Each period is noted to be a period of life course of the individual’s getting a little older and at the same time the degree of his personality’s development is defined as the personality with specific relatively stable quality features. The education is shown to promote the maturation of the nervous system. These internal processes are also linked with the child’s relationship with the environment, child’s upbringing. But they are not deprived of some relative independence that, as G.S. Kostiuk notices, must be taken into attention when considering these issues. The genotype side of maturation is considered to define the higher limit of age opportunities, as the impact of education on the development is mediated by age and individual characteristics of children. G.S. Kostiuk’s theoretical approach to the problem of training and development led him to conclude that to control the development, i.e. specific driving forces in movement, is more complicated problem than to control learning. According to G.S. Kostiuk the internal contradictions arising in life, activities, relationship with new the environment are noted to be the driving forces of child’s mental development (and the source of its self-motion). Such contradictions are established to be ones between new needs, child’s aspirations and level of the development of the capacity to meet them, between the requirements and the degree of mastering their abilities and skills necessary for the performance; between new tasks and previously formed habits, ways of thinking and behavior. The determinant of internal contradictions is training. It was concluded that the internal rules of child’s mental development were conditioned by the correlation between these patterns and age and individual characteristics of children development. Putting a child before any new targets, showing him increasingly complex requirements and ensuring their implementation, the education directs the life and the activities of pupils and thus controls the development of the object (subject).
Key words: development, psychologist G.S. Kostiuk, personality, individual characteristics of children, developing education, mental development of a human, social impact.
Y .A. Alieksieieva
The article presents the views of psychologists on the various aspects of the study of faith. It was stated that in the modern scientific psychological literature has not been yet reached a clear understanding of the concept of faith, there is no clear differentiation of the religious and non-religious belief. The psychological theories in which the phenomenon of faith is identified with a particular religion or religious belief were seen. It was investigated the views of scholars on the relationship between the concepts of religious belief and religion. It was found that religious faith is the basis of religion – the internal characteristics of the individual. Two types of religious orientation – external and internal were found. It was found that the religious belief contributes to the preservation of mental health and is inherent to the self-actualizing people. It was emphasized that for the religious faith it is characteristic the psychological stability and it is a stable formation. It was found that the belief of the person is associated with the content of his life, penetrated the hope that is a stable motivation of faith. The features of a non-religious belief were analysed. It is proved that non-religious belief is a special mental state that arises in a very uncertain situation, in the conditions of the shortage of accurate information about the achievement of the goal. The types of the non-religious faith were allocated: faith in yourself, faith in others, faith in humanity. The differences between religious and non-religious belief was seen. It was found that these types of faith are differentiated on the subject of faith, the form of perception and social orientation. The definition of faith was analysed. The structural components of faith: cognitive (beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, views) emotional (feelings, emotions, feelings); the value and meaning of faith (the values and meanings); behavioral (will, action) were found. It is concluded that faith of the individual is the basis of its «I». Some scholars identify faith with religion, others separate the religious and non-religious faith, while others do not differentiate faith and regard this phenomenon as a whole.
Key words: faith, religious faith, not religious belief, religious, faith in yourself, faith in others, faith in humanity, religious feelings.
The author examined psychological characteristics of women with features of reproductive health and reproductive function implementation. It is shown that the changes that occur during pregnancy can be seen as stressful. The features of stress reactions occurring in the female body, including those during pregnancy are presented. The prolongation of pregnancy is proved to be an additional stress factor. The connection of features of emotional state of the woman with the level of implementation of adaptation of the organism is shown. It is shown that certain features of psycho-emotional sphere of the women can play a negative role and become the basis for the development of maladaptive forms of behavior and response during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, as well as contribute to various physical and psychological problems of the born child in the future. The successful adaptation depends on the willingness of women to overcome the difficult situation, which in itself is a pregnancy, especially in cases of complications. The features of emotional state of women with prolonged pregnancy are researched. The results of the clinical and psychological examination of 120 pregnant women using selected methods were prepared. The most women in late pregnancy are determined to have irregularities in the psycho-emotional sphere. It is proved that the prolongation of pregnancy as an additional stress factor leads to a significant change in the development of psycho-emotional state of emotional stress of varying degrees, which in turn increases the possibility of complications in childbirth and the postpartum period in this category of pregnant women. The conclusion was made concerning the feasibility of the program psycho-prophylactic support as one of the effective ways of women with prolonged pregnancy support.
Key words: psycho-emotional state, pregnancy, stress, adaptive capacity, prolonged pregnancy, psycho-emotional tension, pregnancy support, reproductive health.
The article presents the results of theoretical analysis of the problem of psychological support of the professional activity of leading agencies and subdivisions of the MIA of Ukraine on implementation of requirements of the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and other official documents, determining the main directions of reforming of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. In particular, the fundamental concepts, namely «support», «psychological support», which appeared in the twentieth century and still do not have a clear interpretation and vision are specified. Three main approaches to defining of the essence of the concept of psychological support, namely: method, process, and professional activity of a specialist-psychologist are determined. The purpose of psychological support, which is in full implementation of professional and psychological potential of the individual and the needs of stakeholder, is disclosed. The different visions of the components and the tasks of psychological support by the scientists are presented. Integral elements of psychological support of professional activity of management agencies and subdivisions of the MIA of Ukraine, namely professional and psychological selection and training are characterized. The directions for the implementation of psychological support of the professional activities of the head of agencies and subdivisions of the MIA of Ukraine are defined. There have been indicated the principles for the implementation of psychological support of the professional activity of the head of agencies and subdivisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the most efficient technology for organizational implementation of psychological support and the importance of its implementation of a proactive approach, which is based on the idea of prevention of professional and psychological problems and is based on the principles of humanistic psychology.
Key words: psychological support, professional activity, head, management, method, process, result, professional and psychological selection, professional and psychological training, proactive approach.
UDC 159.92: 378.036:37.04
The article deals with results of the empirical study of the organizational and professional features of self-efficacy of managers of educational organizations. The selfefficacy of heads of educational organizations is studied. The insufficient level of self-efficacy for most managers is found. The social self-efficacy of female managers is established to be higher than men. The features of self-efficacy of heads of educational organizations depending on the length of service, type of school and orientation to a certain type of organizational culture are established. According to the results of dispersive analysis it is stated that with the increasing of length of managers’ service their self-efficacy is less, especially in the male leaders. The self-efficacy of managers of a new type of educational institutions is revealed to be higher than self-efficacy of heads of traditional educational institutions. The preferred orientation of leaders is found to be on educational institutions of conservative types of organizational culture, especially heads of traditional educational institutions. It is shown that the number of managers, oriented on conservative types of organizational culture in the future, increases. The features of self-efficacy of heads of educational organizations depending on orientation to a certain type of organizational culture are defined. The higher levels of self-efficacy are stated to be in the managers of educational organizations oriented on progressive type of organizational culture, especially in male leaders. The expediency of promoting managers’ self-efficacy development is considered in conditions of postgraduate education.
Key words: head of educational organization, organizational culture, self-efficacy; adhocratic culture, clan culture, market culture, hierarchical culture, type of educational institution.
The article deals with professional tolerance as a professionally important attribute of managers. The author stresses out the importance of development of professional tolerance, analyzes the distinctive characteristics of mana gers’ ambiguity tolerance and the content and structure of secondary school principals’ ambiguity tolerance. To the author’s mind secondary school principals’ ambiguity tolerance is made up of three interrelated subsystems (components): managerial tolerance, teaching staff interaction tolerance, and self-tolerance. The author describes the content of the concept of managerial tolerance as a complex of professionally important qualities of an individual that are needed for their effective adaptation to new unexpected conditions, acceptance of changes in the profession, as well as for their professional stress resistance development. The managerial ambiguity tolerance is defined as one of the components of secondary school principals’ managerial tolerance. The investigation conducted by the author found that secondary school principals had low levels of managerial ambiguity tolerance (or they were highly ambiguity intolerant). The analyses of the findings on gender- and age-relevant as well as professional-organizational characteristics of secondary school principals’ managerial tolerance allowed to make a conclusion about certain differences in the respondents’ ambiguity intolerance due to their gender- and age-relevant and organizational-professional characteristics. The development of managerial ambiguity tolerance is concluded to be an important measure of secondary school principals’ professional tolerance which should be developed, in particular, during their postgraduate training.
Key words: professional tolerance, professional tolerance of heads of secondary educational institutions, managerial tolerance, ambiguity tolerance in managerial activities.
The understanding of physical appearance (Physical-Self or the image of physical-Self) and the realization of its aesthetic effect are stated to be one of the main components of self-concept of the personality. It is mentioned that positive appraisal of the physical selfimage in the human consciousness, as well as in the judgments of others can significantly affect the positivity of his self-concept, that determines the necessity for diagnosis and development of a special attitude to the body during adolescence. The study shows the relationship of the self-attitude and the attitude to the body in adolescents. There are a relation between self-leadership and the developmental attitude to the body, the negative relationship between indicators of self-worth and alienated attitude to the body, and self-affiliation alienated and supervisory attitude to the body. In adolescence body dissatisfaction is correlated with self-incrimination in the self-attitude of a personality. In the result of the study it was established that girls are more inclined to dysmorphophobic disorders, are more critical to their body as a whole and considering its individual parts. The article shows the contradiction in the development of the self-attitude of teenagers’ personalities and their attitude to the Physical-Self, which manifests itself in the peculiarities of gender socialization in adolescence. On the one hand, there is a more favorable attitude of socially important environment for the girls, leading to high rates of self-attitude (self-acceptance, self-worth, and self-attitude), on the other hand, excessive public standards to women’s appearance determine their more critical attitude to the body, including the alienation in relation to the body, large body dissatisfaction, the upper and lower part of the body especially.
Key words: self-attitude, body-image, attitude to one’s own body, body dissatisfaction, adolescence, gender characteristics.
UDC 378.147-057. 875=30
The problems of the individual’s speech and cognitive processes’ correlation in terms of close interaction between thinking and speech in the context of coherent speech and mental activity are analyzed in the article. It is investigated that cognitive processes and speech become interdependent and intersuitable during our life, and thus mastering a foreign language is inherently a conscious process that explains the relationship between the speech by means of a foreign language and the cognitive sphere. It is figured out that any simple communicative act provides for at least three cognitive processes: memory, attention and thinking. It is clarified that the memory is responsible for maintaining the information and its reactivation if it is necessary. It is mentioned that the attention is a means of focusing on the content of the speaker’s message in the transformation process and helps in the analysis of discourse to determine the relevance of an opinion’s expression in order to maintain or complete the communicative act. It is proved that in the process of learning speech material, the thinking promotes its semantic organization, and the memory promotes its holding. It is made clear that at the level of verbal activity while the final language learning, the thinking provides a collection of thoughts, and the memory provides a transformation of ideas into the adequate linguistic form. It is concluded that the thinking, the unity of long-term and executive memory, the imagination, the attention are the components of the student’s intellectual activity. The purposeful formation of students’ understanding mechanism is important to achieve the high results in mastering a foreign language, and it not only has a positive outcome for language learning, but also affects the development of cognitive sphere.
Key words: speech, thinking, individual’s cognitive sphere, cognitive processes, sensitivity, attention, perception, memory, imagination.
UDC 159.9: 316.6
The article deals with the issues of distant family formation under present conditions. The major social risks of distant family are revealed in the study. The concept of «distant family» is defined in the article. There have been analyzed the psychological signs of distant family, needs of women and men in the system of family relationships, role structure of the family, distant family phenomenon and its impact on the child’s personality. The distribution of family roles in traditional and distant families is studied. These features of emotional intercourse in distant families are mentioned. The scientists’ views on the problem are described. A special attention is devoted to the study of distant family. The article aims to describe the role relations in distant family. The author examines the concept of «distant family», «labor migration», «emotional deprivation in the family». An attention is paid to the study of functional and role family structure. The priorities of the contemporary family institution in the realization of their professional and family roles are defined in the article. The analysis of the distant family situation in Ukraine is carried out. The article examines the changes in traditional social roles of distant families. A proper attention is paid to the concept of «social role». The problem of traditional roles changes is analyzed. The main causes and problems of modern distant family are considered. The author focuses on distant relations, compares them with close relationships. Special attention is devoted to values, roles, distances and levels of satisfaction in relationships.
Kеy words: distant family, family role structure, role adaptation, role Me-concept, role interaction, professional and family roles, social role, emotionality and formality in relations, psychological distance, emotional intercourse, emotional deprivation, migration, traditional family institution, distant relations, close relations, subjective welfare.
N.K. Vichalkovska, O.Y. Ivanashko
The article deals with the value of inclusive education model in secondary schools, which provides equality in education and self-realization of children with special needs on the one hand, and on the other – will promote a positive image of disabled persons, capable of independent life implementation. Sociometric method used in the research proved that children with special needs are in the status of «neglected», «rejected» and «isolated»; it means that children with special needs have disturbed social contacts with peers. Analyzing other problems in the process of integrated education, we should mention a lack of training for professionals working in integrated classes (groups), lack of methodological support for teachers, insufficient information about the children’s disease and low qualification of specialists, in parents’ opinion, for work in these classes (groups). Parents also pointed out the special relationship of teachers to integrated education. Thus, we cleared out that among subjects of integrated education there can be negative relationship. One should observe intolerance to children with special needs from the kids developing normally, their parents and some of the teachers. In conclusion we may say that education is the most universal means of socialization of the children, their integration in the educational process of secondary schools and further integration in society. Children with special educational needs can receive the same social experience as their healthy friends. In the context of increasing public awareness the urgent problem is to remove barriers and harmonize relations between the subjects of integrated education.
Key words: integration, socialization, inclusive education, quality of education, children with special needs, harmonization, subjects of integrated education, self-realization, positive image.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the effectiveness of the program of creative activity development of old age people. The need for research is determined by the fact that the creative activity of the old age people is one of the least understood concepts of psychological science. As a result of the research we distinguished the levels of old age people’s creative activity and stages of its development. The result of our study was the developing program to improve the development of old age people’s creative activity within the subject approach, taking into account the cognitive, emotsional and volitional and physical abilities of the personality and their usages to participate in the process of creative activity. In the result of the study we have determined the level of manifestation of old age people’s creative activity as medium-low, there are described in detail its quality indicators and concluded that the old age people’s creative activity, creative activity welfare, is developed in the result of psychological and pedagogical influence till medium-high level, that corresponds to the dynamics of creative activity manifestation as creative activity welfare of old age people. Using quantitative and qualitative analysis, we found that internal psychological factors in the development of old age people’s creative activity, according to the stages of dynamics of the reasons of creative activity development at old age people in conditions of purposeful psychological and pedagogical influence, are keeping the creative activity psychological resourc, adaptation and reflection.
Key words: creative activity, stages, levels, mechanisms, reflection, adaptation, creative activity psychological resource, self-actualization, old age people, psychological factors, creative activity welfare.
The article represents analysis of science research in fields of searching and selection of priority motives, determining optimal structure of student and teacher’s motivational sphere; motives to enter the university, sources of motivation, stability of student’s educational motivation and motivation of teacher’s pedagogical activity. The problem of insufficient motivation of medical psychology students was described in details. The article considers the problem of students’ low learning motivation. The structure of educational motives and the level of educational motivation were analyzed. It was proved that the forming students’ positive motivation to obtain professional skills is based on two main motivational components – student’s motivation to master knowledge and motivation of teacher’s pedagogical activities. It was established that some students of medical and psychology faculty which have leak of motivation to master professional knowledge and skills, are ready to ignore non-core subjects. Ways to improve students’ learning motivation are given for studying a non-core discipline pediatrics. It is proved that the system of improving motivation for learning is based on a systematic work of teachers of the department of improving the level of professional and educational qualifications, wider students’ involvement in scientific work, followed by a presentation of their results, as well as work and study after school controlled by supervisors with objective assessment of acquired knowledge and skills. This close cooperation of teacher and student in the class and after class work, high professional level of teaching using innovative teaching methods is provision for increasing students’ motivation to study.
Key words: educational motivation, levels of educational motivation, motives, subject, classification, discipline.
Metalinguistic abilities of the teacher of higher school can be considered as the integration of capacity of understanding the scientific texts and metalinguistic awareness. The article shows that metacognitive knowledge as the awareness of strategies and techniques, metacognition and the abnotivity as the ability to organize creative joint activities with the student are linked with the ability of understanding the complex of verbal scientific material. It is proved that the active applying of metacognitive strategies for managing their own learning activities, the awareness of the application of these strategies are positively correlated with the ability of understanding scientific texts and can be considered as determinants of this ability. The awareness of their own metacognitive opportunities, mastering various metacognitive strategies, their variability are noted to require knowledge and understanding of the structure of the text, its varieties, high ability of understanding the text, and the variability of different metacognitive operations during the work with the text material. It was empirically verified that the activity of the teachers in the implementation of their own metacognitive experience, allowing to master the various texts with the professional orientation quickly and effectively, is connected with metalinguistic awareness, that is the totality of knowledge about the text and the ability to work with the text. It is established that metalinguistic awareness is related to educational reflexivity. The ability of a teacher to reflexion of his own professional activity is positively correlated with the ability to work effectively with text material and the ability to handle complex scientific texts.
Key words: metalinguistic abilities, metalinguistic knowledge, metacognitive competence of the teacher of higher school, understanding of scientific texts, abnotivity, pedagogical reflexivity.
The paper analyzes the problem of narrative competence of a practical psychologist as a major component of his professional competence. Professional psychologists` competence is shown here as a complex psychological derivation which provides the performance of their professional activities and includes a system action-role (knowledge, proficiency and skills) and personal (professionally important qualities) characteristics, the most prominent of which is the narrative competence. Narrative competence involves the formation of narrative identity as a structural framework and the presence of «a set of» basic narratives that have a socio-cultural nature, the skills of deploying narrative structure in a coherent narrative or story. The focus of psychological help on work with the needs of customers that are based on the narrative, as the history of the human`s life who asked for help makes the study of narrative competence very important, that is realized in the process of understanding and selfreflection and reconsideration of an active subject of information about the world and themselves in it. The narrative competence is revealed as a component of professional competence of a practical psychologist and by means of understanding their experience and their own personality, which is reflected in the ability to see behind the story of the individual, during providing psychological help her personal narrative. Consistent selfconcept, reflexivity, dialogic orientation in communication, management of feelings and emotions of others (the component of emotional intelligence), sensitivity – rationality (the component of communicative competence) is concluded to be complementary to the qualities of a practical psychologist, which presence should cause the implementation of personal customer`s growth during the individual and group work.
Key words: narrative competence, narrative, social intelligence, emotional intelligence, dialogism, communicative competence, reflection, consistent self-concept.
The article analyzes the approaches to the study of the phenomenon of «marginality» and «marginal personality» in domestic and foreign philosophy, sociology, social psychology. It was found that the concept of «marginality» is used in social psychology to denote a special status of the personality, when the personality is on the edge of two cultures or two societies. In addition, it is the study of a complex social and psychological effects caused by this condition «borderlands», namely, disharmony, loss of identity, search for yourself. The article provides a historical overview of the development of ideas about the marginal man. It is noted that the original concept of «marginality» used in «cultural approach» of R. Park and E. Stonequist in the context of cross-cultural communication among migrants, they noticed that the marginal person is in a state of acute internal conflict or crisis, leading to the formation of certain personality traits, namely doubts in their individual values, loneliness, anxiety. It is shown that further researches of marginality are seen as a consequence of social mobility, that it can exist wherever there are social changes. It is determined that in the studies of American and Western science the focus is mainly put on structural marginality. It is concluded that the study of marginality in philosophy, sociology, social psychology distinguishes two main trends – cultural and sociological. Despite the variety of scientific approaches to the study of the phenomenon of «marginality», in foreign and domestic science there is a basic notion of the concept of «marginality» – it is a state of transition, interspace, «borderlands» of a person or group concerning society. It was found out that in domestic social science the specifics of research of marginal issues is associated with transition period of society development, a marginal person, ethnic and professional processes of marginalization of social groups, marginal effects for the human condition are studied.
Key words: marginality, cultural and structural marginality, marginal personality, self-identity, conflict, crisis, social mobility.
UDC 159. 923.33:378.046-021.68-051
Based on the analysis of the relevant literature and his own theoretical understanding of the problem, the author discusses the key criteria for the analysis of possible types of post-graduate students’ professional career which include the social-area-relevant, domestic-international, professional-positional, and static-dynamic criteria. It is emphasized that the first and the second criteria deal primarily with the social aspects of the professional career analysis whereas the third and the fourth criteria – with the intra-organizational criteria. In terms of the social-area-relevant criterion the possible types of post-graduate students’ professional career are analyzed in various social areas: educational-and-scientific (majoring) career, educational-and-scientific-and-business (combined majoring) career, social-sector (civil service, industry, business, etc.) career, and noneducational-scientific (non-majoring) career. The domestic-international criterion covers the characteristics of post-graduate students’ professional career in the national and international context and describes the following possible professional career types: career in national organizations in Ukraine, career in international organizations in Ukraine, and career abroad. The professional-positional criterion deals with the characteristics of postgraduate students’ professional career related to career making in the organization. The possible types of professional career according to this criterion are a content (horizontal) career and a positional (vertical) career. And finally, according to the static-dynamic criterion characterizing postgraduate students’ mobility, the following possible types of professional career include a sole-organization (same specialty or specialty-changing) career and a different-organizations (same-specialty or specialty-changing) career.
Key words: institutions of higher education, post-graduate students, career, professional career, criteria for analysis of types of post-graduate students’ professional career, social aspects of professional career analysis, intra-organizational aspects of professional career analysis, types of postgraduate students’ professional career.
The article envisages the current problem of self-regulation of behavior in the transition to adulthood. The scientific resources devoted to the problem of protective behavior of teenagers and personal security as a whole are analysed. The psychological self-defense is defined to consist of a system of protective actions of the personality, which includes situational protective automatisms, coping- strategies, compensations, which serve as the behavioral manifestation of adaptation. It is stated that the process of communication during teen’s age is the leading activity, and the crisis of that age is associated with communication contradictions. It is ascertained there are little constructive behavior strategies and the frequent use of non-adaptive defense mechanisms. It was stated that teenagers’ difficulties of adaptation may be caused by different types of accentuation, heightened emotionality because of spontaneity of somatic, physiological, constitutional changes. The interpersonal relationships are determined to be one of the diagnostic criteria for violations of social adaptation. It is found that the choice of ways to overcome teenagers is influenced by individual and psychological characteristics: accentuation, the level of anxiety, features the locus of control, orientation of the personality. It was concluded that for the formation of adaptive psychological self-defense of teenagers one need to develop the following abilities: flexibility, tolerance to changes in the environment, creativity, adequate perception of the individual characteristics, self-regulation of emotional states, constructiveness in resolving internal and external conflicts. The necessity to form the psychological qualities of teenagers is established to provide: stress tolerance, positive self-attitude, self-esteem, selfconfidence, positive thinking, development of adaptive abilities. One must also create a need for self-knowledge, the importance of personal activities, the ability to predict the future.
Key words: psychological self-defense, teenager, adaptation, accentuation, personality, intercourse, anxiety, conflict, coping-behavior, communications, emotion, stress.
The article analyzes the recent literature data, which include information about the symptoms and signs of PTSD and ASD. There has been studied medical literature containing information about the features of PTSD symptoms, approaches to the diagnosis of individuals with psychological trauma, analysis of traumatic events and features of psychophysiological predictors that may indicate a greater truth of traumatic disorder development. There has been made the comparison between major symptomatic manifestations of ASD and PTSD, in order to facilitate early diagnosis and optimize treatment algorithm that includes individual approach. Data on the physical manifestations of adjustment disorder were taken into account in the preparation of psychodiagnostic diagnosis algorithm when considering schemes of psychopharmacological treatment. The experience with posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic origin is indicated. The intense auditory, visual, tactile and gustatory stimuli are explained acting simultaneously disrupt the brain’s ability to integrate them into meaningful experiences. It is concluded that under each item, with theoretical training on differential diagnosis of traumatic disorders (ASD and PTSD) and practical skills for psychological diagnostics one can provide early diagnosis of true disorder. This allows you to avoid hypo- and hyper diagnosis in a timely manner to help a patient avoid enduring symptoms that lead to morphological changes in organs and systems, as well as possibility to optimize the use of time for diagnosis and holding data. The expediency of further improvement of the algorithm is based on new research features of psychosomatic stress disorder and adjustment disorder.
Key words: acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), differential diagnosis, adaptation, stress, distress, algorithm of treatment, exclusion (psychological maladjustment), trauma, predictor of trauma.
UDC 159.9: 316.627
Prosoсial behavior is the main basis of human social life. It harmonizes persons’ relations and coordinates individual and group goals. Exploring ways of fostering prosocial behavior in childhood belong to the important areas of psychological researches. However, as noted by scholars, this problem has not been a priority of public and family system of education yet. Much more attention has been given to negative phenomenon such as drug abuse, antisocial and deviant behaviors etc. In this paper we analyze the parents’ influence on children’s social development. Attention to this problem provides the ability to distinguish the basic patterns of primary socialization of children; to understand the acquisition of social experience and personality traits. Currently, the study of this problem is made very rapidly around the world. Researches deal with relatively different age periods. Most experimental observations related to the parents’ interaction with children in early, preschool and primary school age. Scientists associate the children’s level of prosociality with the nature of commitment in the parents–children’s dyad, parental style of interaction, maternal and paternal influences and with the level of parents’ attention to the child’s emotional and social development. An important factor that affects the level of children prosocial behavior is gender features of parental style of interaction. This factor affects the nature of children social interaction both with adults and peers. Maternal style contributes to a more sympathetic children’s attitude to peers, the paternal one determines the appearance of more masculine forms of helping behavior. We suggest that further researches have to study the parents’ awareness of their role in child’s prosocial development, parents’ level of motivation readiness to solve educational problems and the ways of formation of proper competence in selecting effective methods fostering children’s prosocial behavior and acquisition of social experience by them.
Key words: prosociality, prosocial behavior, family, parental style of education, children-parents’ communication.
The article analyzes and proves the necessity to raise the level of management competence of experts in industrial enterprises in a continuous mode of postgraduate education. The psychological and competency model of professional self-development of management personnel of industrial enterprises is developed in the article. As a result of studying of the nature of psycho-pedagogical models and synthesis of relevant activities the author has defined and characterized components of the model; types of display of management competence and the expected result. Social and psychological conditions of formation of psychological competence of industrial enterprises’ managers are defined; a detailed description of directions, forms and methods of work is provided. The author substantiated urgency of a multidisciplinary team’s formation and functioning, the features of planning of joint activities of different areas are revealed, the order of coordination is specified and control system is characterized by their performance. The paper presents the system analysis of topical issues for industrial enterprises based on the framework conditions. There have been described the experimental site activities for implementing psychological and competency model of professional selfdevelopment of management personnel of industrial enterprises. The universal characteristics of the model is grounded, which consists in its mobility, targeting, structure and sequence, because it can be adapted to local conditions, taking into account the local community. The results explore the nature of psychological and pedagogical models and generalization of experience of relevant activities, the author defines and characterizes the components of the model; types of manifestations of managerial competencies and the expected result. The social and psychological conditions are defined for the formation of psychological competence of managers of industrial enterprises and provided a detailed description of the directions, forms and methods of activity.
Key words: psychological and competence model, psychological competence, professional development, continuing education, managers of industrial enterprises.
UDC 159.92: 37015.3 ( 045)
In the article we considered the problem of personal determination as an important factor in effective professional self-realization of employees in advertising sphere. The study of the subject of professional activity cannot be limited by the characteristics of preparedness, experience, skill and quality of work that needs to be executed. It is established that it is important to determine the individual psychological characteristics of man, his condition and potential possibilities. Gender-specific traits of personality of workers in advertisement business were educed on the basis of results of the empirical research. To obtain the results, we used the method of averages and factor analysis. The article answers a question, by what individual personal characteristics, special abilities must own the worker of advertisement for successful implementation of the professional activity for the achievement of his own professional self-realization. It has been set on the detected indicators, that the advertisement profession has a certain influence on the structure of the personality traits of the employee. The results of empirical research suggest there are differences in the structure of personality traits of men and women in the advertising industry, the use of which will assist to improve the system of preparation and retraining personnel, effective professional selection and recruitment in advertising agencies. In research we found out a difference in the general tendency of the intensity distribution of personality traits using two different statistical methods (method of averages and factor analysis), the same semantic structure occupy different positions of ranging in found out lists. It testifies to divergence of the ideal and the real professional «one’s self-concept» of workers in advertisement sphere.
Key words: psychology, professional self-realization, advertising, gender differences, traits of personality, professional activity, 16 PF questionnaire R. Kattell, factor analysis.
The article presents the results of the empirical analysis of psychological features of gender stereotypes influence on the development of a gifted personality in adolescence. The results of the theoretical analysis have shown the following: gender stereotypes are formed during ontogeny of the personality, clearly manifest in adolescence (after 15-16 years); the personality has the best opportunity to develop his/her potential under minimal representativeness and low level of gender stereotypes. It has experimentally been found out that the androgyny is more typical for gifted personalities of the early adulthood (21-23 years); the gender stereotypes reduction causes the increase of androgyny in gifted personalities; in early adulthood, the gifted personality aspires to self-actualization, tries to get rid of public restrains, which is facilitated by the low level of the representativeness and the high level of creativity. There have been determined the level of the correlation dependence between the androgyny and the level of creative imagination, divergent thinking, motivation to success, self-knowledge, need for cognition, and creativity of the gifted personality in adolescence. The following conclusion has been made: the increase of the androgyny level leads to the increase of the creativity; gender stereotypes negatively affect the manifestation of creativity; a personality without essential gender stereotypes adapts more easily to new social circumstances, reacts more flexibly to changes, thus displays more creativity in his/her own activity. The existence of the correlation between the androgyny level and the level of structural components of the gifted personality in adolescence has been proved.
Кey words: gender stereotypes, gifted personalities, androgyny, femininity, masculinity, creativity, empathy, divergent thinking, creative thinking.
UDC 37.015.3 – 055. 2
The paper envisages the origin of the concept of androgyny, surveys its interpretation in philosophical and psychological studies. The correlation between femininity, masculinity and the level of anxiety, conflictness, mental rigidity and lability of psyche, creativity of female teachers are established in the article. The prevalence of androgyny, masculinity or femininity in women was experimentally verified depending on their age, marital status, having children or childlessness, place of residence. It was proved that the masculinity index is higher among divorced or widowed women as they assume men’s roles and responsibilities. Among both married and unmarried women there are rather feminine ones, although the prevalent personality type is the androgynous. The indices of androgyny and femininity are determined to be practically constant in all age life periods of a female teacher, though the masculinity rate increases after 51 years among the teachers of rural schools and university lecturers. It was confirmed that the manifestations of femininity are most essential among female teachers of urban schools aged 35-50. The index of masculinity is the lowest one in almost all age groups and the level of androgyny dominates. The results of the empirical study of university female teaching staff correlate with the indices of teachers in rural schools. After more detailed analysis it was revealed that masculine traits were inherent to rural women. According to the analysis of scientific psychological studies and the experimental research it was established that androgynous personality type of a woman had a significant potential for the creation of the life space in all aspects: personal, professional and family. The creative potential of a personality determines her ability to vital-creative activity.
Key words: androgyny, femininity, masculinity, creativity, gender, female teachers, potential, vital-creative.
This article introduces the research results concerning socialization of modern Ukrainian and American teenagers. The principal problems that American teenagers face while becoming adults (growing up) were discovered according to the analysis of the different Internet scientific publications of modern researches written in English. These problems are referred to the disturbance of the affective sphere, aggression, depression, destructive influence of mass media, infantilism, the Peter Pan syndrome as a result of the lack of initiation processes, mistakes in children’s upbringing, experiments with the body in order to meet the requirements for modern fashion, mobbing, bullying. It is proved that numerous researches of American and European psychologists are more informative and applied (solvable). Moreover, they are remarkable for their quality and possibilities of scientific researches in these countries, systematic «migration» of the problems concerned with the teenagers’ development to our today’s reality. According to the comprehensive diagnostics (conversations, observations, expert judgments, questionnaires) of Ukrainian teens, different points of view relating to the relationship between the teenagers and their parents or older generation were introduced. Readiness to find mutual understanding and fundamental values of this exact period such as healthy lifestyle, the necessity of privacy, review of relationships with parents, expansion, extension of a friend zone, caution in early sexual intercourse were defined. It is established that some problems and values of representatives of different nationalities (social perception, competition in education, stresses, freedom of speech) are greatly different: Ukrainian teenagers while answering are more private, more stereotypical and more primitive (parents, health, friends, money), however, American teens are more relaxed, more social (necessity of being different from other people, fear of social imperception, competition in education, a weapon belonging to inadequate personalities, stresses).
Key words: growing up, understanding, specificity of personality traits, critical period of development, infantilism, value orientations, friend-zone.
The author states that the methodological basis for the personality-oriented psychotherapy (POP) was the concept of neuroses of V.N. Miasyschev. The central element of the personality within the limits of this concept is considered to be the relation as active, conscious, integral, selective communication with the various aspects of reality of the personality, based on experience. It is noted that a considerable attention in POP is paid to psychological conflicts in the self-relation sphere and in relationships with other people. There have been taken into account the underlying intrapersonal conflicts, understanding their role and actions in the development of neurotic reactions and provoking conflict and traumatic situations. The main task of the POP was established to be as a common goalsetting system based on self-awareness, self-regulation and self-relation. It is noted that at the present stage of development of domestic medical psychology and psychotherapy, there are three lines of proper psychological studies presented in the works of pure theoreticians; theorists, combining theory with practice and properly practical workers. It is concluded that at the present stage of development of Ukrainian psychotherapeutic schools the researches in the field of psychosomatic disorders and diseases (cardiovascular and gastro systems) are important. It is found that considerable attention is paid to psychological problems of psychological assistance both in clinical and out of clinical field. It is concluded that a significant influence of the existential and phenomenological approaches is noticed. Considerable efforts are applied to the development of a clinically oriented psychotherapy.
Key words: personality-oriented psychotherapy, Moscow psychotherapeutic school, intrapersonal conflict, psychological studies, psychosomatic disorder, a disease.
The article describes the features of the process of self-depravation of the subject’s psyche; structure, shape and features of the manifestations self-depravation components are described. Self-depravation phenomenon is considered as a derivative of the parent (wider – social and parental deprivation). Self-depravation source at the physical level is dissatisfaction of the basic needs of a developing personality, significant social environment through emotional alienation. On the mental level, selfdepravation arises as a product of the introjection of relations of deprivation that blocks energy libido, desire for life. Analysis of the mechanism of self-depravation shows the relationship with the internal contradiction between the Ego-real and Ego-ideal. Education of Ego-ideal is based on the principle of obligation, the content of which is filled with idealized parent internal object. The need for acceptance determines the illusory rapprochement with parents through the Ego-ideal, which leads to loss of self and the formation of a false self. The main psychological defense mechanisms involved in the process of self-depravation is the mechanism of distortion or escape from reality. As a result, in the perception of the subject the destructive worldview is formed, there is inadequate interaction of models of space and time (violation of perception of self «here and now») and Ego-deformation (as a distorted selfesteem). Self-depravation of psyche is presented at the behavioral, affective and reflexive levels, which manifests itself in behavior maladjustment, disintegrative intra psychic processes, contradictory reflection. The author draws attention to the importance of psychotherapy of self-depravation, as a phenomenon of personality’s denial from the self-actualization.
Key words: self-depravation, psychological defense, distortion of reality, Ego-real, Ego-ideal, Selfness, aspiration for life, self-actualization.
The article deals with a very important issue – the behavior of heads of educational institutions in general and the heads of secondary schools, in particular. The necessity of consideration of the topic in the current socio-economic conditions is proved. It is mentioned that in psychology there are several classifications of behavioral personality types. However, the author of the work is guided by the postulate of psychologists who distinguish two behavioral personality types, namely A and B. It is established that the representatives of these groups have different characteristics and different specific behavior in similar production conditions. It was found that persons with symptoms of Type A behavior correspond to the following qualities: perseverance, desire to do everything quickly and better than others, high ability to work. They can be aggressive, overly demanding, cruel. So this dynamic and busy lifestyle leads to problems at the physical level – cardiovascular diseases. Individuals with type B behavior – are those that are characterized by opposite qualities. They are calm, sometimes indifferent, removed from the events that happen around. The article presents the results of the study of behavior manifestations of type A among heads of secondary schools. The features of the development of Type A behavior among the heads of educational institutions are analysed. The specificity of behavior of type A among heads of secondary schools is clarified depending on the social and demographic and gender characteristics (age, sex, marital status, presence of children, type of school, etc.). The psychological recommendations are defined, they will help to get rid of behavioral patterns of type A. The purpose of the article was to study the psychological characteristics and factors of Type A behavior manifestation of heads of secondary schools, the purpose was achieved.
Key words: heads of secondary schools, behavior, classification of types of behavior, the behavior of the type A and B.
Enormous social and economic transformations are taking place nowadays. From everywhere we hear more powerful appeals that edu-cation needs reforms; as a result there is a necessity of searching new deci-sions in the field of education. However education is a care about a man, whom we want to bring to the higher level of humanity in every sense, indi-vidual and social, but foremost moral to become better person. Mediatisa-tion, i.e. strengthening of media influence, is a new and powerful appeal for education today. Though, it does not change the absolutely fundamental sphere of necessities, namely necessities of face to face contact, closeness, elementary human kindness. In author’s opinion a parallel didactics can be a very kind panacea on mediatisation. The researcher underlines that the first, more progressive way is interpersonal communication that will give people strengthening and motivation for life, science, permanent develop-ment, and the second way embraces the use of modern facilities including multimedia. In the atmosphere of excessive popularization of didactiс faci-lities with new medias, that is sometimes interpreted as a method of de-cision of all pedagogical problems, a parallel didactics can be a wonderful method for forming a new didactics, that would strengthen person’s posi-tion and would help to apply medias with a benefit, but not destruction for a man and society. The author of the article aims to involve everyone to develop and use parallel didactics that will concentrate first of all on person and afterwards on media.
Key words: education, parallel didactics, mass media, mediatisation, interpersonal communication.
The theoretical and methodological analysis of the motivational sphere of future socionomic specialists’ personalities are realized by the author. It is mentioned that motivation is one of the basic concepts in psychology, which is used to explain the driving forces of behavior, human activities. Different approaches to the notion of the phenomenon of motivation are analysed in the psychological literature. In the result of the analysis of the literature on this issue there have been distinguished and generalized the main approaches: classification, phenomenological and structural ones, which with their own specificity are complementary and interpenetrating. One of the trends in modern psychology is indicated to be the study of motives on the basis of their interaction. The combination of different motives that determine the direction of behaviour and activities is noted to be the motivational sphere of the personality. The study of motives in the psychology is established to develop in different directions, in particular through the formation of their classifications, phenomenological description, structuring of individual motives. One of the trends in modern psychology is the study of motives on the basis of their interaction. It is concluded that foreign psychologists ascribe to the motive an incentive and directional functions (behaviorism, psychoanalysis etc.) or the differentiation of human behavior by the unconscious motives. Behavio rists consider the motive as the action of any external or internal stimuli that cause certain behavior. The representatives of psychoanalysis attributed the functions of motive to different inborn instinctive inclinations, which were partially inhibited in social conditions and they existed in indirect forms. To sum up, in the domestic psychology (S. Rubinstein, O. Leontiev and others) the motive is considered indissolubly with the human activities as one of its structural components, which is essential to reveal its psychological nature. Motives are stated to express the essence of the personality and ensure its interaction with the environment and social conditions.
Key words: motivational sphere of the personality, trends in modern psychology, future specialists of socionomic professions, academic motivation, motive, foreign psychology, domestic psychology, cognitive psychology; classification, phenomenological and structural approaches.
Range places in the sporting qualification of the young karatists are considered in the article. It is proved that the middle qualification level dominates among the karatists, and the sportsmen with the high qualification level occupy the lowest range places. The traditional Japanese characteristics of the symbols of green and brown belts are also represented. The most important psychological peculiarities of training the high qualification level karatists are defined by the author. When a person attains the high level sporting skill it is possible to observe the coming into being the whole system of strong-willed qualities: perseverance, courage, self-possession. The level of sportsmen’s mastering basic techniques is being heightened. The violations of discipline and etiquette are being decreased. The athletic achievements are being improved. Green and brown belts belong to the sphere of the high level mastery. The green belt signifies the level of maturity, wisdom and love. In the training process one may witness the unification of the physical and mental spheres of the karatist’s sporting activity into the wholesome united structure. In this process the outlook of a sportsman becomes more stable and harmonious. The ability to control one’s behavior is extremely important for the owner of the green belt; he tries to perform as many moral actions as possible. The combat way of a karatist is his struggle between good and evil in his heart; everything that is good begins with self-control, by all means. The brown belt is a very important level and one must train seriously, with responsiveness, maturely in order to gain this belt. At this time the sportsman should be physically strong, concentrated and calm while fulfilling different techniques in his aspiration for the higher mastery levels. In kumitee (sparring) it’s necessary constantly to develop the ability to control the rival. The sportsman-owner of the brown belt may authoritatively instruct the group of karatists who are having their training in Dojo (training hall).
Key words: kiokushinkai karate, training process, japanese symbolics, green belt, brown belt, psychological peculiarities, personality, young karatists.
The article deals with the theory of the child’s moral development by L.Kohlberg and with the main stages of development, according to this theory, namely: pre-conventional, conventional and postconventional. The influence of this theory on the modern psychology is enlightened in the article, too. The author makes an attempt to outline the circle of researchers who used Kohlberg’s ideas in their scientific investigations and those ideas played the essential role in their work. It is mentioned that the beneficent influence of Kohlberg’s ideas on their scientific work experienced and recognized many investigators: G.O. Ball, I.D. Bekh, L.I. Bozhovytch, M.Y. Boryshevskyi, I.S. Bulakh, O.V. Gudyma, S.D. Maksymenko, O.V. Matvienko, O.V. Osyka, R.V. Pavelkiv, E.O. Pomytkin, M.V. Savchyn, A.V. Yurevych. It is stated that G.O. Ball studies the system of values, the formation of the civic consciousness and the ideological foundations of education building up, ratio-humanistic determination in the methology of the innovation development. I.D. Bekh investigates the role of cultural values in the development of a personality and the notion of the personality oriented upbringing, he stresses that a child is constantly waiting for moral actions already experienced by him in the past that produced great impression on him. L.I. Bozhovytch has considered the motivation of the moral conduct and the formation of the harmonious personality. The investigation of consciousness and self-consciousness in the junior pupils’ moral development carried out by R.V. Pavelkiv is represented in details. He considers that moral consciousness is the result of acquiring the moral norms by the subject; these directions appear to be a special category of social requirements. The development of a personality is impossible without the functional appropriation of moral norms which define the laws of the social cohabitation. Special attention is paid to the results of work of the moral consciousness – stages in the accordance of one’s behavior with the accepted norms. The investigations are directed to the study of the mechanisms of acquiring the norms, to trace the age conformity with the nature of this process, to establish the actuality of connections between moral consciousness and moral conduct.
Key words: moral, theory, pre-conventional level, conventional level, post-conventional level, L. Kohlberg, R.V. Pavelkiv, junior school pupils.
The research is devoted to the phenomenon of love and stereotypes of love relationships in gender aspect. There was made the analysis of the research of the phenomenon of love in psychology. The various schools of psychology, who studied the theme of love, were considered. We also represented foreign and domestic scientists involved in the classification of types of love. There has been made an overview of researches related to sexual specificity in love experiences. The gender perspectives were pointed out in researches and the characteristics of gender stereotypes was given. The relation between stereotypes of love relationships in gender aspect on a sample of 120 persons of different sexes was studied. The following methods were used in the research: «Questionnaire of sex roles» (by the author S. Bem) and «Test on the purpose of romantic stereotypes» (by the authors D. Knox and M. Sporakovski). Based on a study of stereotypes in love relationships we came to conclusion that androgynous and masculine men were the most inclined to romanticism, on the other hand feminine and androgynous women were most inclined to pragmatism. So we came to conclusion that men tend to romanticism, and women to pragmatism in romantic relationships. In the modern Ukrainian society, women are studied to be more adaptable, and therefore are more pragmatic. Choosing a loving partner, they are focused on material well-being, rather than romantic feelings. Stereotypes of love relationships are showed to be explained by the age peculiarities of empirical study participants (20-21 years) and the difference between the sex’s ideas about love relationships. It is established that men have dominated priority of physical over inward, and women have dominant the inward over physical. There is made a conclusion that there is a direct dependence of gender characteristics of the individual and his stereotypes in love relationships, namely: the expression of masculine and androgynous characteristics of an individual proves the addiction to romanticism, and the expression of feminine characteristics proves to the pragmatism.
Key words: love, romanticism, pragmatism, masculinity, femininity, androgyny.
This article contains scientific and theoretical overview of native and foreign investigations, which deals with the problem of youth subcultures influence on display of the level of aggression in youths’ environment. Psychological features of subcultures were regarded as one of the biggest factors of personality socialization. The process of forming youths’ subcultures was exposed, although a position of young people in criminal subcultures was analyzed. Analysis of social divergences in personality behavior was done. They are being formed under the influence of youths’ groups, and also analysis of the theory about causes of these divergences occurrence. The concept «youths’ subculture» was analyzed, a brief description of its main types was given and the impact of informal associations on values and moral standards of young people was viewed. The positive and negative aspects of subculture’s impact on the culture of Ukrainian youth were revealed and it was concluded concerning the connection between informal groups with the formation of addictive behaviors among young people. The interpretation of the influence of youths’ subcultures on display of the level of aggression in youth environment was submitted. The reasons which motivate young people to find themselves in youth groups were allocated and summarized. The main tasks of empirical psychological research of aggressive behavior that is caused by involvement into informal youths’ subcultures according to the scientific and theoretical basis of modern native and foreign doctrines were singled out. It was concluded that knowledge of factors that form the displays of various forms of aggression under the influence of informal youth subcultures, will make enable the development of complex of positive impact methods on the socialization of young generation and technologies of skills for successful solution to the problem of personality destructuring.
Key words: youth environment, aggressive behavior, forms of aggression, youth subculture, socialization of personality, prerequisites of desocialization, informal groups, features of subcultures.
The article presents the results of an empirical study of the regulative and procedural component of teachers’ reflection development by the criterion of «efficacy». The empirical referents of regulative and procedural component of reflection development are determined as following: skills and habits of reflection implementation in teacher’s activities; reflexivity; self-control in interpersonal interactions; self-development of the reflection in conditions of postgraduate education. It was revealed a low level of reflexivity, self-control in interpersonal interactions, skills and habits of reflection in professional work in half of the studied teachers. An insufficient reflective activity of teachers is stated to be in the conditions of postgraduate education concerning studying themselves and their professional competence; analysis of their feelings and experience of mastering new knowledge etc. The gender-age peculiarities of teachers’ reflection development are established: women have slightly higher levels of reflection than men, especially older have. The differences in teachers’ reflection development are determined according to organizational and professional factors. In particular, a higher level of reflection development the criterion of «efficacy» is found in the primary school teachers in comparison with teachers of social sciences and humanities and the natural and mathematical sciences. These differences are shown to be very clearly traced in the skills and habits of teachers to use reflection in solving problem situations of professional activities. The conclusion is made concerning the advisability to promote the development of teachers’ reflection in conditions of postgraduate education in specially organized interactive training considering professional experience of teachers.
Key words: reflection, development of reflection, efficiency of reflection’s development, teacher, comprehensive educational institution, postgraduate pedagogical education, reflexivity, retrospective reflection, situational (current) reflection, prospective reflection; reflection of intercourse and interacting with other people.
The study allowed to distinguish that the strategy consists in targeting systems with volitional decision, motivation, control, and system orientation, in turn, serves as a reflection of life relative to its meaning, values and norms. The values of life and needs that are in a specific hierarchy are established to affect the human rights, determining its behavior; regulation of behavior is a function of values. In life there is soul-searching. This fact serves as a natural result of the dialectic of life, restructuring its interrelations with the world and, above all, with other people; certain values are updated as a result of changes in domestic conditions. The concept of «life strategies» is determined to include such phenomena as: 1) a lifestyle that is included in orientation system through the mechanisms of perception and intuition and describes the emotional side of human life; 2) the meaning of life – a holistic notion about the fundamental bases of life; 3) values of life are the system of ideas and beliefs of the personality in relation to normal life, which was formed by cultural traditions, patterns and ideals; 4) living standards – requirements to the content and quality of life, as well as standards for assessing life events. The components of the personality strategies are the perceptual, life significant, value, regulatory and target orientations, which are formed in the process of personal development and conditioned by the specifics of the society in which a personality develops. It is concluded that in order to realize one or another system of values the social and political activity of the personality is necessary. That activity is emerging for the personality received her knowledge. The formation of values is social by nature, closely linked to the nature of the activity and its procedural characteristics mediated by the intercourse between individuals, the formation of values reflects the life significant activity of the personality (formation of ideals). It is associated with the assessment that accompanies virtually all acts of mental activity of the subject, leading to the formation of subjective image of the objective world.
Key words: values, life values, personality structure, professional orientation, activity of the personality.
The importance of motivational component of sensitiveness of practical psychologists’ personalities in the system of education is showed in the article. The selection of methods for determining the level of the development of sensitiveness’ motivational component is proved according to the integrating the results of theoretical studies on sensitiveness problem as professionally important quality of practical psychologists and its components. The results of the research of peculiarities of motivational component of practical psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education are presented. There have been analysed the significance of sensitiveness for practical psychologists and their level of targeting on humanistic and existential type of relationship with a client who appeared as empirical referents of a studied component. According to the summarized results of these two indices the levels of motivational component of sensitiveness of practical psychologists’ personalities in education system are defined. The conclusion was made concerning the average level of the development of sensitiveness motivational component predominance (more than two-thirds of respondents). The gender and age features of sensitiveness motivational component of practical psychologists are revealed. It was found that older practical psychologists have higher level of motivational component sensitiveness. The higher level of motivation component of sensitiveness is revealed to be distinctive to female practical psychologists. It was suggested that the differences in the le vels of motivational component of practical psychologists in the education system are manifested by more expressed orientation of women-psychologists in humanistic and existential type of relationship with a client compared to men. There have been described the expediency of empirical studies of other sensitiveness components of practical psychologists’ personality in the education system (psychophysiological, cognitive, behavioral, emotional) and the definition of integrative index and social and demographic ones of this basis (age, sex, place of residence), organizational and professional (school type, qualifying category) sensitiveness factors.
Key words: sensitiveness, sensitiveness components, motivational component of sensitiveness, practical psychologists, humanistic and existential type of relationship with a client, sensitiveness significance, level of development of sensitiveness motivation component.
The following components necessary for the volunteer’s personality were extracted and grounded in this investigation: social behavioral (the prosocial direction of the personality, unselfishness, civil activity); motivational (cultural needs, existential and social needs); cognitive (the main criteria of which is «Social intellect» and the level of self-knowledge); communicative (knowledge of verbal and nonverbal communicative means, ability to cooperate, communication as a mean of interiorization); emotive (empathy, tolerance and patience); spiritual (the main criteria of which is spiritual health, harmony, integrity and maturity of a personality); existential (presence or absence of existential vacuum; the presence of founded sense of living; personal identity). The held investigation and the analysis of the structural components of the personality involved in the volunteering let us identify the exertion indices of the following factors such as the life productivity; locus of control over the life; the life satisfaction; life goal, that means the development of life-purpose orientations. People with the large experience in volunteering have the higher level of mentioned factors. The following distribution of life-purpose orientations was determined with the age and religiousness criteria. Religious people and respondents over 22 years have obtained results in a higher level that attests to the fact that the faith gives a person not only hope but helps to guide a personal life and to take responsibility for the future. There were new indices’ results of the tests by T. Liri, T.O. Pomytkin, V.V. Boiko, among the respondents with the different levels of involvedness into volunteering. The group, whose members are constantly involved into volunteering, has shown the highest indices. There was drawn the conclusion that the development levels of the emotive, spiritual, existential components of a person increases significantly under the influence of volunteering activity.
Key words: personality, values, components, empathy, spirituality, motivation, existentiality, communicativeness.
The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of the problem on concepts formation about the inward ideal in primary school children. There have been experimentally investigated and ana lyzed the results by such criteria: value and positive attitudes to the ideals of Beauty and Good; identification with ideals of Beauty and Good; imitation of human behaviour and literary characters; understanding their own ideas about inward ideals and their values (child’s differentiation of beauty and ugliness, good and bad (evil) deeds of people in real life, literary and art works, valuable attitude to nature; focus on the highly intellectual personalities; child’s desire to do good, readiness to help others, to share with them the joy and grief; emotional expressiveness of own aesthetic preferences; imitation of behavior of adults, children, literary characters (heroes of feature films and animation) – media of cultural, personal or spiritless ideals; clarity of understanding about the perfect image; completeness of notions about the inward ideal, reasonable explanation of a realized choice; the ability to make independent decisions, do the responsible actions in their behavior. There have been revealed the specificity and detected levels (high, medium, low) of ideas formation about the inward ideal in junior who are studying according to the programs of secondary schools. It is established that the junior pupils are characterized by a limited ability of value and positive attitude towards others, lack of examples for their identification and imitation, the uncertainty in the choice of an inward ideal. Junior pupils show a lack of focus on the ideals of Beauty and Good, unsubstantiated ideas about the inward ideal, ignorance of the highest cultural values and no orientation to universal cultural ideals.
Key words: concept, inward ideal, junior pupils, beauty, good, values, identification, imitation, influence, levels of development.
O.O. Prokofieva, A.H. Martyniuk
This article examines the determinants of the formation of Me-social in adolescence. It was concluded that the process of Me-social formation in the social environment and practical activity was a complex system process, characterized by the interaction of processes of personal development, professionalization, socialization, interpersonal communication and professional interaction. The main researches of domestic and foreign scholars concerning the issue of the formation of Me-social in adolescence were studied. It was stated that this problem is rarely studied in scientific literature. The professional component of Me-social of young men was studied with the help of two methods: «The study of training motivation in higher school» (L.A. Holovei, E.F. Rybalko), «Motives of choice of profession» (R.V. Ovcharova). After analyzing the results, we concluded that the main motive for choosing the profession was an internal socially significant motive. It indicates a low level as understanding yourself and your needs. Having analyzed the obtained results according to the first method we made a conclusion that students lived by one day, respectively, the problem of self-realization for the modern student at the moment was not a primary concern in life. Having analyzed the second method we came to the conclusion that boys were more focused on a diploma in the formal acquisition of knowledge, directly related to the social and economic condition of the modern Ukrainian society and acute problems of employment in their field. The study showed the possible perspectives of the work in this subject because, after analyzing the indices that were obtained during the study, we can conclude that the problem is urgent because, firstly, it is rarely studied, and secondly, the lack of researches on the formation of Me-social by means of Gestalt-therapy.
Key words: formation, subsphere, Me-social, youth, socialization, identification, motive, mechanisms, self-image.
The main approaches to the study of consciousness and professional consciousness (systemic, structural and dynamic, personality and activities, psychosemantical) are characterized by the author. The essence of the professional consciousness is explicated. N.I. Husliakova’s structural and functional model of the professional consciousness, V.V. Yermolin’s double-component model of the professional consciousness, and three-component models of the professional consciousness are described by the author. The most attention is paid to the so-called functional structure of the professional consciousness. The professional consciousness is noted to be distinguished as a form of professional reality representation, as an integral personality formation of the subject of activities. Professional consciousness as a dynamic system, whose components are undergone qualitative changes in the process of professional training at higher educational institution, is developed and formed during professiogenesis. The main objectives of the professional training and characteristics of part-time students, which may affect the specifics of their consciousness professionalization, are described by the author. The results of an empirical study of the specific content of stu- dents’ professional consciousness at various stages of professional training at the university are presented in the article. It is established that there are significant differences in the development of professional consciousness of full-time and part-time students; part-time students’ professional activities rather than professional training at the university are determined to influence on this process. The direction of training is defined not to be significantly reflected in the professional consciousness, its components; the main differences are caused only by the stage of professional training at higher educational institution. The comparison of the development of professional consciousness’s diagnosed functions: professional goal-setting, attitude, knowledge and forecasts, identification confirms the heterogeneity of their development within professional training at higher educational institutions, in particular, the function of identification is not enough formed.
Key words: higher vocational education, professional development of the personality, professionalism, consciousness, professional consciousness, structure of professional consciousness, diagnostics of professional consciousness, professional settings.
The article is devoted to the concept of modern methods of researching ethnic stereotypes at the level of inter-ethnic communication, their application in practice of the study of inter-ethnic relations. According to the article the object of study of foreign and domestic scientists are psychological mechanisms that underlie the formation of ethnic stereotypes, their content and structural components. The author considers that modern society need additional social psychological research to study the unexplored stereotype’s features that remain in this field of psychology, leaving tremendous opportunity for scientists searching creative discovery. The perspectives and the actual directions of the study of ethnic stereotypes are considered in the article. The author considers ethnic relations in the plane of existence of ethnic groups. The author writes that the structure of ethnic stereotype is a system of relations that represent different types of social relations in society. Much attention is given to characteristic discontinuity between the theoretical description of ethnic stereotypes and their practical solutions applied in the study of ethnic relations as a field of scientific knowledge. According to the article the process of settlement of ethnic conflicts implies the use of a complex variety of techniques, with one of the most common and effective technique is negotiations. The author established that ethnically hetero-stereotypes of Ukrainian society have potentially dangerous elements of relationships between different ethnic communities. The author comes to the conclusion that there is a need of the development of system of early prediction of conflict situations and a model of the emergence and spread of conflicts. This system will effectively prevent the crisis state of interethnic relations with dangerous consequences.
Key words: ethnic relations, ethnic stereotypes, the auto-stereotypes, hetero-stereotypes, inter-ethnic tension, ethnic conflicts resolution.
UDC 130.1 : 316.614
The article envisages the urgent problem of today which deals with the differentiation weakening the balance of masculine and feminine in the global cultural space. It was depicted the unity and interdependence of the society structure and notions of social status, national specific models of gender identity. The article reveals psychological determinants which forestall such negative phenomenon as masculine and feminine imbalance at internal regulation and external relation levels. Semantic differential method showed gender feature defining potentialities of a socio-perceptual status of a personality in the group that promotes awareness of the gender conflict nature and permits to create more productive interaction strategies between men and women. The work with social stereotypes allows reacting differently to the familiar situation and creates new skills of social perception and gender behavior. Determining the socio-perceptual status of a personality as well as semantic analysis of projective drawings there is formed the participant’s ability to use group interaction compromise balance model of relations between men and women which makes it possible in male-female relationships to get a spontaneous contact and meaningful choice. The status value is determined by three factors: «Activity», «Valence», and «Potentiality». The last factor defines the influence strategy of a personality on the environment that makes it possible (understanding others or internal stress) to obtain such an effect.
Key words: psychology of sex, gender conflict, gender role-play identity, social perception, socio-perceptual status, semantic differential.
R.T . Simko
The article deals with the problem of psychomotor development of patrol police workers using standard programs. It is noted that the subjects’ discharge of their official duties in an extreme activities requires their exact faultless and quick actions. The effectiveness of actions in dangerous situations is established to be dependent primarily on emotional stability of patrol police workers. It is reasonably to study it according to the time indices of reformation of movements’ coordination and errors of reformation of movements’ coordination in terms of competitions. Another indicator influencing the effectiveness of extreme activity is the subject’s ability of information processing, which can be studied by the number of correctly and incorrectly traced lines of technique “mixed lines” (the degree of concentration of visual attention) in terms of time shortage. The third indicator is the exactness of movements that is studied by the spatial characteristics of walking at 7 meters distance and exactness of response to a moving object. The application of model programs of patrol police workers’ psychomotor development is proved to improve their physical qualities, and theoretical principles of solved problems’ research can be activity paradigm.
Key words: psychomotor, patrol police service, physical training, psychological training, emotional stability, ability to information processing, exactness of movements in psychomotor activities, speed, strength, endurance, agility.
There are presented the research results of peculiarities of connection between components of students’ motivational and valued sphere at different courses of training in the article. The connections between the components of students’ motivational and valued sphere are found at different courses of training. Quantitative and qualitative changes are determined to take place in the structure of components of motivational and valued sphere at different courses of students’ training. There have been established that students of all courses have a formed notion about ways of getting public acceptance, high social status which is promoted with communicative abilities, avoiding failures on the way to reaching success. Third year students are revealed not to have any similar correlative relationships between the students of the first or fifth years of training. The first and fifth year students have value orientations in the career connected with value orientations. These connections have a clear structure and form the contents of the value component. The structure of the individual and typological component is established to include the factors of personal self-regulation, situational, personal anxiety and temperament type. The differences are revealed in the structure of motivational, valued and individual and typological components of students at different courses of training. The comparative analysis of the contents of components of students’ motivational and valued sphere showed that students of all courses connect their success with the external circumstances and prefer external success. The students are established to have the formed notions about ways of achieving success owing to luck, getting the material welfare, personal satisfaction in achieving success in the activity, self-manifestation and display of personal abilities in creativity, serving to higher aim. The obtained results can be applied in the psychologists’ work in order to increase motivation of education and forming the students’ motivational and valued sphere.
Key words: students, motivation in achieving success, academic motivation, professional trend, motivational and valued sphere, value orientations in the career, personal self-regulation, contextual, personal anxiety, temperament type.
The article envisages the formation peculiarities in students of technical universities their educational and professional competence in the context of their psychological preparation for future professional administrative activity. The structure of psychological readiness of technical university students for future professional and administrative activity has been analyzed; this structure consists of the following competences as personal, value, educational, educational professional and administrative. The notion of «competence» has been described. The analysis of cognitive behavioral approach has been conducted as an approach within which the research of the structure of psychological readiness of students of technical universities for future professional administrative activity has been carried out. The content of educational professional competence has been revealed as well as its role in the structure of psychological readiness of technical university students for future professional administrative activity. The conditions for psychological readiness of technical university students for future professional administrative activity in the form of educational course have been defined. The research methods of the educational professional competence research are revealed. Moreover, the result analysis of the development level of educational professional competence of technical university students has been conducted in the beginning and after competing of the experimental research directed on formation of psychological readiness of technical university students for future professional administrative activity. Finally, the conclusions were done about the implementation of psychological course focused on formation of psychological readiness of students for future professional administrative activity which plays an integral part in personality formation as a future specialist and manager.
Key words: competence, educational professional competence, psychological readiness, educational course, self-efficiency, student, technical university, future professional administrative activity.
UDC 159. 923. 2
The article deals with the theoretical and experimental results of the study of the dynamics of young person’s national self-realization. Within the development of young person’s national self-consciousness the essence of young person’s national self-realization has been highlighted. Psycho-diagnostic methods applied to the study of young person’s national self-realization have been presented; the characteristics and levels of this phenomenon have been described. It has been empirically found that most young males and females have high and medium levels of national self-realization in terms of almost all indicators apart from «wearing national clothes». In terms of the largest number of respondents with high levels of national selfrealization for 5-6 indicators found in the age range 19-20 years («acquiring of knowledge of national language», «residence within one’s national territory», «respect for the historical past of one’s nation», «inheriting national traditions», «national dignity», «acquiring of knowledge of national culture and traditions») and 17-18 years («pride in cultural achievements representatives of my nation», «pride in sporting and cultural achievements of the members of one’s nation», «wearing national clothes», «participation in national celebrations», «aspiration for promote national ideals»). With middle level of national self-realization for 7 indicators of the largest was a group of young people aged 17-18 years («respect for the historical past of one’s nation», «inheriting national traditions», «acquiring of knowledge of national culture and traditions», «acquiring of knowledge of history of one’s nation», «residence within one’s national territory», «concern for national interests», «pride in sporting and cultural achievements of the members of one’s nation»). However, the precise trends of age dynamics were not found by any of the indicators of national self-realization in juvenility.
Key words: national self-consciousness, national self-realization, personality, age dynamics, young age.
The article focuses on the results of an experimental study the characteristics of organizational culture typology of future workplace. Within a short review of the modern literature on this subject the generalized classification of the most common in the literature typologies of the organizational culture are presented. It is noted that the question of the psychological aspects of organizational culture typology of future workplace, for all its importance, had not been the subject of special empirical study earlier. In result of cluster analysis by two-step method of algorithms function of probability there have been distinguished four types of organizational culture of future workplace (according to the author’s typology). There have been revealed that the first cluster corresponded to «association» type, the second – «friends» type, the third – «family» type and the fourth – «party» type. It was marked a positive tendency of respondents’ desire to more productive, in our opinion, types of organizational cultures in choosing their future workplace. Further study of selected clusters on accordance of the types of organizational culture of future workplace to personal characteristics of respondents – relative level of satisfaction of basic needs and expression of social and psychological attitudes in motivational sphere – showed the presence of only general trends to the selection of specific types of the organizational culture. It was concluded that in order to ensure more precise recommendations on the choice of a particular dominating item in the organization of the culture type, apart from the testing, in our opinion, it is necessary to apply the psychological counseling.
Key words: organizational culture; typology of organizational culture; choice of organizational culture of future workplace; personality; personal characteristics; the level of satisfaction of basic needs; expression of social and psychological attitudes; research.
UDC 159.923.2: 316.61
The article considers the results of theoretical and experimental studies on the problem of family relations between children of different age. The controversial pedagogues and psycholo gists’ views on the child family position as elder or junior among brothers and sisters were analyzed. It was set that the family children conflict derived the emotion warmth deficit and complicated the formation of social links at adult age. The positive relations between brothers and sisters determine the successful socialization and reduce the future social problems. It was shown the main role of near adults, i.e. the parents and teachers, for different age children relation forming. It was revealed that the family experience of different age children relation didn’t ensure the successful social relations but formed the child’s readiness to the contacts out of family. It was set that the family experience of different age children relation was not only the sphere of different age contacts and it could be compensated by extra family experience of different age children relation. The child’s interpersonal relations with peers or with adults can maintain the realization of potential abilities of children or reduce this process. The revealing of conditions, peculiarities, mechanisms of positive junior-pupils interpersonal relations forming is very important. While this age period there is active process of personal development, interpersonal relations are the most effective means to manage this development of child. Intro ducing junior pupils’ interpersonal relations with peers or with adults to the learning activity is the way to their amplification and improving. Such interpersonal relations are mediated by the content of learning activity and by person’s new growth accordingly to junior-pupils age.
Key words: family, family relations, child family position, different age children relation, elder position, junior position.
There have been developed the integrated adaptive and dynamic process of learning of medical students, aimed at the development of psychological personality structures in the course of vocational training, which would take into account and provide the potential formation of all components of their professional competence. The proposed experimental teaching medical students provides active involvement in the training of future professionals and checking the impact of pedagogical support by means of didactics and trainings. The developed adaptive and dynamic training was to create a methodical system of training and appropriate psychological and pedagogical conditions that allowed students to manage students’ learning, namely a model of methodical system was created that provided personality development of a future doctor. The model of adaptive and dynamic training a student of higher medical educational institution was developed in account with the systematic and conceptual approaches to the personality development of a future doctor. This model is a complex formation, which includes two units of interconnected multicomponents: 1) a component unit of professional competence; 2) a system unit of organizational and pedagogical conditions for the formation of professional competence. We introduced the following subjects: «Scientific Research Students’ Activities», «Psychology of Intercourse», «Pedagogy of Higher Medical Education», trainings «Development of communicative skills in future physicians» and «Psychological and pedagogical support in the development of future doctors in the system competence approach to learning», content and didactic component of these subjects provides the development of psychological personality structures of medical students. The realization of the model of future doctor’s professional competence is possible in the educational environment of educational process by means of different didactic and methodological principles, which are the following: an integrated educational process: objectives, contents, methods.
Key words: personal development, modeling, adaptive and dynamic learning process, psychological and pedagogical conditions, profession of a doctor.
T.B. Khomulenko, M.V. Balushok
The article envisages the psychological characteristics that contributed to the rise and functioning of intrapersonal conflict of the «value-availability» in adolescence. According to the analysis of aspects of the rise of intrapersonal conflict in adolescence, using factor analysis, we can see a tendency to the constructive and unconstructive functioning of internal conflict in the individual profiles of coping strategies, selfregulation, neurotic tendencies, anxiety at all levels of internal conflict. In conclusion such functioning can be considered as being constructive including self-regulation, coping strategies, lack of neurotic tendencies and personal anxiety which is reflected in factors of «Self-regulation-knowledge», «Reassessment-solution of the problem», «Realization-freedom». The lack of constructive functioning associated with personal anxiety, neurotic tendencies are reflected in the following factors «Prestige-admiration», «Selfsufficiency-freedom», «Achievement-recognition». By clustering research methods of neurotic tendencies we found the following «expressed» and «moderately expressed» neurotic personality profiles. The «expressed» profile is dominated by internal conflicts of work and money, leading to neurotic tendencies to self-affirmation by prestige, achievement or exploitation, the coping strategies of «Confrontation» and «Escape-avoidance». The «Moderately expressed» neurotic profile is characterised by the smaller level of neurotic tendencies, anxiety, flexible regulatory processes and the internal conflict of love. The study clearly shows the peculiarities of emergence and functioning of intrapersonal conflict that explain its role as the driving force of its development or slowing down.
Key words: intrapersonal conflict, self-regulation, neurotic tendencies, coping strategies, adolescence, the driving force of development, neurotic profile, motivational and personal sphere.
The article envisages the peculiarities of psychotherapeutic help for families with a child with psychophysiological disorders. The attention is accentuated on the process and main principles of organization of psychotherapeutic events in the system of ill children rehabilitation. There is examined a necessity of close interaction of such families with health workers, pedagogical workers and social environment. Also, the research showed us in order to achieve positive results in treatment and rehabilitation of children with special needs, it is important to share experience and interact with other families that have the same problems. It is defined that psychotherapy is one of the main methods in a process of treatment and rehabilitation. We made a conclusion that a child with psychophysiological disorders needs a harmony in a family, with a help of healthy microclimate we can receive durable positive results in treatment and prospects for recovery. The attention is accentuated on the peculiarities of acceptance by parents a fact that their child has some disorders. The necessity of psychotherapeutic help is defined to be important for all family for more efficient overcoming of mental and emotional feelings towards child’s disease. Also, in this work, we examined individual approach in a process of using means and methods of psychotherapy. We made a conclusion that influencing on all sides of personality, psychotherapy and sessions with a psychologist is a kind of treatment that allows to softer and even remove accompanying disorders, deficiency of communication and cognitive process. It is defined that at present day there is no universal algorithm of psychological mutuality as for ill children so for their families.
Key words: family, psychotherapy, harmony, school for parents, help, social environment, acceptance, adaptation.
The paper deals with gender identity concept. Identity as essentially phenomenon belonging to the field of social psychology field is stated in the paper. A semantically oriented approach to the phenomenon of identity has been proved to be a relevant and effective one. Gender identity is interpreted from the point of view of this phenomenon of subjective semantics, that is, from the point of view of its contents and meaning. The data analysed were acquired with a self-report of Kuhn and McPartland’s Twenty Statements Test (TST). Kuhn and McPartland’s TST is designed to investigate empirically self-attributes. This paper uses an additional instruction to original TST. Participants were instructed to continue the phrases beginning with «Women usually…» and «Men usually…». This extension of classical TST gives two sets of data attributing some subjectively important qualities to «women» and «men» respectively. Data was collected according to the Grounded Theory approach. The data sets represent subjective notion about themselves and traditional «woman» and «man» images. The collected data has been qualitatively and statistically analysed. The most frequent responses were considered as important. Social and anthropological roles were ranked. The contents of participants’ responses was analysed to obtain trustworthy generalizations of «Women usually» and «Men usually» images. During the content analysis of the text the lexical and semantic families were distinguished. The participants’ ascriptive sex and erotic preferences were connected statistically by their discursive praxis. The conclusion was made that heteroerotically oriented men see themselves as having lots of friends and being competent in money making. Heteroerotically oriented women realize themselves primarily as women and mothers, they see themselves as tidy beauties attracting a number of friends. Homoerotically oriented men emphasize their sexual preferences and manage their image as that of a subtle and easy to communicate with persons. Homoerotically oriented women, too, accentuate their sexual tastes while inflating their belonging to some abstract womanhood. They underline their peculiar societal area.
Key words: gender identity, homoerotic preferences, Kuhn and McPartland’s TST, Usual Woman image, Usual Man image, Self-image, Grounded Theory.
The destructive mental states of chiefs of social and psychological penal services are studied. The experimental study was being conducted from April 2013 till March 2014. The sample included 180 chiefs of social and psychological penal services. The distribution of chiefs of social and psychological penal services is made into five groups: the first group includes chiefs of branches working in penal institutions under one year; the second group includes chiefs working from 1 to 3 years; the third one – from 3 to 5 years in service of the penal institutions; the fourth one – from 5 to 10 years; and the fifth one – from 10 to 15 years in service of penal institutions. There were used the following methods: «16-factor personality questionnaire by R.B. Cattell (16-PF -105 – C)», method by V.U. Rybnikov «Prognoz 2», «scale of situational and personal anxiety» by Ch.D. Spielberg-U.L. Hanin», questionnaire to determine the level of professional deformation «QPD» by V.S. Miedviediev, questionnaire «MVI», which was developed by K. Maslach, S. Jekson and adapted by V.S.Miedviediev. There have been studied individual personality traits of chiefs of branches of social and psychological services, the level of mental stability, the level of situational and personal anxiety, the level of professional deformation and burnout. The destructive mental states and qualities of chiefs of branches of social and psychological penal services were found as the following: neuro- psychological instability, anxiety, timidity (fear), aggression, suspicion, tension, emotional exhaustion, lack of confidence, high self-esteem, the ability to be exposed in a group, part respondents have low self-control, a high degree of conservatism. It is concluded that the experimental group in the formative experiment will perform the chiefs of branches of social and psychological services, working up to 3 years in service of the penal institutions and are the most vulnerable categories, based on our investigation.
Key words: destructive mental states, fear, anxiety, suspicion, neuro-psychological instability, frustration, professional deformation, professional burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization.
The article deals with personal identity as the physical formation and the issue on the possibility of its transformation is studied. The stages of disturbed eating behavior cycles are presented in cases of anorexia, bulimia, obesity, psychogenic overeating. There have been considered the necessity of transformation of meanings of «the process of losing weight», as well as psychological meanings of food, the senses of difficulties overcoming, the meaning of «real» life in eating disorders. It is concluded that a negative physical experience, in particular, real or imagined overweight with chronic dissatisfaction of the personal weight is experienced by a personality as a traumatic situation, accompanied with an identity crisis, which is characterized by role shift, impaired sense of self-identity and self-determination sense aspects. In addition, there is a violation of the temporal aspects of the personality identity, that is characterized by the following symptoms: narrowing the time perspective and motivation spheres («lack of positive in the future», «lack of future», «imaginations of unreal future»); revaluation and reinterpretation of significant life situations from the perspective of a real traumatic situation that leads to a new stage of life, finding another (new) identity on the basis of other (new) senses, a change of life strategies, including alternating strategies of self-presentation; patients with eating disorders are mainly fixed on the nearest events, related to the theme of «food», «weight loss», «body modeling», «relationship to the body» and others.
Key words: identity, physicality, transformation of meanings, eating behavior, negative physical experience.
The article presents the theoretical analysis results and systematization of the results of empirical research of contextual correspondence of psychological resourcefulness with such phenomena of subjective experience as hardiness and life objectives. The problem of the level of manifestation of psychological resourcefulness in the structure of subjectness is formulated from the standpoint of person’s ability for selfdetermination. Psychological resourcefulness is defined as person’s ability to actualize own resources with the aim of self-development and helping others and the ability to operate resources. Having applied multi-factor and hierarchic multi-factor and as well regression and cluster analysis the factors of psychological resourcefulness were established, components of subjective activity were found, co-subordination of personal identity, personal maturity, and hardiness were specified. In particular, it was established that the main factors of psychological resourcefulness were life-sense orientations and hardiness. It was proved that basic beliefs, motivational goals, competences and coping-strategies of a person were components of subjective activity. Simultaneously, psychological resourcefulness is the component of personal hardiness rather than subjective activity. Multi-layered nature of psychological resourcefulness causes its positioning as psychological phenomenon in holonomic rather than hierarchic structure. The results of theoretical generalization of the data of empirical research allow grounding the level of manifestation of psychological resourcefulness in holonomic structure of subjectness of personality. It is shown that psychological resourcefulness manifests on such level of subjectness as person’s attitude towards oneself and others, and it is a component of hardiness, and functional properties of psychological resourcefulness are components of personal resourcefulness.
Key words: psychological resourcefulness, subjectness, personal identity, basic beliefs, hardiness, life-sense orientations, personal maturity, motivational goals, coping-strategies, life goals.
The article deals with revealing the relationship between school adaptation of academically capable pupils and interfamily relationships. The main approaches to the study of school adaptation of academically capable children were analyzed; the theoretical foundations of interfamily relations impact on personality development of first-graders were examined. A diagnostic tool allowing empirically to explore the features of school adaptation of academically capable children was chosen. The main characteristics of interfamily relationships that promote or hinder adaptation of academically talented first-graders were explored. It was found out that almost all families, in which academically capable children live, have positive psychological climate and all the conditions favorable for school adaptation of first-graders are created. It was concluded that determination of psychological readiness for school of academically capable children in terms of scientific and pedagogical project «Intellect of Ukraine», has favored to accelerate their school adaptation. A positive relationship between interfamily relations and efficient adaptation of academically capable pupils of the first grade was revealed. It was determined that there is a direct relationship between parental attitude and level of anxiety of the children taking part in the experiment, namely, the level of children’s anxiety is enhanced when parents use the strategy of «authoritarian hipersocialization», «little loser», «exclusion» and if using strategies of «symbiosis» and «cooperation» the level of anxiety is within the normal. It was revealed that most parents of academically capable first- graders use the strategy of «symbiosis», which is positively significant for adaptation. It should be noted that family relationships have a significant impact on school adaptation of academically capable children.
Key words: school adaptation, anxiety of academically capable children, parental attitude, interfamily relationships.