. It is determined that suspiciousness inherent to mostly psychotic structural organization of teenager’s personality and to borderline when the neurotic organization has a range of related disorders. It is found that individuals with boundary and psychotic profiles of personal self-regulation tend to instrumental type of aggression. And ones with neurotic profiles tend to motivational type.
Key words: personal self-regulation, adolescence, irreversible mental condition of mental retardation, aggression, aggressiveness, aggressive behavior, feeling of guilt, resentment, suspicion.
The author examines how misconceptions on the psychologist’s (psychotherapeutist) profession and the specificity of his activity can generate outlook and provide the impetus for the decision to apply or not apply to this type of service professionals, thus playing a critical role in mental well-being of a man. In the result of the research the question of the necessity or lack of such a diagnosed mental condition of the patient is found to be widely discussed now. It is concluded that the real reason is more aggressive antipsychiatric ideology that strongly influences the existential and humanistic approaches. The latter are known to deny the need for any diagnosis and are guided by the ideas of personality’s integrity and an inability to consider it exclusively through the prism of diagnosis. On the other hand, no one claims the exceptional importance of the diagnosis. The reason is, first of all, that the diagnosis has the specific historical conventions and limitations. Another thing is that the isolating of those aspects that directly or indirectly interfere with the healthy functioning of the personality, is extremely important, even a vital side of the medical psychologist’s work, so far as they provide the purposefulness of psychotherapeutic care on the one hand, and on the other – they help to eliminate the possibility of organic disorders and mental illnesses, etc.
Key words: patient’s personality, psychologist’s personality, psychotherapeutist, medical psychologist, mental illnesses, diagnosis, diagnostics, mental state.
The article deals with conscious and unconscious attitudes toward the healthy way of life. Valeological attitudes, as well as their components: cognitive, emotional-evaluative and behavioural, have been viewed and defined. Modern scientific researches on the problem of psychological peculiarities of the evaluative attitude development toward health and healthy way of life have been analysed. The analyses of the scientific researches of the prominent scholars like O.V. Vodnieva, T.V. Sushenko, V.S. Kuchmenko, V.N. Belenov, Z.A. Chainikov, L.N. Ovchinnikova made it possible to point out the following peculiarities, we are interested in: at first, all the authors formulate the problem of evaluative orientation to health and healthy way of life as the problem of its very formation; secondly, some of the authors (S.A. Chainikov, and L.N. Ovchinnikova) formulate the problem of the formation of evaluative attitude to healthy way of life, but not evaluative attitude to health; next, in all cases of the formation of evaluative attitude to health and healthy way of life, authors rely on the structural components of attitude to health; in the fourth place, the above mentioned authors express the ambiguity to the health, which can be a terminal value; in the fifth place, all the above mentioned authors analyse the problem of the formation of evaluative attitude to health from the viewpoint of Pedagogics, and the last, works of the mentioned authors are devoted to the formation of evaluative orientation in different social groups: of preschool children, school pupils, pedagogues of higher educational establishment, officials of educational establishment and future teachers. On the basis of the data generalization the conclusions, concerning psychological nature, mechanisms and functions of evaluative attitude to health are made.
Key words: attitude, valeological attitude, values, health, healthy way of life, formation, development.
UDC 159.922: 316.362.4:364-782.44
The article envisages parents’ attitude to the legal standard of secrecy parentage of a child in a situation of adoption. We prove that the way to the open adoption requires special measures of a family «reconciliation» with the unrelated child. The study provides the following conclusions that recorded legal standard of preserving the secrecy of the adopted child restrains his rights and needs revision. The data in the process of psychological research enables us to demonstrate that adoption of the child is perceived by the participants as an act of family formation, which quickly gains features of full value with all forms of interaction, particularly in situations of childlessness the interaction between parents and children is acquired. It formed the feeling of deficiency, inferiority in a family. The respondents evaluate these relationships as joyful, inspiring, those that allow them to experience the fullness of life. However, the analysis of the adults’ attitude to the secrecy of adoption certifies the chance of psychological attitudes of adults and their unwillingness to change on this measure. It is proved that in the process of a child’s adoption adults want to restore the natural process of birth, making numerous conventions, broadcasting, both in terms of the environment and for the child. In turn, some of the children also express his opposition to the state, as adopted, preferring «never to know the truth». However, most children agree that openness of the fact of adoption could reduce the risks of inappropriate behavior and increase their chances of raising awareness in the construction of their own lives. Our study does not claim to be exhaustive and may be regarded as one of the pioneers in the field of family life and society. The author model of adults and children’s readiness for the open adoption is proposed.
Key words: family, attitude, parentage, adoption, secrecy of adoption, relatives, unrelated child.
The concepts of «motive power» and «desired image» are theoretically grounded. The opinions on this concept of leading scientists and brief overview of the literature on this subject are considered. The results of the experimental study of motive strength are analyzed. The study was conducted in Lviv Polytechnic National University among students, postgraduate students and lecturers, the total number is 414 respondents. The reliability and validity of psychometric indicators of selected methodology in the study are tested. The reliability is tested by the bisection method and Cronbach’s Alpha method, and validity is proved by expert assessments. The basic results of the study, which confirmed the opinion that the clearer and more vivid created in consciousness image of target and the stronger motivation of a person are described. The correlation analysis, which identified many correlations at high levels of statistical significance between the characteristics of the motive strength and the desired image, such as clearness and vividness is done. With the help of regression analysis the dependence of the motive strength on the clearness and vividness of the image is demonstrated. It is reflected the results of factor analysis in which three major factors are distinguished. The first factor – «Motive strength» explains 44.3% of the variance, the second factor – «Age group» explains 12.64% of the variance and the third factor – «Sex of the respondent» describes 11.43% of the variance. The cumulative percentage of all three components, which is 68.37% of the variance, is defined. The difference in motive strength of respondents according to different ages is explained.
Key words: motive, motivation, motive strength, characteristic of motive, purpose, desired image, image characteristics, vividness of image.
The results of the empirical study of psychological characteristics of such normative crisis of future psychologists’ professional formation as the crisis of professional preparedness are presented in the article. The process of the professional formation is indicated to be contradictory and multidirectional, and the crisis is that area where the person is looking for the way to the self-realization. The crisis triggers to the changes in the personality are underlined and forcing it to find the new possibilities of self-realization (actualization of possibilities and abilities) and stand like an impetus of personality potential’s growth. The interest to this regulatory crisis is caused by the fact that this crisis differs from others by the most striking symptoms and this is the evidence of its feeling force. This crisis is showed to be connected with some critical moments of professional education: with expectations of important life tests by the graduate students (the final exams, the job search, the searching for a place in life and profession, necessity to make their own responsible decisions). These expectations are defined to increase the anxiety and reduce the personal and professional student’s self-esteem. It was stated that: more than third of students-psychologists have the signs of destructive feeling of crisis of professional readiness: a high level of professional frustration; more than half part of graduate students estimate their level of professional readiness as low; the part of positive emotions is small in the general emotional support of professional education; the availability of negative feelings (first of all anxiety) is the evidence of the crisis moments existence. It was concluded that these feelings are the barrier which prevents to realize implement planned, and causes to the deformation of the professional motivation and to the complication of educational and professional self-realization.
Key words: crisis of professional education, crisis of approbation, crisis of professional readiness, feeling, professionally designed frustration, anxiety, emotional support of professional education, educational and professional self-realization.
UDC 364.7: 314.7(438)
The article deals with the range of problems connected with migration, its scale, features of demosocial migrants and the concept of migrants’ children. The author underlines the importance of society consciousness of the consequences that are carried with earning emigration. Global public, political, economic and cultural changes, that take place in the last decades, become a reason that the question of migration is one of the major phenomena of public life in Poland. The concept of foreign migrations is examined in political, psychological, economic, historical aspects. The problem of families functioning, whose members are on earnings, is multivariable and extraordinarily difficult. Mass character and prevalence of migration largely influence the image of modern Polish families. In the next part of the article the researcher widely describes negative consequences of migrations that are experienced by families. The «incompleteness» of family, caused by migration of a parent/parents, gives rise to negative consequences in the educational process. Undoubtedly, such migration changes the structure and realization methods of family basic functions. Violation of communication process is among these consequences. Abroad departures on a certain period or constantly determine the method of communication in family – mediately or directly. It is possible to ascertain, that except economic losses, life in emigration is related to high psychological tension. Absence of a parent is reflected on the educational process that results in child’s psychic changes of inevitable devastation, and negative consequences can be developed in adult life. Therefore parents must be thoughtful about influence of migrations on the development of a child.
Key words: migration, consequences of migration, family, child, emigration, earnings, educational process.
Military activity of our state in the context of local armed hostilities with involving the officers and subdivisions requires detailed research the problems of individual activities in different circumstances and activity of the border guard service of Ukraine is not exception. The article presents the results of the empirical research, which was carried out during the studying of the problem of situational and personal orientations of the chief in the sphere of protection the State border of Ukraine. The article describes a significant part of law enforcement officers, concretizes the indicators for each of situational and personal direction of the orientations, as necessary components of effective activities of the law enforcement officer. Situational and personal orientation of the primary staff officer in the sphere of protection the State border of Ukraine provides significant influence on the efficiency of management activity of personnel of the border authorities. The results of studies of male and female officers show that among pure types of situational and personal orientation, male have a slight advantage in 1, 2%. But among the mixed type of situational and personal orientation it is equal. Personal and situational orientation of leader aimed at psychological climate in the team, relationships with people was equally discovered among male and female officers. Officers who are characterized by situational and personal orientation of any one type are more predictable. It is possible to foresee their behavior actions and deeds, how they will react in a given situation, what decisions they can make. Officers of the mixed type of situational and personal orientation are more unpredictable and it is more difficult to predict their actions, deeds and behavior, because they may act differently in different situations, which depends on the strength of the stimulus and motive.
Key words: readiness, professionalism, activity, situational and personal orientation.
In this article the context of the ecological consciousness of a person according to his/her ecological culture was described. Substructures of the ecological consciousness of the man were determined. They are: the image of the ecological situation, the image of typical qualities of a person as a member of the ecological society (ecological stereotype), self-image of a person as a member of the ecological society (ecological self-image). Psychological functions of the ecological consciousness of the person were proposed and detailed. They are: intra-individual, extra-individual, metaindividual. The normative model of ecological consciousness of a senior pupil was described. The basic forms of ecological consciousness of senior pupils were characterizes. The author of the article considers the ecological consciousness of a senior pupil to contain such substructures: a cognitive one, a perceptual and emotive substructure, a conative one, and axiological substructure. And each substructure includes some components. For example, cognitive substructure includes: ecological knowledge; the understanding the ecological situation; the ways of forming the ecological position and so on. Perceptual and emotive substructure has such components: ecological perception; the attitude of the Man to the objects of Nature, reflexive characteristics of this attitude and so on. Conative substructure includes: selfregulation of a person in the environment; practical experience of the interaction with the surrounding and so on. Axiological substructure includes such components as ecological stereotypes; axiological attitude to the surrounding world; the understanding of Nature as a social value and so on. We propose some forms of ecological consciousness of a senior pupil: an agnostic form, ideative one, intentional form, transcendent form, ecological and deviant form of ecological consciousness.
Key words: ecological consciousness, ecological society, ecological stereotype, ecological self-image, functions of the ecological consciousness, substructures and components of the ecological consciousness of a senior pupil.
The article envisages the computer-mediated communication from a psychological point of view. We consider many methodological approaches used in the study of computer-mediated communication and social interactions. We described a group of theories of filtered signals, in particu lar the theory of social presence, the theory about the lack of social context signals and the theory of media enrichment. Through the theory of social presence we postulated the various communicative media differ in their ability to transmit nonverbal communication classes in addition to verbal content. The less number of sign systems a certain media system supports, the less feeling of emotional warmth and involvement, the participation the users of this system have in relation to each other. We considered the theory about the lack of social context signals based on the assumption that computer-mediated communications except signals of identity and normative behavior, their interaction «face to face» is conveyed nonverbally. The author confirmed in the theory of media-enrichment there is a correlation between the situation of ambiguity of the message and the riches of the environment in which it is passed. The concept of media enrichment is defined theoretically in four dimensions: the number of sign systems supported by media environment; urgency of feedback communication provided by media environment; the potential for the conversational style of speech; the level of personal message. The second nuclear concept of the model of media enrichment is the situation of a message ambiguity. The arguments and studies are analysed for the benefit of the above theories, and from the point of view of their critics. The history of contradictions between what was studied in theories of filtered signals and more prosocial effects of computer-mediated communication can be explained by partly methodological problems of the research of interaction in computer-mediated communications.
Key words: computer-mediated communication, social interactions, filtered signal theory, the theory of social presence, communication media, theory about signals lack of social context, signals of identity, normative behavior, the theory of media enrichment.
The author analyzes the theoretical and psychological approaches to the study of psychological features of the image of «Me-professional» notion as a component of personality «Me-concept» of future specialists of socionomic professions, however in current conditions of European development of Ukraine there are opened great opportunities for the development of higher education which is increasingly taking on the characteristics of humanistic orientation. The theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of the image of «Me-professional» as a component of personality «Me-concept» has made it possible to determine it as a set of the subject’s entity representations about his attitude to life, perspectives and values in the context of the chosen profession. It is proved that the image of «Me-professional» in the future specialists of socionomic professions is formed in the process of growing up and professional self-determination. It is concluded that the structure of the image of «Me-professional» of future specialists of socionomic professions includes the ideal image of «Me-professional», the real image of «Me-professional», and the mirror image of «Me-professional» and professional self-appraisal. The professional self-appraisal is established to be the central component of a personality professional self-consciousness that is connected with a valuable attitude to the personal «Me», to the professional qualities and the results of professional activities. The professional self-appraisal is proved to be influenced by the content of professional activities, the results achieved in this work, individual personality traits and properties being assessed. The main parameters of professional self-appraisal are the degree of professional adequacy, criticalness and measure of personality stability.
Key words: theoretical and methodological analysis, image of «Meprofessional», «Me-concept», personality, future specialists of socionomic professions, professional self-consciousness, professional self-appraisal, value attitude.
Social work is activity that is aimed at the relief action in the compensation of deficiency and satisfaction of principal needs, possibilities for the educational activity carried out by a social worker. Many social institutions, which activities are related to the social help and education, are engaged in the problem of public compensation or recovery of losses and deficiencies, that arise in the environment of human existence. In the modern world there are many defects in satisfaction of most important necessities, that results in weakening of abilities in functioning not only individual, social group, but also local communities. Therefore, it is important that these needs and shortages were correctly recognized and diagnosed in social-educational activity. The proper diagnosis is the element of the appropriate and effective ensuring the means and possibilities. A need is considered as the condition, in which an individual or group feels the desire of satisfaction of any deficiency. However we know that the shortage of possibilities to satisfy the requirements leads to frustration and depression. For this reason we need to render any possible help in the compensation of these defects through social activity. Especially it concerns educational, material and public activity, including provision of the proper living conditions for those who are deprived of them; satisfaction of those necessities, that can not be content by a person independently or by other institutes; minimization of the negative influence of those factors, that cannot be changed or removed; obtaining better standards of life; improving the abilities of groups and local communities to develop independently and solve their own problems; effective organization of different help assignment and its management, development of appropriate infrastructure, etc. A social worker through the influence and work with an individual must change his behavior and activate a client to independent work and activity in this sphere in the future.
Key words: social work, compensation of deficiency, defects, necessity, needs education, social and educational activity, diagnosis.
UDC 364.27 – 057.87
The article is devoted to the explanation of the problem of student’s social fears psychological correction. A correlation between «psychological correction» and «psychotherapy» concept was analyzed. Group and individual methods of work on reducing social fears level and elimination phobic manifestations of student age personalities were considered. «Social fears» concept was described as a complex phenomenon and «social phobia» as a pathopsychological phenomenon. There was highlighted that social fear may occur according to several theoretical models: within studying theory as a psychic reaction on psychological trauma, be under V. Frankl circle type model, psychoanalytic model (symptom formation), E. Berne model (parental prescriptions). In the process of experimental research it was found that social fears basic factor is low self-esteem, there also was found a positive relation between social fears and personal anxiety, aggression, subjective feeling of loneliness. To achieve the long-term effect of social fears elimination, and especially their phobic manifestations, there should be considered in psychological correction process work with such a phenomenon factors too. In the article the attention is focused on advisability of such psychological influence methods use in work with social fears as: sociopsychological training of emotional sphere and interpersonal relations correction, art therapy, tale therapy. In work on elimination of individual phobic manifestations an individual interaction form is important with use of emotional and imaginal therapy and symboldres.
Key words: social fear, sociophobia, students, psychological correction, factors, SPT, art therapy, tale therapy, EIT.
The features of optimism, its importance for successful personal and professional development are investigated in the article. It is defined that optimism opens a motivational orientation of the personality on success which in adverse circumstances is getting more active, is developing and is strengthening. By means of the theoretical analysis individual and psychological determinants of optimism are described: the general confidence, the features of orientations concerning the meaning of life and the personality’s motivation which were empirically checked. The empirical analysis testifies to rather low level of optimism of future experts of engineering activity who pessimistically estimate their abilities and skills, they have low degree of sophistication which are oriented on success, lack of confidence in their own forces and abilities to realize themselves by means of personal achievements. The carried-out regression analysis illustrated statistically reliable contribution into the dependent variable «optimism» of such predictors as, «general trust», «goals», «locus life». On its basis it has been constructed the mathematical forecasting model of optimistic outlook formation which has a successful effect on educational activity, vocational training of future experts in technical branches. The following conclusion was made: the students-optimists have higher level of motivation of obtaining gains, commitment, control over their own life, potential for realization of their goals in life as a whole, and educational activity, in particular. So, optimism influences over productivity and efficiency of educational activity.
Key words: optimism, a personality, a student, professionalism, personal and professional development, successful professionalizing, optimism predictors, efficiency of educational activity.
This article reviews the main approaches of native and foreign scientists to the study of «morality» and «moral development» and their correlation. It is stated, that morality is the internal feature of a person and moral development is the process due to which the externalization of social concepts of positive and negative things takes place with the help of the observing the adults actions, their imitation and assimilation after receiving the feedback. The age peculiarities of junior pupils and the new formations, which are the necessary condition for the effective development of children’s moral sphere, are analyzed. The children of this age are found to be able to adopt the moral requirements and rules which society has set to them, and accept these requirements. At the early school age there is the active development of moral senses and social qualities. The children begin to show compassion and kindness, empathy and care. The consolidation occurs due to the gathering of experience of responsible behavior. Attention is focused on the fact that, this age is sensitive to moral development and education of a child, which effectiveness depends on the correct relationships with the significant adults. It is shown that age changes that happen with primary school children, showed a significant increase of ability for more complicated forms of the interaction with the social environment on the basis of moral norms and obligations. As a result, the theoretical analysis shows that the main condition for the moral development of primary school children is the development of moral character and feelings of the personality, in particular the sensitiveness.
Key words: personality, moral development, moral character, compassion, primary school age.
The article is aimed at presenting the results of studies concerning the manifestations of leadership potential of today’s students. The basic psychological problems in the Leadership Institute of Ukraine were identified: the problem of leadership effectiveness – definition of conditions for successful leadership behavior; the difficulties in finding an effective leader and in pointing out his individual resources and characteristics that provide the successful accomplishment of leadership. The psychological content of leadership potential was defined. The concepts of leadership and social giftedness were determined. The qualities of a successful leader that are considered by the foreign and Ukrainian scientific literature were analyzed. The results of the empirical investigation of the presence and characteristics of leadership potential of today’s students proved that almost half of modern college students shows a high level of propensity to leadership as a socio-personal competence. Consequently, the most vivid markers of leadership potential of today’s youth are the desire to encourage others to creativity and creative approach to solving problems, the focus on strategic thinking, a willingness to appreciate the individuality of others and the desire to encourage others to maximize the effective implementation of activities and overcoming obstacles in order to achieve purpose. It was also stated that the individual resources of students’ leadership potential are their desire to attract others to perform tasks, while providing a clear goal; intention to organize a group work so that it may give the most effective results; ability to elicit the confidence of others.
Key words: liderology, leader, leadership, leadership potential, leadership talent, social genius, leadership potential markers.
The article provides an approach that analyzes competence of the personality through the category of individual experience. The author defines «competence of the person» as complex integrative formations of mature psyche that has three levels: cognitive, metacognitive and personal. In this paper we define functions that are performed by competence in the process of actualization of the individual experience of the personality: the integration of personality properties that have been acquired during the using the experience; the formation of an adequate model of the situation; regulation of activity of the subject in the process of solving problems; expanding the network of personal semantic relationships. At the cognitive level the personal competence is defined as a system of neoformings that is generated by the use of the existing system of cognitive resources in the process of solving problems. A model of the cognitive experience was proposed that includes three levels of analysis: the actual operation, the level of fixed structures and the level of potential structures (competence). In this paper, competence is regarded as a byproduct of the intellectual (mental) activity, which is formed on the basis of application the received information, the formed skills and functions in the subject process of solving problems. There were determined the main structures of competence at the cognitive level: the system of knowledge concerning specific content area (corresponding to the cognitive component of the experiment), the system of the skills to solve problems (operational aspect), the system of scoring criteria of results (emotional and motivational aspect) and cognitive strategies of solving the problem (behavioral aspect). The author suggested that the functioning of the structures of competence will facilitate the optimization problem solving process, the integration of different levels of subject’s resources and development of the dynamic system of individual experience.
Key words: competence, individual experience, representation, knowledge, skills, emotional feelings, solving strategies, resources.
UDC 37.07 : 005.95 + 159.98
O.H. Syropiatov, N.V. Honcharenko
In the article the mental health is noted to be one of the conditions of the formation of a specialist’s professional self-consciousness, identity, effective professional activity. It is the main, relatively non-specific dynamic foundation of all aspects of professional activity productivity and overall well-being of a man, determines the harmonious development of the personality and achievements of professionalism. It is noted that the program of the training on «Preservation of future doctors’ mental health by means of art therapy» is realized by implementing techniques of dance, music, voice and art of art therapy; the program is designed in such a way to maximize the impact on the most significant factors of the psychological health conservation: attitude to health as the most important value; possession of self-control skills; ability to deal with stressful situations. The article describes the psychological characteristics of the implementation of the training «Preservation of future doctors’ mental health by means of art therapy». The features of the training participants’ perception of individual interactive techniques that are used during the training are revealed. The assessment of the training effectiveness made by the participants is shown. The results of the study of future physicians’ mental health are analyzed. The influence of external and internal factors on the mental health of future doctors is studied. The most significant factors of mental health preservation are distinguished. The comparative data of ascertaining and control experiments are shown. It is concluded that the effective kind of psychological help aimed at preserving mental health, is psychological help is a group, in particular, psychological training: art therapy that means trainings undertaken by means of artistic creativity; means of improving mental health is just focused impact on the on the human condition; psychological training on the basis of art therapy techniques is an effective way to improve mental health.
Key words: training, psychological help, mental health, future doctors, the means of art therapy, means of artistic creativity.
We proved that subject’s preparation to the manifestation of psychomotor skills in extreme conditions is a complex, multi-level and long-term process that involves the development of psychomotor skills, improvement of coordination abilities and development of emotional and volitional sphere, educating the capacity for self-control and self-regulation. The theoretical and experimental studies of this problem were analyzed, which allowed to argue that the effectiveness of the entity in extreme conditions increases with the level of his personal, functional, technical and tactical training. It is noted that the structural components of training program for the subject to the manifestation of psychomotor skills in extreme conditions has not still been found. We propose the program of the personality traits formation which are necessary for the development of the subject’s psychomotor activity in extreme conditions. The model of the profession that requires manifestation of psychomotor skills of the subject in extreme conditions was chosen to be the activity of the police officers. We proved that the usage of an innovative program by police officers before the manifestation of psychomotor skills in extreme conditions during 14 weeks allowed them statistically to reduce situational (before duty) and personal anxiety, to increase self-esteem, strong-willed manifestations and activity. The formed personality traits, skills that are mastered, have developed in the subjects of dangerous activity the professional diligence and ability to perform professional duties in extreme conditions.
Key words: personality traits, psychomotor, psychomotor quality, police, extreme conditions, psychological preparation.
Psychological conditions of polytechnic university students’ preparation for future professional administrative activities are reached by providing such a course which ensures step by step acquisition of theoretical knowledge, practical skills and skills required to form high level of personal self-efficiency in students as well as educational self-efficiency, educational professional self-efficiency, and, finally, self-efficiency in professional administrative activity. At the basis of this educational course lies the author’s conception which is psychological preparation representing step by step students’ acquiring of competences which are necessary for future professional administrative activity. The definition «competence» is considered as a sign of readiness to implement skills and abilities to certain activity. The self-efficiency level is the qualitative characteristics of competence development level. The cognitive behavioral approach has been inserted as a basis of understanding the competence structure, according to this approach the competence is an interplay of the following components: knowledge (cognitions, opinions and incentives), emotional assessment of the situation (emotional attitude, incentive) and behavior (action, abilities and skills). The reasonability of using the cognitive behavioral method has been grounded while working with students in the process of their psychological preparation for professional administrative activity. The content of lectures and practical lessons has been disclosed. The lectures are directed at students’ acquirement of theoretical knowledge due to cognitive behavioral approach which displays the personal behavior, which will assist in improving the knowledge about him/herself, his/her abilities in educational, educational and professional, professional and administrative activities.
Key words: cognitive and behavioral approach, competence, polytechnic university, professional and administrative activity, educational course, lecture, practical lesson, psychological knowledge, psychological conditions, self-efficiency.
The article considers relevance of difficulties encountered during work with children with developmental disorders, including impaired vision, diagnosed with myopia. Works of domestic and foreign psychologists were analyzed and it was found that the range of practical approaches for working with adolescents with impaired vision is quite limited. An expert assessment of personal attributes of teenagers with visual impairment was conducted for which corrective measures should be adopted. Those among others are subjectivity, selfattitude, locus of control, self-actualization, and self-adjustment. Three main structural components of personality functioning were outlined: subjectivity, interpersonal interaction, and bodily-kinesthetic approach. Each said component embodies a range of parameters that may be effected by psychocorrective measures. Differences in personal development of adolescents with different degree of vision were studied. It was found that teenagers with myopia rank low on scales such as: activity, general physical and mental state, self-respect, self-interest, selfacceptance, self-adjustment, internality, and present with limited freedom of movement. Findings of repeated study in adolescents with visual impairment after dance movement therapy were analyzed. A conclusion was reached that dance movement therapy favors sufficient improvement of personal development indicators targeted during the study. Results of the study confirmed the positive effects of dance and movement in the personal development of teenagers with myopia. The study concluded that dance movement therapy can be recommended in schools: schools and boarding schools for children with visual impairments, children with retarded development and regular public schools.
Key words: Dance Movement Therapy, personal development, teenagers with visual impairment, myopia, research, subjectivity, interpersonal interaction, bodily-kinesthetic approach.
The necessity to study the problem of population victimization, in particular of the student youth, in the contemporary stage of our social life is grounded in the article. Teaching and training adaptive coping-strategies is offered as a means of the student youth victim behaviour prophylaxis. The results of theoretical analyzing the problem of coping behaviour are presented. Different approaches to study the conditions and factors of victim behaviour development in the age of youth are considered. The degree of scientific sufficiency of studying the youth victimization problem in Home and Foreign psychological, criminological, sociological, and other inter-disciplinary studies is analyzed. Recommendations as for the directions and means of victim behaviour prophylaxis and preventing the victimization of the age and social group of people under study are introduced. The emphasis in the sphere of prophylaxis activity is put on forming adaptive coping-strategies in students’ behaviour; the use of the strategies will allow sufficient decreasing the risk of victimization among the representatives of the corresponding category of population. The results of the conducted empirical research served the ground to conclude the following. Teaching and training adapting variants of coping behaviour allows the following: sufficient decreasing the risk of victimization at the expense of leveling the state of psychological discomfort and social frustration which are stipulated by different stressing factors; activating the need of the youth in self-actualization; increasing their ability to social adaptation. This, in its turn, will positively influence the process of the further youth socialization and optimize forming a mature, socially adoptive, and competitive personality whose properties are the qualities as the following: responsibility, activity, initiative, independency, the ability to empathy, etc. The perspectives of further scientific research in studying the problem of preventing student youth behavioral victimization and working out the variants of adaptive coping-strategies are outlined.
Key words: victim behaviour, victimization, de-victimization, student youth, the factors of youth victimization, the prophylaxis of victim behaviour, coping, coping-strategies, coping behaviour.
In the article the topical problem of the solution of the difficult and the stressful situations by the personality is observed. The main theoretical, methodological, and empirical approaches to the concept of optimism of a personality are analyzed. A range of personality traits which are related to optimism was defined. In particularly, they include pessimism, self-efficacy, locus of control, viability, hope, and despair. The modern homeland and foreign academic approaches to the research of optimism and coping strategies were analyzed. It was found that in spite of the topicality and the importance of the research of the problem of coping behaviour, this branch of study is relatively new. The concept of coping is present in three branches of psychology: psychology of personality, social psychology, and psychology of well-being. The empirical study on the determination of the correlations between dispositional optimism and the coping strategies of students’ behaviour was conducted. The correlations and the interdependence of optimism and various coping strategies were defined. Therefore, unlike pessimists, optimists tend to apply to such productive coping strategies as the search for the social support, confrontation, and self-control. The students who are pessimistic use to choose the unproductive strategies of avoidance behavior. The conclusion on the role of optimism and the personal traits which are related to it in the process of overcoming the stressful situation was made. It was defined that optimism promotes the constructive solution of the real life problems whereas pessimism is a predictor of the unproductive coping style.
Key words: optimism, pessimism, coping strategies, viability, selfefficacy, hope, despair, stress-resistance.
UDC 331.108.43 : 06.08 (477)
In the article the approaches to the study of the combination of work and personal (family) life of personnel of the organizations are analyzed. In the paper there are also described the «work – life balance programs» in foreign organizations (such as family – supportive policy, family – supportive organizational culture, family – supportive supervision), which were used in HR and allowed employees to combine work and personal (family, social) life harmoniously. The main activities of the program (on schedule, working hours, distance work, opportunities for personnel with children, especially women) and the positive effects of their implementation (absence of work – family conflicts, increasing satisfaction with work, increased labor ethics, building motivation, prevent absenteeism and turnover) were analyzed. The theoretical construct of the questionnaire and its contents were presented. Using factor analysis we singled out the main components of the «work – life» balance: 1) load balance (allocation of time and effort); 2) social contacts (satisfaction with communication, interaction and attitude); 3) the content and complexity of the job (level of difficulty, number of tasks, business trips); 4) planning of work (participation of the personnel in planning their work). In the article there are also analyzed the differences in the components of the «work – life» balance of personnel of public and private enterprises of various spheres of activity and also analyzes gender differences of the balance. A statistically significant relationship was determined between the type of ownership of organization and complexity of personnel’s work; between the sphere of activity of the company and load balance and planning by personnel their work hours. Dependencies between gender and definite factors (components of the balance) haven’t been identified. However, statistically significant relationship was determined between load balance of personnel and their marital status.
Key words: personnel of organizations, work – life (family) conflict, work – life balance program, work – life balance, load balance, social contacts, job complexity, work scheduling, gender differences.
In the article the features of introduction of European educational system in Ukraine is studied. The elements of the system, which are used in practice of higher school are revealed. The information is given about positive and negative moments during integration to the Bologna system. The special place is taken by independent scientifical and research and searching activity of students with the use of the newest information technologies, as an index of accordance to the European standards of acquisition of higher education. The ways of practical psychologists’ training in different countries are outlined. The sense of future practical psychologists’ professional training is exposed in the system of higher education. The character features of a psychological service of education, and also the place, role and value of a practical psychologist in functioning of psychological service are presented in the article. On the stage of preparation of skilled composition of psychological service of education it is appropriate to apply western practice of specialists’ training by means of supervision. The organizational aspects of supervision are examined on the example of psychotherapists’ training. The supervision introducing into the system of practical psychologists’ trainig will provide the mastering of practical abilities and skills at considerably higher quality level. The differentiation of concepts of «supervision», «supervisor», «supervise» is proposed, the classification of forms of supervision and description of professional and amateurish supervisor is presented. There are revealed the requirements to the personality of a supervisor, which will become the mortgage of effective acquisition of experience by a beginning psychologist. Problems which stand on the way of introduction of supervision as a component of future practical psychologists’ training are outlined.
Key words: European educational system, independent work of students, professional training of practical psychologists, future practical psychologist, psychological service of education, supervision, organizational moments of introduction of supervision, supervision of future practical psychologist.
The analyzed results of the investigation of psycho-emotional sphere of women in terms of adaptation to motherhood in 3 months after childbirth, reveal manifestations of anxiety and depression in women with physiological pregnancy after birth partner. It is investigated that all women are experienced to have positive situational dominance emotions of joy and interest. It is studied that much severity of negative emotional states manifested among women with complications of pregnancy and physiological postpartum without a partner. It is analyzed that these mothers’ superior situational negative states are disgust, sorrow and contempt. It is proved that all women have positive health. It is concluded that women with complications of pregnancy after partner’s childbearing are in high emotional state. It is investigated that mothers who took part in the events of medical and psychological family support during pregnancy, the optimal emotional state with a predominance of positive situational emotions of joy and interest, and the level of anxiety and depression within the normal range. It is analyzed that women with complications of pregnancy, unvisited individual consultations in the early postpartum period, have a diagnosis of the emotional fear associated with child care. It is proved that women who did not undergo individual counseling, regardless of the severity of pregnancy are characterized to have anxiety and depression expressions, unlike women participating in psycho-prophylactic work. It is concluded that an important factor influencing the elevated emotional state and health of women, is to participate in the activities of medical and psychological support for the family during pregnancy. That is, medical and psychological support to the family from the first trimester of pregnancy until accouchement. It is proved that quite effective, but less influential is psycho-prophylactic work with mothers in the early period after childbirth.
Key words: postpartum period, complications of pregnancy, emotional state, mood, anxiety and depression.
The article describes the problem of the integration of the cultural variable into the practice of psychological counseling at the present stage of psychological theory and practice development. The task significance can be explained within the framework of the problem of increasing the psychological counseling effectiveness. It is noted that practical implementation of the cultural conformity principle in contemporary counseling psychology involves the use of the special culturally specific methods, which grow from a certain sociocultural tradition and concentrate on cultural factors of its rendering. In this regard, within the framework of fundamental principles of culturally oriented psychological counseling development review, the analysis of religious and philosophi cal bases of such development is presented. The main features of moral and ethical beliefs of major religious systems, are considered from the two points: with an emphasis on the subject of psychological problematic dictated by the religious system itself, on the one hand, and the coping capacity containing in each religious system, on the other. The religious and philosophical foundations of the best-known psychological schools and methods within their framework are disclosed. It should be noted, that religious and philosophical conditionality of psychological counseling methods represent the considerable limitation for their universal use and also promote the idea of culturally-oriented psychological counseling. It is concluded that religious and philosophical heritage of certain ethnic group provides a fundamental influence on the individual mental characteristics, which entails the task of finding the culturally-oriented counseling methods, socio-cultural framework of which will correspond to the socio-cultural norms and values of the community they are applied in.
Key words: psychological counseling, psychotherapy, socio-cultural tradition, religious system, ethnicity, spirituality, culturally-oriented psychological counseling, psychoanalysis, analytical psychology, transpersonal approach.
The features of the social and psychological adaptation of the adult persons were investigated, that allowed to determine the specific character of its value-sense regulation, which is concluded in the fact that subjects with high levels of adaptation prefer the choice of the value of «Knowledge of the world» and weakly focused on the value of «Taking care of me», «Freedom»; they also have developed convictions about the benevolence of the surrounding world, the positive image of their own I and the ability to control the events of their lives. Also for such persons the high levels of: internality, emotional control, attention to their emotions and complexity of thinking are characteristic. For maladaptive individuals the opposite regularity is observed. Using of factor analysis allowed to determine that the construct of social and psychological adaptation may be represented by three components – «Cognitive activity», «Positive self-image», «Positive perception of the world», which represent respectively: cognitive resource of adaptation as well as its internal and external vectors. It is defined that the individuals with high levels of adaptation are characterized by a high density of the developed correlations between the basic psychological parameters, which form the components of the social and psychological adaptation, as well as high levels of coherence indices and indices of appropriate structures organization. For the non-adaptive individuals the following are characteristic: the weak links between the studied base indicators, as well as low levels of indices of coherence indices and indices of appropriate structures organization, which indicates that they have no formed system of the effective social and psychological adaptation. It is concluded that the value regulation of human’s adaptive processes reflects the phenomenon of subjectivity, that is, the basic orientation of the individual, which is concluded in its self-determination, or to be an active subject of the own being, which builds itself and its future, or to be a subject of the third-party care and influences.
Key words: social and psychological adaptation, value orientations, basic beliefs, meanings, factor structure.
K.I. Fomenko, O.I. Kuznetsov
This article is devoted to the study of actual psychological problem – communication between motivational and personal characteristics and indices of academic self-regulation of students’ personality. The article focuses on the analysis of self-diagnosis levels of students’ self-regulation, including a leading introjectional level. The external regulation of the educational activities was determined to be associated with the motivation of failure prevention, and internal motive is associated with the motivation of success. Educational motivation of students is associated with their desire for self-assertion: hubristic motivation and aspiration for superiority is positively associated with external and introjected regulation, aspiration for the perfection is associated with internal motivation. There is a negative relation between the aspiration for superiority and identified regulation. There is a connection between academic self-regulation and perfectionism: negatively self-oriented perfectionism is associated with the identified regulation and internal motivation; other-oriented perfectionism is positively associated with introjected perfectionism and negatively associated with identified regulation. It is shown that internal motivation as an interest in learning contradicts perfectionism of the personality. There is a connection determined between the principal type of responsibility and introjected and identified levels of self-regulation; although connection between normative type of regulatory responsibility and introjected and external regulation of educational activities. It is shown that the internal orientation of self-regulation of educational motivation tends to principle as a type of responsibility, and external – to normativity. The presented study reveals a role of responsibility, perfectionism, achievement motivation and hubristic motivation in self-regulation of students’ educational activities.
Key words: academic self-regulation of students, hubristic motivation, perfectionism, responsibility, educational activities of students.
Ethnic «Another» when appearing as a symbolic figure allows creating a project of personal behavior for the purpose of effective interaction in certain ethnic environment. Scrutinizing the character of Ethnic «Another», as a product of psychic reality, the author examines how the figure of the individual alters under the influence of significant Ethnic «Another». It is elucidated that an individual, being a product of symbol, in every act of an interaction with «Another», giving him/her certain traits and qualities, which, in his/her opinion, has to be the characteristic of the individual. This is reflected in the fact that individual behavior is initially formed in the «Another», in order to go back to «I»: to affect the behavior of the «Another» in an action, in a speech and in general. It is proved that an individual acquires the status of an individual from the perspective of a meaningful «Another». It is determined that character of Ethnic «Another» reflecting the subjective reality is formed in the personality based on observations, experience of personal intercommunication, conjectures, warnings, and stereotypes. Under such circumstances the Ethnic «Another» becomes a symbol, projection, that allows the individual to build an appropriate construct of his/her own behavior. It is revealed that the behavior of Ethnic «Another» is largely dependent on the cultural model (of a group or personal orientation), which belongs to the respective ethnic communities. In the article it is depicted which values are possessed by the representatives of individual and/or collective ethnic communities. The importance of building a communicative interaction with Ethnic «Another» based on the requirements of ethnic culture is noted. It is revealed that the Ethnic «Another» under certain conditions, becomes an «Alien», from which an individual will dissociate while protecting their own culture. The article reveals that the acquaintance with «Alien», on the one hand seems to be dangerous, but on the other – exciting, promising new knowledge and expands personal horizons.
Key words: Ethnic «Another», symbol, individual, character, individual behavior, symbolic regulation of behavior, symbolic interaction, friend or foe.
The article analyzes the content of the cognitive, affective and conative structural components of economic consciousness of students trained at a higher educational establishment in the field of Physical Education, Sport and Physical Rehabilitation. The total analysis of the structural components content of the students’ economic consciousness showed its inconsistency. This inconsistency has appeared because one of the variables reflects a human’s behavior in terms of the market economy, and the other one the archetypes of the old society. The relationship of the components of the whole economic structure of consciousness forming a patterned component defines an internal source of economic consciousness and its general characteristics. The analysis determined the content of these structural components as a result of the procedure of factorization and clustering. We can single out three types of economic awareness: passive watching, pragmatic – realistic and ambitious romantic. The features of these types of economic consciousness were analyzed in the article. As a result, empirical studies found an association of students’ economic consciousness to their specialization in terms of training. It is proved that passive watching type of economic consciousness prevails in the future professionals of Physical Education, pragmatic and realistic type belongs to the experts of sports, ambitious and romantic one is intrinsic to specialists in physical rehabilitation. The article emphasizes the need to develop special programs focused on the development of the economic impact on the minds of students on the basis of features that were identified in the empirical study.
Key words: university students, economic consciousness, the structural components of economic consciousness, cognitive component, affective component, conative component, a personality’s type of economic consciousness, passive watching type, pragmatic and realistic type, ambitious and romantic type, specialization.
In the article different development’s kinds (lines, types) of the personality and subject, and also the theoretical and methodological principles of their variation in psychology are analysed. Within the concept of the «personality’s development» the following types of development are analysed: the personal development, the social development, the personological development, the course of life, value-motivational, social and psychological development and so on. Within the concept of «subject’s development» there have been analysed the concepts of the subject’s genesis, the self-development, the independence development, the self-actualization, the acmeological and axiological development. There are analysed the concepts that represent the types of the personality’s and subject’s development (the concepts by O.B Wesna, I.S. Kon, N.I. Reinwald, A.V. Petrovskyi, V.A. Petrovskyi, V.I. Slobodchikov, V.O. Tatenko, D.I. Feldstein and others). The comparative analysis of the development of the personality and the subject is carried out (determinants, sources and levels of activity, components, criteria, indicators). It is shown that these concepts have semantic spaces that cross, but their content presents different sides and aspects of human development. It was determined that the problem of personal development and subject genesis as types of mental development is a manifestation of two approaches to understanding the process of the development – the development as assignment of social experience, social norms and values and the development of the subject as an individual disclosure of personal Me according to the internal laws of development. The integration of the various types of the personal and the subject development is done within the more general concept of psychosocial development. The psychosocial development is examined as an organic integrity, unity of the social genesis, personal genesis and subject genesis. The prospects of the research are outlined (search of criteria and empirical correlates of psychosocial development).
Key words: psychosocial development, personal development, development of the subject, types of development, personal, social, personological development, course of life, subject genesis, self-actualization, self-development.
This article envisages the formation model of eating disorders within the concept of corporeality (in particular, the ratio of psychosomatic, somatopsychic and internal psychic phenomena and processes) that requires attraction of a broader context, i.e. the analysis of modern social situation of the development (of social processes) based on the phenomenological (linguistic and cultural) approach. It is shown that present situation of social development is characterized by «pressure» of hypochondriacal discourse which essence is directed on self-concern of own body and interest to the subjective corporeal experience in the situation of absence of disease. It is proved that in this case, for people with real or imaginary «overweight» against a background of self-dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction of life as a whole, the idea of «concern about healthy and beautiful body» completely determines the subjective sense and character of individual actions on self-care. Thus, the importance, dominance and prevailing of hypochondriacal discourse determines a certain style of behavior which is directed at health support, health renovation and solution of real or imaginary body problems. The hypochondriacal ideology allows to distinguish components for reprisals – the object (body) and the reason (real or imaginary overweight). The characteristic described of hypochondriacal discourse as a system of representations, which includes the following components: the conviction in environmental hazard; the conviction in danger of some internal motives; the conviction in the impossibility of achieving health and beautiful body without specific efforts; the conviction that «self-concern about body», the result of which is «an ideal health state» and «an ideal beauty» defines successes in all other spheres of life. The result of the analysis supports the assumption that «eating disorders» represent distorted behavior strategies, including eating behavior, which are formed under the influence of modern hypochondriacal discourse.
Key words: phenomenological (linguistic and cultural) approach, hypochondriacal discourse, eating disorders.
In the article it is stated that the general quality of material – the movement and image are implemented in collaboration, and their development was resulted into the conditions for the mental reflection. We emphasized that universality of movements of the animate body should be the basis for a psychological study of the nature of mind and the mental activity is the highest manifestation, which in its development as a form of self-reflection replaces the biological form. Motility is connection between the material and ideal, objective world and the subjective mind, neuro-physiological and mental. The analysis of the mutual evolution of motor activity and mental capacity in phylo-, ontoand pathogenesis of the subject are both theoretical and methodological basis for understanding human psychomotor activity. We proposed theoretical and experimental approaches to the problem of interference of motility and psyche at a structural level building movements. That was proved the inseparable unity of motor, cognitive and emotional manifestations of the psyche of the child. We proved that the psyche is generated in actions or by actions, in the actions merge sensory impressions that are internal, and initiate activity, and sensory impressions that are generated by external influences. The main indicator of the ability to control our own actions is the ability to distinguish, differentiate minimal changes in kinematic and dynamic characteristics of movements based on searching activity. Under the conditions of non-normative development there have been shown that the intentional and procedural activity of the subject has been reduced. However, non-normative development only complicates human psychomotor acti vity in the structure of movements’ building levels, and does not refute the principle of self-development and self-creation.
Key words: activity, psychomotor, levels of movements’ building, reflection, psyche, the subject.
The article presents the results of pilot social and psychological research of the value orientations of students. The research was conducted in May and June, 2014 among the students of 1-4 courses of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University. The aims of the article are presentation and analysis of results research. A research object is the value orientations of student young people in the process of socialization. The subject of research is an empirical component of social and psychological study of social and cultural value orientations of students in modern multistructure society. The research is based on theoretical pre-condition according to which the value orientations of students in the process of socialization are formed within the framework of three typology sociocultural modes – traditional, modernistic and post-modern. Results in general confirmed this hypothesis – in various spheres of socialization dominated by different types of sociocultural interpretation of valuables. Traditional type dominates in the field of ideas about society, legal relations, motivation of enjoying, sense of creation. Modern type dominates in the field of formation of ideas about a justice and harmony in society, life planning and sense of public recognition of the personality. Postmodern type dominates in the field of ideas about institute of democracy, family relations, material prosperity, spiritual balance, career growth, necessity of mastering of modern technologies and public recognition. The results indicate the presence of socioculturalcaused contradictions in process of socialization that can prevent the process of development of integrated personality. On the strength of obtained data being developed the subsequent empirical and theoretical investigation of the problem.
Key words: integrity of the personality, socialization, cultural pattern, mechanisms of socialization, norms, valuables.