Issue 28

Issue 28

UDC 159.923

S.D. Maksymenko

Psychoanalytic theories of the development of personality and psyche

The problem of mental development of the child’s personality and the impact of training and education on the development, having its special interpretation in different ways and approaches, are being analyzed by the author. The most recognized and respected is emphasized to be deep psychology, within which the formation and development of personality are elucidated as quite fundamental. The task of the psychologist is accentuated to identify experiences that injure a person and dismiss them by remembering, conscious analysis, repressed instincts, understanding the causes of neuroses. It is noted that research in psychiatry and psychopathology compelled to study the role and actions of the unconscious factors that determine the needs and desires of the individual, his behavior, which contributed to a trend in psychoanalytic psychology (Z. Freud). It is noted that the concept of Z. Freud, who raised the most important components of the human psyche, the unconscious, has incorporated many different observations, conjectures and assumptions. The early stages of psychosexual development are emphasized to be the determining factors of the whole human life in psychoanalysis. It is established that the impression of the first five years, of course, is almost entirely within the scope of the unconscious, and the ratio of the forgotten and superseded material (descriptive and dynamic unconscious) is the basis for constitutional predisposition of a person to the emergence of mental disorders. It is concluded that the mental development of a person is considered by deep psychological schools as formation of consciousness, and the dynamics of the relationship between realizable and unconscious parts (sides, aspects) is actually mental and psychological development. It is noted that this view in one form or another can be considered as common to most psychiatrists, even if they have different views on the nature and essence of the unconscious and the extent of its impact on the personality.

Key words: psychoanalytic theories, personality’s development, depth psychology, psyche, mental development, inclinations, influence, neuroses, conscious and unconscious, psychosexual development.

 

UDC 159.923:165.43

Y.A. Alieksieieva

The classification of forms and types of personality’s faith

The article reflects the views of the psychologists considering a typology of different forms and kinds of faith. The studied literature allows to affirm that there was no sufficient attention to the issue of faith systematics in the works of psychologists. The analysis of some attempts to classify religious faith, which marked such its options as a healthy, toxic, authentic, inauthentic, organizmically-vital, existential-cultural and ontological, was given. The researchers highlighted such options of the faith forms by their relevance to the reality as rational and irrational. Rational belief as it turned out, is based on the real and highly probable facts and is manifested in the faith in oneself, in others, in humanity. Certain kinds of irrational faith, such as naive trustfulness, intellectual and emotional faith were described. The classification of productive and unproductive forms of faith in the basis of which was put the criterion of their harmonizing and adaptive effect on the individual was provided. The following kinds of productive faith : spiritual and religious, interpersonal, autopersonal, belief in social values are theoretically proved. The scientists’ views on such kinds of unproductive faith as mystical, including demonological representations and superstitions, prejudices and idolatry were analyzed. It is noted that the variants of the productive forms of faith form a positive assessment of the future and the current life, stimulate a tendency to self-actualization, contribute to activation of inner resources and personal growth. Unproductive form of faith creates an illusory perception of the world, leading to a distortion of reality, blocking the individual’s ability to the development and adaptation. As a result of this issue study, we can make a conclusion that the wide and generalized publications on this issue are not available yet, despite the attempts of many authors to identify and describe certain types of faith.

Key words : classification of faith forms and kinds, kinds of faith, rational belief, irrational belief, productive faith, unproductive faith, faith in oneself, faith in others, mystical faith, superstition and idolatry.

 

UDC 159.9.019.4:159.922.8:616.8(045)

O.O. Bantysheva

Methods for investigating the psychological peculiarities of emotional intelligence in juveniles with an inclination towards victim behaviour

On the basis of the theoretical analysis of a variety of scientific publications the author states that a well-developed emotional intelligence affects a person’s quality of life, especially that of juveniles. It is shown to correlate with certain positive personal qualities, such as managerial abilities, stress proof and adaptive functions, resistance to negative affective influence, self-motivation, leadership, successfulness and others. On the other hand, poorly developed emotional intelligence correlates with some kinds of problematic behaviour, first of all with aggression and substance abuse, with high personal anxiety, internet dependence and low selfesteem. It is known that developed emotional intelligence contributes to inner harmony and high stress tolerance, ability to withstand manipulation. The author considers that these personal skills could prevent a juvenile’s inclination towards victim behaviour, make his life more effective and the relationship with other people more productive. The author highlights the methods for diagnosing the psychological peculiarities of emotional intelligence in juveniles with an inclination towards victim behaviour. It is also explained in the article why this or that psychological method was chosen to investigate the relation between juvenile emotional intelligence and characteristics and factors of juvenile victim behaviour. In developing the investigation techniques the main national approaches to the studying of victim behaviour inclination were used. It is concluded that it is advisable to develop the author’s own technique for developing emotional intelligence as a factor reducing victim behaviour.

Key words: victim behaviour, emotional intelligence, factors of victim behaviour, diagnostics of psychological peculiarities of emotional intelligence, diagnostics of victim behaviour, juvenile age.

 

UDC 159.9.072.4

A.O. Borysova

Universal and ethnically specific resources of crosscultural adaptation of students-foreigners

The problems of cross-cultural adaptation of students-foreigners in the country of educating are analysed in the article. The maintenance, displays, results, external and internal factors of cross-cultural adaptation are educed. It’s certain, that even at favorable combination of all terms, the process of cross-cultural adaptation can cause the negative effects. It is shown that the most widespread negative effect of cross-cultural adaptation is culture shock. The influence of culture shock on ethno-psychological status of students-foreigners is considered. It is educed, that the most widespread consequence of negative influence of culture shock are violation of ethnic identity and decline of ethnic tolerance. It is concluded that the features of cross-cultural adaptation allow to attribute it to the difficult life situations. The theoretical analysis of problem of personality resources of difficult life situations overcoming is carried out. The theoretical model of personality resources of cross-cultural adaptation of students-foreigners is reasonable. The universal and ethnically specific elements in the structure of theoretical model of personality resources of students-foreigners’ cross-cultural adaptation are distinguished. Position that the universal resources of cross-cultural adaptation are hardiness, tolerance for ambiguity, ability to constructive coping-behavior is set forth. It is shown that ethnically specific resources of cross-cultural adaptation there are a positive ethnic identity and ethnic tolerance. An empiric verification of theoretical model of personality resources of students-foreigner’s cross-cultural adaptation is undertaken. It is well-proven that the most successful strategies of cross-cultural adaptation are related to the high level of hardiness, tolerance for ambiguity, ability to constructive strategies of coping-behavior, positive ethnic identity and ethnic tolerance.

Key words: students-foreigners, cross-cultural adaptation, personality resources, hardiness, tolerance for ambiguity, coping, ethnic identity, ethnic tolerance.

 

UDC 159.9.07: 377.1

N.І. Voloshko

Analysis of motivational component of healthy lifestyle of senior pupils in educational process

The article is devoted to the analysis of results of psychological research of level of development of motivational component of culture of healthy lifestyle of senior pupils in educational process. The general level of development of motivational component of healthy lifestyle of senior pupils is studied. The results of level of development of motivational component of senior pupils’ healthy lifestyle are generalized and analysed on the basic of different aspects, which assist maintenance and strengthening of physical, psychological, social and mental health, such as: – keeping the rational schedule of day (sleep, studies (labour) and rest); keeping the rational feed (regime of feed and its quality); keeping the optimal healthy motive activity; keeping the personal hygiene; – following the norms of healthy psychological vital functions (hygiene of mental labour, rational regime of studies (labour) and rest); organization of individual healthy style of labour (studies) on the basis of knowledge about individual psychological properties of personality; use of skills of psychological self-regulation; creative intellectual (self)development, studies; – keeping the norms of healthy social and psychological climate in a collective (healthy relations, intercourse); active social self-realization in different spheres of life (educational, personality successes, achievements, fascinations); keeping the norms of healthy social life, normal adaptation (absence of harmful habits, offences, socially risky conduct); – keeping the cultural virtues, religious commandments, elimination of sins; life on the basis of values of Goodness, Beauty, Truth.

Key words: motivational component of healthy lifestyle, maintenance and strengthening of physical, psychological, social, mental health.

 

UDC 159.923

S.V. Herasina

Businesslike Character as Precondition of Successful Self- actualization in the System of Competitiveness of Modern Specialist

The article reveals from different points of view the term «Businesslike character» in the context of personal and professional direction of the subject of the labor activity. The businesslike character is an indicator of individual working style which correlates with rational system of organization and is guided by business interests. The article determines that the businesslike character demonstrates cognitive competence of a subject as well as individual and typological peculiarities. Businesslike character models the psychological outline of a specialist by demonstrating the main qualities, peculiarities and the outlines of the person’s character which reflect his psychogram. The personal peculiarities of a specialist which make psychological and social portrait of a successful business person, in particular the internal control locus, adequate self-rating, rationality, pragmatism, ability to work, professional competence, emotional and moral stableness, social and communicative activity, responsibility, ambition, diplomacy in the confrontation situations have been analyzed. The basis system building characteristics of the subject which are a collection of personal abilities that simulate a business profile and individual style and professional skills have been determined. Psychological peculiarities of business skills develop ment through the analysis of the structural integrals of the phenomenon have been studied, such as initiative, business sociability, assertiveness, the sense of self-respect, self-management and the skills of self-presentation. It was studied that the person’s ability to generate new ideas, communicative competence, emotions and values attitude to himself and the colleagues, high level of self-organization and labor discipline, constructional way to express «public I» – determinate the development of structural integrals of businesslike character, the pointed determinants generate the profile of a successful specialist which is an important precondition for self-realization and competitive labor market skills.

Key words: businesslike character, personality and professional direction, individual peculiarities of subject, economic enterprise, sociability, assertiveness, sense of self-respect, self-management, skills of self-presentation, self-realization, competitive labor market skills.

 

UDC 3.316.77

N.M. Honcharuk

On the problem of classification of communicative acts in psychological research

The article describes the different approaches to typological classification of communicative acts. The study analyzes the semantic criteria on which the differentiation of communicative acts, peculiarities of taxonomy in linguistic and psychological theories of communication. The author realized the psychological approach to the classification of communicative acts, based on a study of the semantic psychological characteristics of communicative behavior. The structure of personality in the system of communicative acts is analyzed, and its legal, semantic, volitional, emotional, moral and ethical, social, personal aspects are distinguished. These psychological characteristics became important for psychological analysis of the individual as a subject of communicative behavior. Based on psychological analysis, taking into account the above classification of speech acts and the generalized structure of the individual as a subject of communicative behavior, there have been distinguished the following types of communicative acts: a) motivational incentives – envisage to target interlocutor; b) information – provide communicants with information; c) interactive – implement mutual influence in the process of communication; d) directive-willed – put on communicants commitments to achieve these goals; e) expressive – are in terms of emotional states communicants during intercourse; e) self-centered – focusing communication around his own «ego»; f) ethical – influencing the value system of communicants; g) traditional (automated) – is to use behavioral automatisms for establishing and maintaining contact. The classification allows further examine trends of different communicative acts implement a differentiated approach to their formation and regulation.

Key words: communicative act, speech act, the psychological theory of communication, linguistic communication theory.

 

UDC 124.5 : 159.923 (045)

І.А. Hulias

Purpose orientation in the context of valued direction of personality

The article is devoted to the highly actual and important problem of purpose orientation in the context of the axiopsychological projecting of personality, basis of that is ability of the personality to reflect own models of reality, analyze and critically convert configurations of their meaningful components, to develop and realize projects of their creative reconstruction. It is marked that the orientation of the personality is foremost related to the choice of those values, which are offered by society, and that she can realize, develop or even create depending on individual features and limitations of environment. The individual choice of values determines the sense of orientation of the personality. The attention is focused on that the project function of purpose orientation is provided by strategies, i.e. by ability to plan actually future, to determine the main vector of course of life, see the prospect of the development, and realistic events, i.e. by ability to correlate the level of complication of the put aim with the degree of probability of its achievement. On the basis of the empiric data got by means of project «Methodology of research of purpose orientation of personality» of Y.V. Vasyliev, the quantitative indexes of structure of purpose orientation of polled are ana lysed. Among seven spheres of purpose orientation to personality (personal, intimate, domestic, friendly, educational-professional, public, amateur) the following ones prevail: personal – for students, domestic – adults, personal – on the whole on a selection. In both groups and on the whole on a selection, unfortunately, a friendly sphere has very subzero indexes.

Key words: purpose orientation of personality, axiopsychological projecting, values, spheres of purpose orientation.

 

UDC 37. 015. 3

T.S. Hurlieva

Psychological and pedagogical conditions of responsibility development in adolescence

The necessity to raise the responsibility level of adolescent students in modern socio-cultural conditions are analyzed and proved in the article. There have been defined the psychological and pedagogical conditions of integral responsibility formation as a personal ability to be led by one’s conscience, internal moral law and to act according to them. Based on the results of studying the peculiarities of teenager’s responsibility, the types of prosocial and asocial responsibility, its realization in well-behaved and ill-behaved students were marked and characterized in the article. The connection between responsibility and such concepts as conscience, sublime meanings of life and their impact on the subject’s development is provided. Some diagnostic techniques of such quality as responsibility of modern teenagers are defined in the article. The article exemplifies results of the questionnaire, the proprietary survey «What Shall I do?», the proprietary projective methodology «Responsibility. Or What I Mean by It», and the technique of the Semantic Differential are summarized. The peculiarities of application and an expectant result of pedagogical methods of requirement and joint action within the system «teacher-studentclassroom community» are defined. The role of pedagogical conversation is viewed in the article as a condition of formation and self-cultivation of teenage personal responsibility. Psychological and pedagogical conditions of formation of such integral quality as positive responsibility of teenagers, namely: in the process of a teacher’s making pedagogical demands to a student; in the joint action of a teacher, a student and a classroom community; in the course of self-cultivation of responsibility.

Key words: responsibility, conscience, sublime meanings, types of responsibility, ill-behaved and well-behaved teenagers, method of requirement, method of joint action, method of conversation.

 

UDC 159.923.5

T.V. Dutkevych, T.A. Panchyshyna

The psycholinguistic peculiarities of the irreal wish expression in German language

The article considers the concept of irreal wish, its categorization in the system of psychological phenomena. It was revealed the coordination between psychological characteristics of irreal wish and grammatical means of their verbalization in the speech of personality. The study was conducted by using of psycholinguistic analysis of 956 syntactic constructions, which were selected from the German fiction of XX century a total of 18 490 pages. It was shown that the sentence of «irreal wish» is worth to consider as a syntactic construction which belongs to the field of language means aimed to estimate probability of event realization. The special localization of the sentence of «irreal wish» on this field is determined by the character of its modal plan as a tool aimed to estimate low probability of realization of desired event. It was showed that wish is one of the important personality’s motives. The differential peculiarities of wish as psychological phenomena were analyzed. These peculiarities must be taking in account to differ the wish from other personality’s motives first of all from aspiration, desire, dream. The authors have founded that syntactic constructions of the sentence of «irreal wish» in contemporary German language give the personality a possibility to express in speech such characteristics of the personality’s wish as realizing of the thing which could satisfy the need; positive emotional colouration; stimulating nature; the joining of orientation to the aim and absence of exact imagination about ways to achieve the aim. It was revealed that constructions of the sentence of «irreal wish» give the personality an opportunity to exact differentiation between wish and others human motives such as aspiration, desire, dream. It was made the conclusion that the sentence of «irreal wish» in contemporary German language is a special mean intended for the exact and laconic expression of personality’s irreal wish which consists of many semantic components. There are three semantic blocks i.e. the subject of wish, the content of wish, the performer of wish and grammar measures to express them in speech interaction. The article contains many examples to verify the psycholinguistic peculiarities of the structure of the sentence of «irreal wish» in contemporary German language.

Key words: irreal, wish, the sentence of «irreal wish», the motive, personality, German language, speech, expression.

 

UDC 159.923.2

O.I. Zimovin

The self-development of personality in the youth age as a discursive construction: research basics and results

The self-development of personality in the youth age is considered by the author as a discursive construction created in the communication of people, in the cultural and historical conditions of their existence. Based on the theoretical analysis the representation of the unit of psychological analysis of the personal self-development, that should allow its understanding in the unity of structural and dynamic aspects, is developed. This unit is the choice action between conflicting positions, selves, identities. It is concluded that the self-development is the choice oneself in the conditions of contradictions within one self or between selves related to different discourses. It leads to the agentive, reflexive positioning. The nodal points of the discursive construction of the self-development are determined using the discourse analysis of the stories of youthful persons about themselves and their lives. They are «education», «self-cultivation», «self-improvement», «self-construction», «sport», «traveling», «work», «hobbies», «life», «aversion to people». It is shown that the realized importance of the self-development is represented by students in the constructions «self-cultivation», «selfimprovement», «self-construction». «Self-cultivation» is associated with changes in their personality traits, «self-improvement» with development of the intelligence and «self-construction» with determination of their future. The subjective positions that correspond to the importance of the selfdevelopment are «successful person», «perfectionist» and «student». The contradictory selves and the articulation of choice necessity identified in the stories of youthful persons illustrate the efficiency of the consideration of the choice action as the unit of the psychological analysis of the personal self-development.

Key words: self-development of personality, choice, youth age, discourse, discursive psychology, cultural and historical psychology, self, analysis of units.

 

UDC 159.923.5

A.O. Ivanchenko

Creativity: logos of the life and vector of purposeful movement

This article proves the position of «creativity» as a dynamic creative orientation in the person’s life, which provides a real opportunity to increase a vitality, to strengthen an individual psychoresistance, to improve the somatic-physiologic organism state as well as to provide the life with positivity. The mixture of phenomena «творчество» and «креативность» in the categoric-conceptual aspect, presented in the Russian scientific literature, has been distinguished. It is justified an introduction of the adequate English-language term «creative life-orientation», fully corresponding to the psychological essence, placed in the Russian-language term «креатив- ность». There are given the definite explanations concerning the rationality of its use. It allows one to avoid an intersection with the concept of «творче- ство», to escape a synonymous tautology and fully comply with the author’s conception of research work as for the «creative life-orientation». The basic components, being included in the structure of the «creative life-orientation» as a life-organizing person’s direction, have been defined. The creativity structure is elaborated. The internal/external factors, affecting the creative self-manifestation are identified. It is shown that a spiritual development catalyzes the creative disclosure, during which the natural psycho-bio-energetic human’s resources are being joined and the person’s psychosoma is being stabilized. On the base of student’s creative disclosure in the linguistic training, the expediency of early introduction of the cultural excursions (held in the target language) and the schematization are experimentally proved, which aim to remove the linguistic blocking, to increase a cognitive motivation, to promote the linguistic self-realization. All of that in totality leads to the life optimism, the psycho-somatic normalization and improving of health parameters.

Key words: creative life-orientation, spirituality, dynamic orientation, values, psychosomatic stability, stress-preventive measures.

 

UDC 159.9;301

A.V. Kazak

The synthesis of characteristics of psychophysiological portrait of a decision maker in a high-risk condition

The paper emphasizes the need to consider the personal qualities of managerial specialists of companies associated with increased risk in the workplace. Therefore, the structure of the individuality of the person who decides at high risk is developed. As a result of research and summarizing the factors that affect the identity of the person, obtained by researchers of leading scientific institutions of the world, the author defined the main components of psychophysiological portrait of a professional manager. It is revealed that the uncertainty that accompanies the decision-making process may be conditioned by not only the situation that arises, including information, but also personality traits of decision making expert. The author proposed and proved the new method of accounting for individual characteristics of expert who makes decision at high risk. This article presents a systematic analysis of the factors influencing the development of personality. On the basis of studying the mechanism of formation of basic and programmable features the characteristics of the psychophysiological portrait of the person, who makes decisions at high risk, are synthesized. It is concluded that the proposed method of accounting and consideration of features of forming the structure of psychophysiological traits of management specialist allows to organize the high-quality competitive selection of candidates for the positions, which in turn allows to reduce significantly the risk of making wrong and negative decisions, namely their effects.

Key words: psychophysiology, decision makers, risk, neuron, the neuron places, grid-neuron lattice.

 

UDC 159.923

O.V. Kaminska

Testing of the program in correction of dependence on online gambling and online purchases

The necessity to develop methods and ways of correcting Internet addiction is proved in the article. It is emphasized that Internet addiction encompasses a growing number of young people, due to scientific and technical progress and the lack of effective prophylaxis programs. The main aspects of internet addiction are described in general. It is emphasized that the dependence on online gambling and online purchases is one of the most dangerous types of Internet addiction, as it involves not only destructive personality changes, but significant financial losses, affects the standard of living of the addict. The features of the development of the program in correction of one of the types of Internet addiction are described, the main stages are ana- lyzed. The need to use the resource approach when dealing with addicts is stressed. It allows to update the hidden potential of the personality and contributes to the harmonization of its individual characteristics. Attention is drawn to the need to identify the frustrated needs that an individual moves in a plane of virtual reality that depletes his social life and creates further difficulties in socialization. The structure of correctional program is proposed, its goals and objectives are defined, the main lines of work of the psychologist with addicts are distinguished. The results confirming the effectiveness of the author’s program in correction of dependence on online gambling and online purchases are presented. A detailed analysis of the data obtained during the testing program is carried out. The effectiveness of the correctional program, which can be used to overcome the kind of Internet addiction, is confirmed.

Key words: Internet addiction, addict, addiction to online gambling and online purchases, psycho-correction, socio-psychological training, correctional program.

 

UDC 316.454.52-053.9

O.H. Kovalenko

The model of interpersonal communication of elderly people

The article analyzes the contents of scientific approaches of specific scientific and methodological level in the study of interpersonal communication of elderly people (system level, level of concepts of interpersonal communication, existential theory, integrative approach, theories of personality). The content and principles of personal and communicative approach as a basic in the development of conceptual ideas about the identity of the elderly people and the process of their interpersonal communication have been proved. The identity of the elderly people according to this approach is deemed as a subject of subject-to-subject communication and conscious activity that presents a dynamic unity, a system of different interconnected mental processes and properties. The model of interpersonal communication of elderly people have been characterized. It includes a subsystem of the mental phenomena of elderly people (cognitive, communicative, regulatory), the structure of components of interpersonal communication of persons of this age (emotional, cognitive, behavioral), mechanisms of such communication (empathy, sympathy, reflection, understanding, decentration, identification, constructive ways of interaction), its factors (external – as natural, anthropogenic and social environment, internal – as biological, social and psychological characteristics of subjects of communication), its functions (affective and communicative, including the formation of interpersonal relationships, informational and communicative, including adjustment of the meaning of life and the regulative and communicative, including the regulation of emotional states and experiences), as well as laws concerning driving forces, conditions, features of improvement of such communication. The conclusion about the need of use of this model in practice has been made.

Key words: interpersonal communication, the elderly people, mental subsystems, structure of components, factors, mechanisms, functions and laws.

 

UDC 159.972+616-059+616-05+616.85

I.A. Koval

Modern approaches in the views on the etiology of depressive disorders, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders

The movement of the spread of depression disorders (DD) is analyzed. It is stated that over the past 20 years unexplained and not treated depression is recognized as a major problem of public health in many countries, especially in Europe and the USA. The half of the cases of DD is established not be recognized by a patient or a doctor too. And in a case, which was diagnosed, many patients remain untreated. On time diagnosis of depression and of its etiology understanding help us faster and qualitative making treatment. The influencing factors are the stigma, unawareness of importance of treatment of this disorder, and at fact, that the doctors and patients pay more attention to somatic complaints; and we have information that depression includes 80% of the suicide cases. But it is noted that depression responds well for treatment. The diagnostic criteria of major depressive episode were investigated: – a combination of factors which can give us satisfactory results of treatment; – picture of the physical examination for depression; – simple methods for assessment of depression, which in our time are available to all doctors (the Beck’s scale, for example, is a self-report scale, which is a tool for screening and monitoring the progress of therapy). Also drugs in therapeutically dose support antidepressant treatment for 4-6 weeks; the psychotherapeutic treatment is very important for 2 hours a week during 20 weeks. It is concluded that in any case the effectiveness of treatment DD depends on right found etiology of depression and right diagnosis determination; right therapeutically dose of antidepressants; and quality of psychotherapeutic treatment (with psychiatric support).

Key words: depressive disorder, big depressive episode, psychosomatics, anhedonia, resistance, distress, remission, factor of risk, screening, etiology of depression.

 

UDC 159. 9.072:316.6

N.V. Korchakova

Study of prosociality in early childhood: methodological aspects

As noted in recent researches, prosocial behaviors emerge in the early stages of ontogeny and play an important role in the social lives of humans. It is clear that the last decade is characterized by growing researchers’ interests in the study of prosocial behavior in childhood, but many questions remain unresolved. There is less consensus regarding the types of prosocial behavior, the mechanisms that underlie and maintain these fundamental acts and peculiarities of early forms of this phenomenon. The purpose of this article is to clarify the measures and some methods of studying the prosocial behavior in infants and young children. The features of methodological procedures and instruments used to study pre-dispositional level of prosocial behavior in children are analyzed. The peculiarities of the experiments and social games that allowed to explore children’s sensitivity to the needs of others, the emergence of desire to assist them, children’s understanding the principle of equity, their activity according to this line and their displays of the primary forms of generosity and compassion are described. Our analysis revealed the great diversity of diagnostic tools for the study the earliest forms of prosocial behavior in young age. The main methods are a field observation and an experiment. The last one designed in the different forms of economic or social games. These forms of measure allowed us to observe the displays of the first forms of prosocial actions, emotional and cognitive child’s involvement in the social context of the situations. All experimental models differ on several criteria: the nature of the child’s position in the enacted situation (active participant – external observer); peculiarities of partners (adults, peers, toys); instrumental design of the experiment (use of technical support for modeling and displaying diagnostic situations and fixation children’s reactions); the nature and amount of diagnostic material. In general, we can say that the methodological aspect of the studying prosocial development in young age is under intensive development.

Key words: prosociality, prosocial development, children’s prosocial behavior, measures, diagnostic tools, social and economic games.

 

UDC 159.923

S.P. Koshova

Particular features of psychic self-regulation of children with cancer

The effect of oncological diseases on human life was examined in this article. This disease affects more and more people and even gradually getting «younger». According to statistics proximately one in 500 patients, malignant tumor develops in childhood and despite the achievements of modern medicine and the possibility of a significant improvement of prediction, cancer is still one of the most common cause of death in children. Every year about 17 cases of cancer in 100,000 children or from 7 to 8 thousand of new diagnoses are registered. It was found that at the present stage of development of medical science and practice cancer has changed from inevitably fatal, incurable into chronic disease; if in the past the life span of a child with cancer pathology was measured in months, but now children can live years or more. Bay the way, cancer is one of the most terrible, frightening diseases of mankind. In this regard, both patients and their parents have different prejudices, fears installations which prevent the normal course of treatment and effective adaptation. It is established that with the increasing capabilities of modern medicine, psychological factors play an increasingly important role both in the treatment process, and in the course of adaptation and rehabilitation of the child. It was concluded that the child more than adult need psychological support, correction and rehabilitation in the social environment. In this regard, foreign researchers working in this field and who have made the most significant contribution to the development of this complex problem [McGrath P.I., Cappelli M., 1990; Canuron Marilyn, 1984; Weisman A.D., 1979] point out that with increasing of capabilities of modern high-tech medicine, psychological factors become a significant component in the children and their parent’s ability to resist a disease.

Key words: self-regulation, adaptation, maladjustment, cancer, critical life situation, individual characteristics, internal picture of the disease, quality of life.

 

UDC 159.922

S.L. Kravchuk

The psychological peculiarities of depression and emotional instability of personality of middle age

The theoretic-empiric analysis of aspects of the problem of psychological peculiarities of depression and emotional instability of personality is presented in the article. The analysis of concepts of depression and emotional instability of personality is carried out. It is noticed that depression is a combination of emotions and affective cognitive structures which include fear, alarm, sense of guilt, despair and anger. It is noticed that emotional instability is an integrate property of personality. It is investigated that personality of middle age with depression is more inclined to emotional instability, nervousness, irritation, shyness, feminine gender and less inclined to steady. The considerable feedback of depression with self-actualization of personality is discovered. It is studied that personality of middle age with depression is more inclined to pleasure from aggression, infection of aggression of crowd, impulsive aggressiveness, reflection of aggression, reactive aggressiveness. It is investigated that personality of middle age with depression is more inclined to the use of such mechanisms of psychological defense as: regression, suppression, substitution, compensation and projection. It is studied that inability of control of emotions is essential barrier in personal contact of people of middle age with depression. It is noticed that personality of middle age with depression is less inclined to establishment of stable and benevolent relations with surrounding people, less inclined to harmonious interaction with surrounding people, ability for self-opening. It is noticed that personality of middle age with depression has dominant three types of personal relations: distrustful-scepticism, dependent, submissive-shy. It is studied that personality of middle age with depression has inner strain, alarm, anger, loss of control of emotions and disorganization of behaviour. It is noticed that depression increase negative influence of strong stress factors.

Key words: personality, depression, emotional instability, steady, stress situations, self-control.

 

UDC 159.947.5

L.I. Kuzio

The structure of parameters of personality’s learning motivation and dynamics of its development in the student’s age

The content of learning motivation and the structure of its parameters are determined. The features of formation of learning motivation in students’ age are analyzed. Peculiarities of the structure and the development of student’s personality motivational sphere are examined, the characteristics of individual leading learning motives are determined. Motivation to study is defined as a separate type of motivation, which is included in training activity. A number of parameters of learning motivation study are highlighted; its internal and external characteristics are highlighted. The article deals with the immediate motives (cognitive – desire for creative research, the process of solving cognitive tasks, self-education, focusing on growth, the desire to expand horizons and erudition, to raise the cultural level), the implied motives (social – awareness of the need for education, the prestige of education, a desire to become a full member of the society, responsibility, social identification, position in the group, approval from the teachers; and the motives of achievement –to be better prepared for professional activity and to get a well-paid job). Activity motives are classified as follows: (1) broad social motivations; (2) educational motives; (3) personal; (4) the motives to avoid failures. The classification of motivational orientations is outlined: focusing on the process, on the outcome, on the teacher’s assessment, orientation to avoid failures. Educational motives, a considerable number of which is similar for the first and the fourth year students are studied. The senior students prevail with the groups of motives, which can be interpreted as a motivational factor that contributes to improving the students’ training. The first year students are characterized by the external negative motivation.

Key words: learning motivation, student age, motive, activity causes, academic success, external characteristics, internal characteristics, motivational factor.

 

UDC [616.891.6:616.12-008.1]:615.851

V.P. Kultenko

The modern view on the propensity in men of a working age to panic attacks and effect on cardiovascular system

The appearance of panic attacks in men of a working age, and appearance of the symptoms related to disruption of the cardiovascular system are analyzed and substantiated in this article. During diagnostics in all group of studied patients there were recorded asthenic-depressive and anxious feelings, significantly lowered mood, psycho-emotional lability, which was often changed to emotional impulsivity and cognitive-memory disorders were determined. According to the results of the research specific changes and dependence regarding features of internal picture of the disease with cognitive disabilities were observed in patients of the working age. The psychocorrective measures in the overall scheme of treatment of psychosomatic patients with available dependences on panic attacks and cardiac symptomatology for adaptation in the turbulent society and improving quality of life were used for the psychological adaptation. During performed measures of psycho-correction therapy the positive dynamics in cognitive mnemonic personal level, namely the volume and speed of short-term, long-term memory along with increase of visual-spatial activities are admitted in the patients. The level of verbal and non-verbal thinking was moderately restored, the selective actualization of words from the memory, which are used by patients in their careers was improved. The positive changes in psycho-emotional background, the positive dynamics in stabilizing emotional and volitional status of patients and improvement of self-assessment level in the group of patients by visible improvements in psychological and personal life are also described.

Key words: psychological propensity, panic attack, mental and emotional disorders, cardiovascular system, cognitive-memory disorders, improvement of quality of life.

 

UDC 159.942.4-053.6

M.O. Kurytsyna

Peculiarities of interrelation of professional guidelines and personal anxiety of senior high school students

The article deals with approaches to the problem of professional guidelines in adolescence period studied on the basis of analysis of psychological and educational literature. It was found that professional guideline forms the desire of the individual to get specialized education, master profession, and achieve a certain social status and success in it; readiness of the individual to performance of duties, rules, functions of a certain professional role, including both positive attitude to professional activity and professional skills for this activity, as well as related to the active choice of tasks and their own behavior modeling. It was determined that the main types of professional guidelines of senior high school students are hesitancy in professional choice, optimism regarding professional choice, self-evaluation of professional choice opportunities and dependence in carrying out the professional choice. It was found that professional guidelines of senior high school students are characterized by contradictory tendencies. Insufficient determination and independence, low self-esteem of professional choice are inherent to a large number of senior high school students. Based on the obtained empirical data of research of interrelation of professional guidelines of senior high school students with their personal anxiety, a conclusion was made that personal anxiety of senior high school students is closely connected with their professional guidelines. Specifically, high level of personal anxiety of a young man negatively affects his determination and optimism of professional choice and is associated with low self-esteem of opportunities for professional choice.

Key words: professional guideline, professional independence of choice, self-assessment of opportunities for professional choice, professional choice optimism, determination of professional choice, personal anxiety, professional identity, senior high school student, adolescence period.

 

UDC 159.923

O.O. Lazurenko

Theoretical and methodological analysis of the study of emotional competence

The main lines of research of the concept of emotional competence are revealed. The concepts of domestic and foreign researches are systematized. The results of a theoretical study of emotional competence are summarizes. The statements of individual scientists, as well as theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of the phenomenon of emotional competence are studied and summarized. It is revealed that among researchers of emotional competence there is no single opinion on the definition of this concept, its content, structure, as well as the factors that determine its development. The definition of the concept «emotional competence» is specified as a complex integrative unit, which includes a set of cognitive, behavioral and emotional qualities, proper to ensure awareness and understanding of the regulation of their own emotions and the emotions of others, affecting the success of interpersonal interactions and personal development. The structural components of emotional competence are described. The main characteristic meaningful features of this phenomenon are allocated. The essence and the content of «emotional intelligence» are defined. It was found that the construct of «emotional intelligence» takes many forms and content, depending on the views of researchers. It is methodologically proved, that the introduction of the concept of «emotional intelligence» in the categorical apparatus of modern psychology seems important and urgent scientific challenge. The social significance of the phenomenon is grounded. The correlation between the concepts of «emotional intelligence», «emotional competence» is determined. It is proved that the developed emotional intelligence and emotional competence of the personality is an important condition for success in life, satisfaction and confidence. It is concluded that the risen problem, despite its immense importance, remains under investigated in theoretical terms, and requires further scientific study and research.

Key words: personality, emotions, emotional sphere, emotional intelligence, emotional competence.

 

UDC 378.147-057.875=20:316.6:301.162

L.V. Lymar

Correction of social-psychological problems of future doctors’ readiness for preventing conflicts’ development on Medical English classes

The analysis of literature and personal author’s experience of teaching in a Medical School provided for the detection of main social-psychological problems of future doctors’ readiness for preventing conflicts and productive interaction development: unfavorable social perception of the medical career due to the loss of medical worker image (low official salary of the medical staff, increased deficiency of physicians, unavailable or poorly available medical service for the population); quantitative overload of the students’ groups (deficiency of individual contacts with tutors, loss of dialogue with them, absence of the feedback, absent discussions of the problems). Absent social-psychological teaching was detected as the main problem of educational process in Medical Schools. The author has detected that it is in the very social-psychological teaching that the student mаy develop notion of equal interaction between the doctor and patient and perceive themselves as the equal subjects of the interaction. The author defines that the productive non-conflicts interaction is especially important for good quality of the doctor’s professional activity outcome, and the communicative character of Medical Foreign Language classes stipulates for this feature development. The development of the abilities and skills required for such productive interaction is possible to be provided during the educational process. The author has proposed to organize interaction of the students with social-psychological teaching items on Medical English classes, as they are based on communicative interaction. The development of main structural components of the readiness for preventing conflicts and productive interaction (motivation component, cognitive component, conative component, emotional component, communicative component) may prove to be effective on the Medical English classes. The article contains description of various psychological drills used to develop various components of readiness for preventing conflicts and their use on Medical English classes.

Key words: social-psychological problems, readiness, preventing conflicts, medical students, medical English, correction.

 

UDC 159.94

K.S. Maksymenko

The origins and current state of personality-centered psychotherapy of Ukrainian psychotherapy school

The most famous studies on psychotherapy of psychosomatic patients with rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the gastro-duodenal area are considered by the author. It is affirmed that Ukrainian medical psychology does not have enough basic researches in the field of psychotherapy of psychosomatic patients and people with chronic diseases, despite of a sufficient number of private studies replicating each other in the field of personality-based characteristics of patients of psychosomatic category. The vast majority of them are focused on the diagnosis of psychogenic causes of physical illnesses, but not on the analysis and development of psychotherapeutic process. The need for early intervention at the stage of functional psychosomatic disorders is accentuated, as well as correct diagnosis of pathogenic significant ones in the development of psychosomatic reactions of psychological characteristics and their pathogenetic correction. It is concluded that active research of only certain kinds of psychosomatic and somatic diseases (mainly cardiovascular and gastro-duodenal) is realized in our country. Herewith much less attention is paid to other, equally important and prevalent diseases (e.g., neurodermatitis, thyrotoxicosis etc.). It has been proved that most researchers dealing with aspects of psychotherapy usually dwell only on characteristic features of patients with psychosomatic profile, which in principle cannot be productively seen as individual, without attempts of further development of programs on psychotherapeutic work in order to optimize the patient’s state.

Key words: psychotherapeutic work, patient’s state, diagnosis, psychosomatic disorders, psychotherapy of psychosomatic patients, personality-oriented psychotherapy, Ukrainian psychotherapy school.

 

UDC 159.9

O.I. Medvedska

Computer technologies in education: the peculiarities of the teacher and student’s attitudes towards them

The article deals with the problem of the increasing effect of the computer technologies that are widely spread nowadays in education. The results of the study of the points of view of different participants in the system of education (tea chers and teenage pupils) in relation to the computer as a source of knowledge are presented. The collection of the psychological information was carried out by means of the methods of free associations and questionnaires; the information was processed with the help of the method of content analysis. It was discovered that the position of teachers can be characterized as «an adult egocentrism», according to which teachers project their own understanding of the computer as a source of knowledge on children. The fundamental differences in the position of teenagers lie in the fact that they use this device mainly for entertainment or as a source of ready-made information. The article discusses two most popular educational functions of the computer from the point of view of students: it is a «helper» in doing homework and in preparation of the additional reports on the school subjects. The article analyzes the consequences of the computer’s «help» in the cognitive and personal development of students. We differentiate the developing effects of the traditional cheating (when pupils crib from their classmates) and copying from the web sites that provide keys to the textbooks. The article deals with the issue of making summaries (reports) at different stages of education. It has been proved that a spontaneous reference of teenagers to the network computer technologies not only fails to make process of education innovative, but also tends to be an obstacle to the implementation of the new culture-creating educational paradigm. As one of the ways to solve the problem, we propose the revision of the forms of homework preparation and its essence.

Key words: education, pupil’s development, computer technologies, cheating (cribbing), summary.

 

UDC 159.923.2:316.346.2

А. V. Miroshnechenko

Adolescents’ attitude toward themselves with different gender and role behavior

The article is devoted to actual problems of the gender peculiarities of modern adolescents’ attitude toward themselves as an important component of their gender self-consciousness, because the final formation of gender identity takes place in adolescence, a teenager accepts himself as a representative of a particular sex and forms the attitude toward him, forms his behavior based on this. The psychological foundations of the concepts of «self-attitude», «gender» and «gender role» is disclosed. The problem of systematic approach to determining the psychological content of self-attitude, that allows to consider this concept on three levels of psychological human being: the activities, the person as the subject of activities and self-consciousness as the semantic core of the personality. As a result of the empirical study the correlation between the main types of adolescents’ gender-role behavior (masculine, feminine, androgynous, undifferentiated) is explicated. The basic significant differences of teenagers’ self-attitude with different gender roles are distinguished to such criteria as «Integral feeling «for» or «against» the Self», «Self-esteem», «Self-sympathy», «Expecting others’ attitude», «Self-interest», «Self-confidence», «Others’ attitude», «Self-acceptance», «Self-leading», «Self-blame», «Self-understanding». It is concluded that adolescents’ gender identity, which manifests itself in certain types of gender roles may be considered as a factor of influence on some manifestations of adolescents’ attitude toward themselves. It means that formation of their self-consciousness, attitude toward themselves and self-esteem is connected to the formation of gender identity and regarding oneself as a representative of a certain gender, which is formed under the impact of gender stereotypes and gender typed upbringing in a family.

Key words: self-attitude, gender, gender role, gender identity, femininity, masculinity, androgyny, undifferentiality.

 

 

UDC 159.955+159.956

L.A. Moiseienko, I.M. Hural

Procedural and dynamic content of designing solution of creative mathematical problems

The article deals with the issue of psychological nature of design process of creative mathematical problem solving. Based on the analysis of studies in mathematical thinking the authors have stated its creative approach and defined the approach to its studying through the analysis of thinking actions for solving creative math problems. The process of designing the problem solving is one of the components of creative mathematical thinking and it is, in essence, a process of hypotheses suggesting and testing. The authors have performed a procedural and dynamic analysis of designing the solution of creative mathematical problems. There are distinguished and described micro stages of design process: defining reference points, the leading idea of problem solving, a particular link to start problem solving, building logical connections between elements, and subjective confidence in the correctness of problem solving. There are described the origin and operation of thinking reference points for solving creative math problems, their role in information structuring and the origin of various hypotheses including the main hypothesis – the leading idea. There is substantiated the organizing role of the leading idea in a searching process that determines the direction of thinking actions, the content of hypotheses, which arise in the future. The direction change of searching the problem solving is possible only after the change of the leading idea. There is emphasized the importance of subjective confidence in the quality of the result, the possible extension of thinking actions when such confidence is not attained.

Key words: creative mathematical thinking, process of design solution, microstages of the process of design solution.

 

UDC 159.9

L.A. Nosko

Methodology of the concept of reflection as a psychological and pedagogical category

The methodology of the concept of reflection as a psychological and pedagogical category is considered in the article. The scientists’ ideas about reflection are described. The reflection’s processes, its dynamics and ability to come out of the immediate perception to the total contemplation are emphasized. It’s noted that reflection appears a necessary condition for the theoretical knowledge of the world, and it is the transition from direct to universal, the source of new knowledge. Reflection as a psychological and pedagogical category has a specific structure that allows us to estimate the emotional state of the personality, to restore the logic of events during a particular process, to make the analysis of the difficulties that have arisen in a particular situation, as well as to record the results, obtained both individually and in a group. It is argued that reflexivity is one of the most important features of human consciousness that arises on the basis of reflective nature of the human psyche. Reflection is thinking about thinking, thinking, which considers itself as an object. An important feature of reflection is that it not only regains consciousness to itself, but also causes it to be reconstructed. The man who reflects, faces the culture, is capable at transforming activity, self-development. It is emphasized that the function of reflection consists in building new activity, distinguishing certain new concepts, which could serve as a means to build new processes of activities. The structure of reflection, its shapes and forms are presented.

Key words: types of reflection, subject of reflection, reflective processes, reflection, consciousness, structure of reflection, forms of reflection.

 

UDC 159.92

H.Y. Odyntsova

Using educational and developmental training for the formation of creative potential in lawyers’ preparation

In the scientific article the importance of formation the creative potential in the preparation of lawyers is analyzed and substantiated. The meaning of the concept «training» in psychology is defined. Using the format of training sessions for the formation of creative potential is substantiated. The author presents the components that were used during the training, which include: methods of stimulating creativity, psychological means of reducing restrictions of consciousness controlling sphere, «ice-breakers», «brainstorming», roleplaying games, group discussions. Purpose and main tasks of educational and developmental program of the «Training of formation the lawyers’ creative potential» are defined. The methods and characteristics of training activities are described. The article presents the program of educational and developmental training. The program consists of four clusters. The components of each thematic unit and their sequence are presented. The procedure of educational and developmental training of future lawyers’ professional and psychological preparation is described. The skills necessary for future lawyers’ creative work, and the skills what should future lawyers be armed with for the success of the professional activities are characterized. The article defines special conditions for efficient implementation of educational and developmental program of the «Training of formation the lawyers’ creative potential» in the educational process in various educational institutions of Ukraine. It is concluded that personal development of lawyer’s creative potential is achieved through a targeted development of its significant vocational skills, qualities and abilities.

Key words: educational and developmental training, components of training, creativity, creative potential, lawyers’ professional and psychological training.

 

UDC 376 – 056.36:159.222 – 053.4

І.М. Omelchenko

Intercourse as communication, cooperation and dialogue with Other: subjective approach

The article covers theoretical substantiation of study of intercourse as communication, cooperation and dialogue with Others of middle preschool age children and children during their transition from preschool to primary school years with typical and delayed development in line with the subjective approach. The author defined the categories of «communicative activity», «intercourse», «communication», «cooperation» and «dialogue». Theoretical analysis led to determination of three basic elements of communication as an activity: a subject, an activity and an object; their structural relationships were understood. Intercourse was examined in the light of types of communication activity that is a wide concept encompassing processes of communication and cooperation between subjects which may consist of individuals or groups, real or imaginary partners. It was determined that, at subject-subject type of relationships, «Other» was not seen as an object but was perceived as a personality alike a speaker endowed with subjectivity. At the same time, attitude toward another individual is personalized, and the Other person, in such circumstances, is perceived as an ultimate goal, but not as a tool for achievement of own goals. The dialogue is explained to be the most common form of communication and cooperation. It was revealed that communication and cooperation were initiated when a need was aroused to resolve a problem, and, during dialogue, the problem was transferred to a new semantic field, it is possible to view it from different positions. Features of implementation of external and internal dialogue during communicating acts of subjects were outlined. It was found out that the external dialogue was defined as a form of subject-subjects communication and cooperation, when different semantic positions in communication were being developed and implemented by various speakers; and the internal dialogue is one of ways for transformation by the subject of emotionally rich, personally and intellectually significant meanings of consciousness.

Key words: intercourse, communicative activity, communication, cooperation and dialogue, subject, delay of mental development.

 

UDC 159.923

Onufriieva L.A.

Professional activities as a basis for the development of future professional psychologist’s personality

It is acknowledged that in conditions of current educational system the social situation of students’ development and initial conditions of personal and professional development have been significantly changing. The education is noted to be considered as a process of professional training, which is in the interest of formation and development of the personality, society and state. The attention is paid to the fact that the important tasks of professional training are charged to a lecturer who is able to organize the process and control it based on optimization and humanization. It is found that the value of creative thinking activity of a specialist of socionomic area, the development of his abilities to solve problems independently has been significantly increasing. It is indicated that while performing the task of professional training, he must be first of all highly-skilled professional. The author determined the directions of impact of training on the process of personal and professional development of future professional psychologists. It is shown that training in higher educational institution contributes to student’s successful adaptation to the understanding of personal place in the organization and professional status and professional roles; understanding the peculiarities of communication with managers, colleagues and other members of the organization; developing skills of professional behavior and understanding the opportunities for the professional development. As a result of the theoretical analysis it is noted that the psychologist’s professional activities may be considered in morphological, axiological, praxiological and ontological aspects. Two approaches to the study of the genesis of the professional activities are distinguished. The most important value is emphasized to be the personality-based and activity-based orientation in the educational process of the future psychologist. Factors affecting the personality and professional development of a future professional psychologist are defined.

Key words: future specialist-psychologist, genesis, personality, professional activities of a psychologist, personality and professional growth, professional behavior, professional development.

 

UDC 159.923:796.853.26-053.67

K.S. Osyka

Psychological peculiarities of the young karatists’ personalities of judansha (mastery) level

The article deals with the peculiarities of the training process that had an effect on the upgrading of the young karatists’ sporting qualification. The author gives the characteristics of the black belt of mastery, according to the traditional Japanese theory. Modern masters of the kiokunshikai karate such as S. Arnail, S.V. Blyzniuk, J. Bluming, M. Vedel, S.A. Ivanov-Katanskyi, V.B. Kushiryk, A. Matsui, T. Miyagi, M. Nakayama, M. Oyama, O.I. Taniushkin, M. Tompson, E. Hug, V.P. Fomin, G. Funakoshi, G. Yamagutchi – investigate the vital activity and vital creativity of the sportsmen-karatists. It is proved that tactic-technical mastery and development of a fighter contributes to the upgrading of the motivation for achieving success in one’s sporting activity. The author selects psychological peculiarities of the young karatists who represent the judansha-mastery sphere. They are distinguished by the essential strength of the volitional qualities necessary for a karatist; the main of these qualities are purposefulness, resoluteness, self-control and scrupulosity. Most of the black-belts owners become a model for their club-mates and environment, the first assistants of their coaches in their work with other sportsmen. They never break discipline or etiquette. The creative type of abilities appears to be the dominant one. It gives way to gaining mastery in fulfilling different techniques and one’s individual style in the duals on tatami. As for the structure of the sportsman’s personality it is possible to distinguish self-direction (the ability to define the main purpose in life, to achieve the higher level of self-confidence, to improve the attitude of other people to him, to recognize his individual peculiarities, to understand himself as a personality), constantly self-improving (reaching the level when his mind controls his body, when control over the body movements is more expressed and when new habits and skills are acquired); independence, individuality and high status among those born in the same year and those who are around him now is also achieved.

Key words: kiokunshikai karate, training process, black belt, judansha (mastery) sphere; self-actualization categories; psychological peculiarities, personality, young karatist.

 

UDC 159.98

O.V. Osyka

Client-centered therapy by C. Rogers in the psychocorrectional work with the students

The main notions of the clientcentered therapy by C. Rogers are considered in the article. The field of experience is everything accessible for consciousness, the part of the inner world that can be acquired. «Loneliness» is the wholesome notion that includes experience both bodily (at the level of one’s organism) and symbolic, inner (at the level of one’s consciousness). «Me»-real – is the system of ideas about oneself which is formed by the person on the basis of his communication with other people and their attitude to him; it may change in accordance with the situations that appear around him and his own actions in the above mentioned situations. «Me»-ideal – is the notion about oneself as an ideal he would like to become as a result of the realization of all his potentialities. Self-realization is seen as the movement to more rational functioning. The characteristics of the investigations of both – home and foreign investigators concerning the client-centered therapy and person-centered approach by C. Rogers are represented in the article too. The representatives of this approach are: M. Bouen, Y.O. Zahriazhska, R. Lee, A. Meneghetti, N. Rogers, A. Segrera, S. Spector. The essence of the correction process includes empathy, care, congruence, psychological climate. The main professional duty of a psychologist is to create the appropriate psychological climate that would urge the client to refuse from the protective mechanisms. And the most difficult thing is to be a genuine personality in communication with a client, to show respect, care, adoption and understanding of a client. It is defined that the accent in correction work is done on the emotions and feelings of a student; correctional work is carried out in accordance with the principle «here and now». The positions of a psychologist as a helper, and full of initiative position of a student concerning his self-development in the correction process, are represented in the article. The stages of the correction work and components of psychotechniques by C. Rogers that include congruency, verbalization, and demonstration of emotions are shown too.

Key words: client-centered therapy, student, self-actualization, empathy, care, congruency, psychological climate, authenticity.

 

UDC 378.091.12:376-056.262-051:159.9

O.М. Palamar

Methodological guidelines for studies on psychological competence of the teacher of visually impaired children

The article co vers methodological background for the studies on psychological competence of the teacher of visually impaired children (typhlopedagogue). It contains analysis of the basic methodological approaches implemented on the general scientific and specific-methodic levels. In particular the author defines major ideas, principles and features of the system, synergetic, system and synergetic, personality-based, activity-based and competence-based approaches. The author is committed to a principle of multiple paradigm and believes that researches on the psychological competence development of typhlopedagogue should be carried out following system and activity and competence-based approach. It is shown that these approaches coexist according to the principles of complementation and subordination (competence-based approach is naturally incorporated into system and activity approach). The essence of the system and activity approach is the integration of personal, cognitive, communication and social development of the subject of teaching. Learning activity in this case becomes the major factor of personality development, his or her self-actualization and self-determination. Competence-based approach is characterized by its practical orientation, as the educational goals are closely tied to their possible use in professional activity. Close attention is paid to the development of the basic postulates of the study on psychological competence of the teacher of visually impaired children. The author comes to conclusion, that psychological competence should be considered as a sub-system (an element) of the integral system of personal qualities of typhlopedagogue, which is being developed and implemented in professional educational and professional activity.

Key words: psychological competence, system and activity based methodological approach, competence-based approach, multiple paradigm, methodological principle.

 

UDC 159.955+159.956

O.V. Panchak

Рsychological principles of activation of the creative medical thinking of dentistry department students

Scientific aspects concerned with the activation and optimization problems of creative thinking process are analyzed in the article. A special stress is put on the circumstances which influence the creative process, such as: social-psychological climate, comfort of the mental job conditions, rational choice ability, information. The ability of creative potential of the future specialists in the branch of medicine, such as dentistry, is researched, the ability of positive influence on the quality of the creative medical thinking with the help of KARUS training system and also with the help of doing sums and special questions is deeply analyzed in the article. Psychological principles of using training tests for the medical thinking activation for dentists are reviewed. The conditions of the students, being tested are also taken into consideration. The necessity of the activation of doing creative medical sums is specially stressed: the process of understanding, the process of prognosis, the process of approbation and the specific processes of dentistry activitykeeping to standards; keeping to the economic reason; aesthetic component and technical admission of task realization. The influence on the quality of creative medical thinking with the help of special creative sums and with the row of special questions is analyzed. Its positive influence reveals itself in the activation of mental activity of almost each person, being tested during all the stages of doing psychological sums. The point of the worked-out training system is viewed widely in this article as an approved system. It is directed for the solution of the dentistry problems. This training system is also reviewed like a system which can be also use for other medical disciplines. These disciplines can also be involved into the process of the training system KARUS. It is specially stressed that this system can be used in parallel with the scientific process.

Key words: creative medical thinking, the process of understanding, prediction process, approbation, KARUS, thinking process, reasonable and motivational tasks.

 

UDC 159.922.23:165.194

L.V. Pastukh

The features of cognitive component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education

The importance of cognitive component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education is shown in the article. The selection of methods for determining the level of development of sensitiveness’ cognitive component is proved by integrating the results of theoretical studies on the problem of sensitiveness as a professionally important feature of counseling psychologists and its components. The research results of features of cognitive component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education are presented. The level of counseling psychologists’ awareness as to the content, manifestations, factors of sensitiveness’ development as a professionally important feature; the level of self-realization, and the adequacy (inadequacy) of their self-esteem are analyzed in the article. There have been distinguished the levels of cognitive component of sensitiveness in the result of the generalization of three aforementioned empirical referents of sensitiveness’ cognitive component. It is concluded that less than one fifth of the psychologists under study have high level of the cognitive component of sensitiveness. More than half of the psychologists under study have prevailing average level of sensitiveness’ cognitive component, and about third part of respondents have low level of the cognitive component. The gender and age features of cognitive component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education are defined. It is found that older psychologists have higher level of sensitiveness’ cognitive component. Female psychologists are found to have higher level of sensitiveness’ cognitive component than male psychologists have. There have been established statistically significant differences in levels of the sensitiveness’ cognitive component depending on the psychologists’ place of residence: psychologists living in rural areas have higher level of cognitive component than those living in a town. There have been outlined the expediency of empirical studies of other sensory components of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the education system (phychophysiological, behavioral, emotional) and the definition of the integrative index and social and demographic (age, sex, place of residence), organizational and professional (school type, qualification category) sensory factors on this basis.

Key words: counseling psychologists, sensitiveness, components of sensitiveness, cognitive component of sensitiveness, level of the development of sensitiveness’ cognitive component.

 

UDC 159.92

L.S. Pylypchuk

Professional genesis and professional crisis of a medical worker’s personality

The academic motivation is noted to consist in the students’ evaluation of various aspects of the educational process, its content, forms of organization from the point of view of their individual needs and goals that can coincide or cannot coincide with the goals of education. It is concluded that professional development of educational activities of students is at the primary level of its scientific improvement. The progress in studies is established to depend on many aspects of psychological activity. One of these factors of progress is mentioned to be the motivational component of activities. Strong and poor students differ from each other by not the level of intelligence, but the motivation for educational activities. The process of professional self-determination is studied to involve the development of self-consciousness, the formation of the system of values, modeling the future, building the standards in the form of a perfect model of a professional. The social orientation is established to determine largely the professional self-consciousness of a man, his professional self-determination and career choices. The personal realization in the profession includes the formation of a sample of profession, especially at the stage of choice of the professional field. It is confirmed that the image of a future profession sufficiently complex entity that includes emotional and cognitive components. The image of a future profession is confirmed to be sufficiently complex entity that includes emotional and cognitive components. In order to justify the professional choice it is also necessary that the requirements of the profession coincide with the possibilities of a person, otherwise a negative life experience is accumulated in human self-consciousness, emerging methods of solution of their tasks, i.e. avoiding, neglecting, are formed. The increase in self-esteem is established to be an important factor in readiness to perform professional duties.

Key words: self-esteem, professional duties, professional self-determination, professional genesis, professional crises, personality, medical worker, professional activities.

 

UDC 374.7.091

V.Y. Pomyluiko

Application of training in corporate training of adults

The article outlines the essential features, characteristics and types of training. It is proved that training is widely used in corporate training of adults and meets the requirements for andragogical model of learning. Corporate training is defined as a training technology of employees of the company or a group of companies in accordance with the strategy of their development and business peculiarities. Corporate training helps to gain professional skills and abilities, develop the competencies required for efficient work. It was found that corporate trainings for adults contribute to strengthening the practical skills, help to eliminate deficiencies in the professional work; teach new technologies and working practices; speed up the adaptation on the workplace; prepare to work on a new post. The article summarizes the experience of adult learning in the corporate university «Get Win», which provides development and implementation of long-term development programs, monitoring and evaluation of their effectiveness. Education in the corporate university is focused on practice and designed to attract a group of experts to carry out programs outside the workplace. The following methods are used in corporate training: role and business games, case studies, work in small groups, analysis of practical situations, interactive exercises and techniques, analysis of the fragments of films, problem tasks, etc. It is concluded that the use of corporate training can help firms and enterprises to form a team of competent professionals who are able to overcome difficulties, and envisage the problems beforehand and avoid serious mistakes, have new knowledge in the professional field.

Key words: andragogic model of education, attitudes, types of training, interactive exercises and techniques, corporate training, corporate university, competence development, training, technology of corporate training.

 

UDC 159.923

I.S. Popovych

The role of social expectations in self-regulation of behavior of personality

The article reflects the results of the study of social expectations as the important component of self-regulation of behavior of the personality. The assumptions of the study of social expectations of the individual are specified. Some basic functions of social expectations were reviewed, including regulatory, mediation, corrective and indicative. It is defined the psychological meaning of social expectations and their role and place in the context of self-regulation of behavior of the individual. The social-psychological meaning of the mechanism of unexpected and expected actions of social expectations of the personality is reviewed. Attention is focused on relations of regulatory role with self-assessment, level of aspiration, self-expectations, information, thoughts, desires, actions of participant’s interaction. It is shown that intermediary function balances and maintains the state of balance between the individual selfconsciousness and its social environment. It is noted that the correction function is realized through the permanent incorporation of the possible reactions of others to claim the individual, the individual steps, actions, behavior in general and on this basis the appropriate behavioral responses are realized. It is proved that estimated function reflects the objective need of concerted action of every participant of interaction, which corresponds to its place in the system of common activity and allows to orientate in this activity. It was investigated regulatory, mediation, corrective and orientation functions, and lit the psychological content of social expectations in the context of self-regulation of person’s behavior. Self-regulation of behavior favors the development of the individual as a subject of selfactivity.

Key words: self-regulation, regulatory function, mediation functions, corrective function, indicative function, psychological mechanism, the mechanism of expected action, the mechanism of unexpected action.

 

UDC 159.923.2:378

K.P. Radzivil

The role of self-appraisal of future psychologists’ personality in the formation of professional expectations in the academic process

The article presents a theoretical analysis of the scientific and theoretical approaches to the role of self-appraisal of future psychologist’s personality in the formation of adequate professional expectations at the stage of training. The analysis of theoretical sources of studying the phenomenon of expectations, helped to establish the relationship between selfappraisal and its impact on the further professionalization and professional expectations of a future psychologist. The importance of adequate self-appraisal in the formation of future specialists’ personality, as a prerequisite for the formation of professional expectations, is identified. The analysis of scientific works indicates the influence of self-appraisal on subjective expectations in the professional sphere, self-esteem formed in childhood reflects the tendency of expectations, which is implemented in the professional formation. «The image of Me», which is the cognitive formation of the psyche under pressure of failure or success, should be evaluated by the individual as the effectiveness of «Me-concept». Professional component takes an important place in «Me-concept» of future psychologist, attitude to which is formed in childhood during the game and working activities with parents. Exactly game activity is the prototype of future professional activity with all the destructive and constructive consequences. It is concluded that inadequate self-esteem is reflected in the high level of aspiration and low professional expectations. It is summed up that posing the highly complex challengers the future specialist has a huge probability to fail, and confirmation of his low expectations that further it will not promote the educational and professional motivation. The importance of high-level professional expectations is accentuated to be related to selfappraisal and confidence in the success of a professional activity. It is concluded that the study of the role of self-appraisal in the formation of professional expectations, allows to reach an understanding of the subjective plan of the student’s consciousness, which is subject to psycho and the correctional work. With the help of correction of future psychologist’s self-appraisal not only improvement of his personal sphere is possible by removing contradictions, but also an effective impact on the expectations of specialist concerning their professional effectiveness in the present and the future.

Key words: professional expectations, self-appraisal, «Me-image», professional self-consciousness, professional claims.

 

UDC 159.9:316.485.6

I.L. Rudzevych

Psychological characteristics of conflicts’ origin in the educational process

The psychological characteristics of pedagogical conflicts are considered in the article. The nature and importance of pedagogical conflicts in the educational process, their impact on the development of the personality, namely in early adolescence are defined. A significant cause of pedagogical conflicts arising is established to be the uncertainty of psychological distance in the teacher and pupil’s intercourse, as pedagogical intercourse is not only professional, but like every intercourse it is also personality-based, teacher’s subjective attitude to individual pupils is natural. It is proved that the essential foundation of pedagogical conflicts in a plane «teacher-pupil» should be considered objectively «doubled» social pedagogical situation, which is at the same time social situation of development. It is emphasized that one should not forget that the individuality of the child is always and first of all individual variant of age development. It is indicated that internal and external position of the child in the educational situation (pedagogical conflict) is represented by purely internal personal and external factors, as well as age factors. It is traditionally that the source of a large number of pedagogical conflicts is confirmed to be the teacher’s estimating activities, as the subjectivity of the procedure in itself is a factor in breach of a pedagogical balance. The ways to overcome educational conflicts are found to be the following: openness, trust, awareness and the lack of serious conflict of normativity. It is established that the absence of reflexivity and focus on the life canons of communication is caused by pedagogical conflicts. It is concluded that despite the active study of the problem of conflicts in social psychology, the issue is far from a complete understanding, at least in the field of teaching.

Key words: psychological features, intercourse, pupil, teacher, pedagogical conflict, psychological means, destructive conflicts.

 

UDC 159.922.62.923.2

N.A. Saidov

Optimism as a component feature of mature age

Different approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the determination of the concept of maturity and its major components are examined in the article. The main manifestations of human maturity in professional and social life in terms of various psychological theories are characterized. The stages of adult’s development as tasks for defining the problem workload of mature people and elderly are described. The content of the main problems of early, medium and late adulthood and also chronological scopes of maturity period in terms of different authors are disclosed. Based on the different classifications the author analyzed stages of maturity in according with those problems which person encounters in her life. The most important attributes of individual and psychological maturity of the personality are considered and the following characteristics of a mature personality are selected: responsibility for their feelings, thoughts and actions; reasonable independence; ability to distinguish the real from the fictional; grounded sense of self-integrity and availability of moral standards; flexibility and adaptability; tolerance. The author justified the relevance of the problem of optimism as a part feature of adulthood which affects the attribution, the optimal choice of strategies to overcome the person’s crisis conditions, the productivity and quality of man’s life. The basic premises and factors of optimism development such as biological, psychological, social, psycho-social and cultural factors are distinguished. The basic theoretical approaches to the researching of optimism and pessimism in psychology and philosophy are described. The importance of optimism for productive development and self-fulfillment of mature personality and future generations is justified.

Key words: personality, maturity, early maturity, medium maturity, late maturity, optimism, pessimism, indicators of optimism.

 

UDC 373.2.018.1

N.S. Slavina

Influence of family education on the formation of children’s skills of intercourse

The results of theoretical analysis of the problem of family education influence on the formation of children’s skills of intercourse are presented in the article. The intercourse is theoretically found to be one of the most important factors of the child’s mental development from the first days of life. It is stated at preschool age four forms of child’s intercourse with adults consistently replace each other: situational and personality-based, situational and business, out-of-situational and cognitive, out-of-situational and personality-based; as well as three forms of intercourse with peers: emotional and practical, situational and business, out-of-situational and business. It is proved that the content and motives of intercourse, communicative skills and abilities are gradually changed. It is stated that a child treats to adults selectively, gradually starting to understand their relationship with them: how they treat to him, what they expect of him, how he treats to them and what he expects of them. It is showed that the interest in a peer appears later. The child’s intercourse with peers appears in various associations. It is established that the nature of the activities and the child’s skills to implement them affect the development of interpersonal relationships. It is noted that indicators of well-being for the child’s personality development are: the pleasure of intercourse with loved people; confidence in oneself; the ability to see their flaws and ability to seek help from others; sense of freedom, autonomy in the intercourse with parents; developed communicative skills. It is revealed that a group of a pre-school institution is the first social association of children, where they have different social status. At preschool age friendly and conflict relationships appear, children who have difficulties in intercourse are distinguished. It is concluded that in order to help a child in the decision of communicative, it is necessary to understand their causes. These ones include: troubles in family relationships, which result in inconsistencies and contradictions in education. It is established that wrong construction of relationships with children in the family, neglect of their psychological individual characteristics in intercourse lead to the formation of such qualities as shyness, anxiety, hyperactivity, which in turn make it difficult to contact not only with adults but also with peers.

Key words: family education, intercourse, pre-school children, parents, educators, behavior.

 

UDC 159.922.73

K.R. Stelmaschuk

Psychological aspects of forming trustful relationships of orphanchildren as one of the stress resistance conditions

The article analyses and investigates the determinants and factors of forming confidence of children, who are brought up in conditions of orphanage. As the problems of upbringing the children in boarding schools were investigated so the absence of required psychological conditions, which must have provided children’s development. There were established the reasons of difficulties in building up the trustful relationships in the system «childadult» and «child-child». Meaning of trust based on the T.P. Skrypkina conception was taken into consideration, which accentuates the variety of the trust’s phenomenal appearance, conditions of its appearing, functional characteristics and laws of existence, which stay universal in all spheres of human life, – as a result of its core of human-world relationship. It was determined, that exactly the confidence ensures the possibilities of interpersonal interaction on the whole, and promotes self-development of a person that makes it possible to form psychologically comfortable living conditions, and, accordingly, is the important factor of stress resistance. It was stated, that the confidence as an independent socio-psychological phenomenon fulfills fundamental functions in a person’s life. It was shown the confidence projects the condition of a person’s integral interaction with the world; promotes the amalgamation of a person’s perception of the past, the present time and the future as an integral act; confidence creates the effect of a person’s being integrity, it promotes the arise of the effect of a personality’s integrity, confidence helps to collate the extent of responsibility of your behavior, the taken decision, the goal and the set tasks to the world and to yourself. The problem of confidence consolidation in practical work with children that are brought up in establishments of a boarding school type – is topical. It was determined that on condition of children’s confidence in adults, their words, intentions, actions, deeds and values, adults are able to help children to believe in themselves, find mutual understanding with surroundings and to teach to understand correctly the world views of others. It was justified the value of confidence and love, that in stress situation are able to deal with the anxiety a significant factor of stress resistance.

Key words: confidence, base nonconfidence to the world, basal anxiety, frustration, neurotic type, orphans, orphanhood, emotional sphere, stress, stress resistance, stressors.

 

UDC 159.947.2

Y.V. Stepura

The problems of making decisions in the scientific activity

The article deals with the problem of the processes of making decisions at the different levels of the scientific activity. The author underlines the importance of the problem for all representatives of all disciplines both in the process of individual studies and in the implementation of large-scale scientific policy concerning all science. The impact of mental sphere factors on scientists, hindering the adoption of rational decisions regarding estimation of scientific investigations, is shown. The author points out the importance of rules and patterns of statistics in the scientific investigations, particularly in the psychological ones. The author demonstrates spheres and stages of scientific activity where it is essential to take into consideration the peculiarities of the process of making decisions for the guaranteeing of the effectiveness of the scientific activity. Special attention is drawn to the psychological aspects of decisions of implementation of scientific activity products. The problem of the possible danger of such products for the population is determined. Attention is also drawn to the negative attitude of some groups of the population to the introduction and propagation of certain technologies. Humanitarian expertise is proposed as means of support in solving the problem of implementation and spreading of scientific activity products. At the same time the limits of humanitarian expertise are shown, too. The author reveals the correlation of fundamental and applied investigations of solving global problems of civilization, and also demonstrates the wrong direction in the conduct of general scientific policy. The importance of the investigation of ethical aspect of scientific sphere decisions and the role of personal responsibility of the scientist in the use of his/her scientific achievements for inhumane purposes are emphasized. Certain new aspects of the investigation of decision-making in a separate research project are also revealed.

Key words: decision making, cognitive distortions, science policy, technology, humanitarian expertise, stages of research, fundamental and applied research, academic responsibility.

 

UDC 159.964.21

O.B. Stoliarenko

Psychological characteristics of interaction between headmaster of the ungraded school and teachers in conflict

The article contains the results of theoretical and experimental studies on the relationships between heads of teaching staff and teachers in conflict. Different scientific approaches to the nature of pedagogical conflicts and their reasons have been analyzed. We considered the specific characteristics of pedagogical conflicts at ungraded village school. It was proved that the frequency of conflicts between teaching staff depends on the personal features of the headmaster. It was established that psychological headmaster’s readiness to interact with teachers in conflict ensures effective implementation of administrative activity under conditions of «potential» and «real» conflict. The theoretical model of psychological headmaster’s preparedness to interact with teaching staff in conflict was presented. The criteria and methodical tools for diagnostics on behavioral component were considered. In the article the structural components (cognitive, operational and personal) are under discussion and the main factors of headmaster’s psychological preparedness of the ungraded school to interact with teachers in conflict are identified. There were determined the main factors, which influence on the formation of psychological readiness of headmasters to interact with teachers in conflict: socio-demographic (headmaster’s age) and professional (seniority of administrative activity). It was revealed that the vast majority of headmasters of the ungraded schools have an insufficient level of form in conation of the main components of psychological preparedness to interact with teachers in conflict. It was revealed that headmasters of ungraded schools have high level of anxiety, frustration and aggression. It was proved that the gained experience of action in conflict enables the head of the school to provide potential conflict and to solve it in time, to normalize relations between teaching staff. The conclusion on necessity of future teachers’ special formation of behavioral component was made.

Key words: pedag ogical conflict, conflictological readiness, conflictological culture, interpersonal relations, pedagogical collectivity.

 

UDC 159.9.316.6

I.I. Striletska

Analysis of leading theoretical and methodological approaches to studying of the concept «social intellect»

Main theoretical and methodological approaches to studying of the phenomenon «social intellect» were analyzed and it was found that majority of scientists understand this concept identically. To their mind «social intellect» is a system of intellectual abilities connected with social information’s handling, which determines the level of adequacy and success of social interaction. It includes the ability to understand ourselves and folk about us, to analyze social situations and predict their development, provides success in problems’ solution of social character. It was investigated that one of the most important elements of social intellect is communicative competence, which is a system of inner methods of communicative actions’ regulation, which include orientational and executive components and provide effectiveness of social interaction. According to the results of theoretical analysis of psychological literature it is shown the presence of authors’ counter-opinion about the question of the social intellect is an intellect at all or not. The author, on the basis of theoretical material, attempts to study out if the social intellect is an independent phenomenon or, maybe, it is only a manifestation of common intellect in social situations. And also it was grounded and specified the concept «social intellect» with the help of analysis of the leading theoretical and methodological approaches in psychological science.

Key words: social intellect, common intellect, interaction, social situation, development, integral ability, mutual relations, behavior, construct.

 

UDC 373.5:613.86

I.V. Sundukova

Motivational aspect of senior pupils’ attitude to the mental health

In the article the motivational aspect is identified as an indicator of senior pupils’ mental health. The concept of motivation and self-actualization, their interpretation by domestic and foreign psychologists are analyzed by the author. The level of pupils’ self-actualization is determined to motivate senior pupils to achieve mental health and a positive attitude to it. It is found that the problem of personality’s self-actualization in adolescence in conditions of contemporary social transformations is acquiring a particular relevance due to the fact that this age period is the beginning of taking responsibility for their future life in the absence of their own experience. The necessary condition for self-actualization is revealed to be the acquisition of the man himself. Thus, the desire for self-actualization motivates an individual to the development and manifestation of his features, making it free to choose their own way of life. The results of an empirical study showed that the desire for self-actualization is more pronounced among students of 11 classes, namely, the desire for self-actualization of a personality is an important sign of mental health and value attitude toward him. These students are established to have a more pronounced degree of orientation in time, they share the values self-actualization of a personality. As well as this this category of pupils has higher degree of autonomy and autosympathy, which are the natural basis and one of the defining criteria of mental health of individuals. In addition, theoretical analysis has shown that it is necessary to form a desire, interest, the need to achieve mental health and value attitude to it. The problem of the valuable relation to the mental health of schoolchildren will be decided on condition of formation of motivation on the corresponding positive attitude towards mental health.

Key words: self-actualization, motivation, mental health, personality, needs, values, motives.

 

UDC 159.9

T.A. Tamakova

Formation of the image of the profession in future medical psychologists: social and psychological training

The article envisages the prerequisites for the formation of the image of the profession as part of the professional identity of future medical psychologists in the process of professional training. The theoretical and conceptual principles of the social and psychological training «Initiation to the profession of doctor-psychologist» are developed as a means of formation of the image of profession among students of medical and psychological faculty. In the context of the training the basic psychological aspects of the formation of an image of the future specialist are realized: cognitive, behavioral and emotional. There have been formulated the basic paradigms of the training-seminar as a form of active learning and as a method of creating the conditions for self-opening the participants, search for new ways of solving tasks. The basic tasks and exemplary program of training-seminar are described. The main objectives of the training are formulated: creating the conditions for the adaptation of students in the learning process in a higher education institution, acquainting with the content and requirements for future professional activities, the formation of the image of the profession and the conditions for its development. Exercises and assignments, that students completed during the training, gave the possibility and created the conditions for self-disclosure and self-presentation, determination of their place and role in the group, contributed to the realization of motives of choice of profession. It was made the conclusions regarding the relevance of forming the image of profession and professional identity through the process of training of future medical psychologists, the support of this process by conducting extracurricular activities. The prospects for further studies may be the evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed measures and the development of practical recommendations for teachers that accompany the learning process.

Key words: the image of the profession, professional identity, adaptation, professional training, social and psychological training, selfpresentation, the motives of vocational choice, medical psychologists.

 

UDC 159.9

O.Y. Faliova, M.V. Markova

Psychocorrection of women’s personal problems in a situation of family crisis by catathymic-imaginative method of psychotherapy

Peculiarities of women’s personal problems psychocorrection in a situation of family crisis by catathymic-imaginative method of psychotherapy were analyzed in the article. It is established that transformations of subjective model of a course of life become the most noticeable at the stage of personality’s experience of stressful vital events and critical situations. Conditions of women at the crisis families and divorced women were analyzed. The analysis shows destructive reaction of women, existence of fears, high degree of somatization, interpersonal sensitiveness, anxiety, depression, aggressiveness, hostility, phobic anxiety, psychosocial stress, paranoid symptomatology, low degree of self-regulation, stress resistance, control locus, assertiveness, etc. It was established that symbol-drama unites advantages of a huge psychotherapeutic techniques’ range which hold polar positions: classical and Yung’s analysis, behavioural psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, Ericson’s hypnosis and autotraining. Psychotherapeutic range of this method is based on disclosure of the unconscious conflicts, is extended to the spheres of creative development and satisfaction of archaic needs. There were described three components of symbol-drama or three basic mechanisms of psychotherapeutic influence: conflict, resource (frictionless) and creative components. Effectiveness of some motives at the case of certain diseases and pathological symptoms were analyzed. There have been done the conclusion that method of catathymic experience of images is the method in which the understanding of a symbol is directly approached to as the display of the unconscious conflict. With the help of catathymic experience of images it becomes possible to compensate a subchronic picture of an illness, (inaccessible to other forms of therapy); patients substantially can operate by themselves, by own emotions, by own life; to reconstruct own behavior according to life situations and the partner.

Key words: catathymic-imaginative psychotherapy, symbol-drama, women’s crisis conditions, family crisis, neuroses, psychosomatic diseases, mechanisms of psychotherapeutic influence, frictionless resource feed, creative solution of problems, psychology of self.

 

UDC 159.922.76 -056.49

O.M. Chaikovska

Components of teenagers’ deviant behavior system of factors

The article deals with the major factors of deviation to identify the reasons that influence the formation and occurrence of teenagers’ deviant behavior as scientific interest to the problem of minors’ deviant manifestations and their prevention is increasingly growing. The historical and modern scientific views on the nature of deviant behavior: its determination (reasons, motives, factors), the regularities of formation, mechanisms of functioning are analyzed by the author. The concepts that pay attention to the biological reasons which make emphasis on psychological factors, and social concepts that explain deviant behavior exceptionally by social causes are examined. The author identifies the following groups of factors that cause deviant behavior of personality: external conditions of the environment, external social conditions, internal inherited biological and constitutional grounds, inner personal reasons and mechanisms of deviant behavior. It is concluded that there are various interrelated factors underlying the genesis of deviant behavior, namely: individual factor, which operates at the level of psycho-biological prerequisites for deviant behaviour that complicate social and psychological adaptation of the individual; pedagogical factor, which is displayed in the defects of school and family education; the psychological factor that reveals unfavourable features of the interaction of the individual with his closest surrounding in the family, on the street, in a group, and which is primarily displayed in actively-elective attitude of the individual to the communicational environment, to the norms and values of his environment; the social factor, which is determined by the social, economic and political conditions of the society existence.

Key words: teenagers, personality, deviant behavior, factors, theories, concepts, sociological approach, psychological approach.

 

UDC 159.922.75

O.M. Chorna

The features of the development of junior pupils’ imagination in the fine art activity

The article emphasizes the need to develop imagination of junior pupils as an important factor in the formation of a creative personality. It is accentuated that junior school age is a sensitive period for the development of imagination, and therefore the task of modern elementary school is the use of favorable period for this mental function development. On the basis of theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical researches there have been revealed the patterns of development of children’s fine arts activity. On the basis of own empirical researches the typical trends in the development of boys and girls’ fine arts activity are described. It was found that children’s gender socialization influences on the content of pictures, as well as the way of their representation. The psychological and pedagogical features of the development of junior pupils’ imagination in the process of fine arts activity are revealed. The main causes of slowdown in development of the pupils’ fantasy are found out. The methodological recommendations for teachers concerning the development of junior pupils’ imagination in the process of fine arts activity are proved. The tasks that teachers can use in order to develop pupils’ imagination at fine arts lessons are proposed. It is shown that the teacher have to provide a favorable psychological atmosphere at a lesson for the development of pupils’ personalities and their imagination. It was made a conclusion that only a creative teacher can promote the formation of pupil’s creative personality, positively influence on the development of their imagination. The fine arts as a subject, is proved to have great potential for involving children in artistic and creative activity, developing their imagination. The prospects for further researches on the problem of the development of junior pupils’ imagination are outlined.

Key words: imagination, development of imagination, a junior pupil, creative personality, fine arts activity, pictorial self-activity, techniques of fantasizing, lesson of fine art.

 

UDC 159.923

O.M. Shemchuk

Psychological approach to gender thinking peculiarities

The article deals with the specific features of gender thinking in accordance with a psychological approach. It is stated that the research in this field is interesting, because having understood the specifics of men and women’s thinking, we plan to develop and study a gender model of professional thinking formation and development. During the research process in this field, the latest results of neurobiological researches were used to prove and demonstrate a difference of thinking processes taking into the consideration the gender specifics. Due to conducted research, we have defined a theoretical basis for the techniques development to form and develop the practical thinking individually for men and women. It is established that the most topical implementation of such basis could be military organizations, such as the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, where during last decennium a lot of women were involved into service. Despite this, women’s professional thinking as servicemen is still being formed as in times, when the army was «monogamic», it means without taking into the consideration a gender aspect. A key idea of our research is that thinking of women and men differs and as result has significant influence on every personality formation. The difference between men and women thinking is vivid at the psychological, neurobiological, social and other levels, but despite the proven gender differences of thinking, human brain has an adaptive capacity that gives every individual an opportunity to master various thinking models. Therefore, a combination of women features and men features in thinking process forms a unique tendency for its progress, that in future will contribute to a new thinking potential development of border guardprofessional.

Key words: psychology of thinking, gender specifics, woman’s thinking, psychical process, types of thinking.

 

UDC 159.923.2

O.S. Shtepa

Analysis and interpretation of empirical multifactor model of psychological resourcefulness of a personality

The results of analyzing the multifactor empirical model or psychological resourcefulness of a personality are presented. Empirical model is formed on the basis of analyzing answers to the questionnaire of psychological resourcefulness of 572 respondents aged 17-83. The model of psychological resourcefulness fulfills the following functions: on the empirical level – reconstructing qualitative specificity of a psychological phenomenon of personality’s resourcefulness; on the practical level – cognitive-illustrative, enabling to characterize inner static construction of psychological resourcefulness, on theoretical level – interpreting of the structure of psychological resourcefulness, in particular grounding reasons for distinguishing the types of a «resourceful person» and sources of psychological resourcefulness. It has been discovered that the empirical model of psychological resourcefulness includes three factors, which testifies to the high level of the model’s stability. It has been found out that summative informativeness of a three-factor model constitutes approximately 64 % of dispersion. Factor 1, explaining 42% of dispersion, includes scales of operating resources – knowledge and ability of renovating and using own resources. Factor 2, explaining approximately 14% of dispersion, includes scales of such personal-existential resources as «kindness to people», «helping others», «belief in good», «responsibility». Factor 3, explaining approximately 8% of dispersion, includes scales of the following personal-existential resources: success, creativity, and selfrealization in profession. The results of multifactor hierarchical analysis allow stating that the main factors of a general level of psychological resourcefulness are: firstly, knowing of resources and ability of renovating them, secondly – personal-existential resources «kindness to people» and «belief in good».

Key words: psychological resourcefulness, multifactor model, structural model, personal-existential resources, basic resources, resources of competence, ability to operate resources, resourceful personality.

 

UDC 378.22.015.311.011.3 – 051

S.P. Yalanska

Creative competence as a mechanism for successful psychological and educational activities

Nowadays the importance of competence approach to the development of pedagogical creativity in the context of review of the creative competence as the highest level of professional competence is determined. Pedagogical creativity is reviewed as an effect of the development of future teacher’s creative competence. The major psychological conditions of the development of future teachers’ creative competence in the educational process are revealed to include: features of the structure of educational activities; self-regulation; educational activi ty; readiness for professional work. The content of the author’s conception of future teachers’ creative competence based on the genetic and psycholo gical theory of birth, growth and existence of personality by S.D. Maksymenko is revealed. The content, structure, facilities of the author’s program of the development of future teachers’ creative competence are described. As a result of a mould experiment the growth of the major structural components of the professional competence of future teachers in natural, physical and mathematical sciences of the experimental group is proved as follows: the personal and developmental (value-educational, motivational competence); activity-based and developmental (psychological and pedagogical, organizational, methodological competence); communicative (verbal and communicative, verbal and cognitive competence); professional (didactic, informative competence, conceptual thinking); mastering the experience (creative thinking, self-competence). Thus, the results of the experimental work confirmed the promotion of future teachers’ creative competence in terms of the educational process of a higher educational institution, proved the effectiveness of implementation of the model of creative competence development.

Key words: creativeness, creative competence, development, future teacher, psychological and educational activities, psychological conditions, psychological means.

 

UDC 159.928.22

T.V. Yatsenko

Present-day state of researching the giftedness problem of pre-school children in Ukraine

The article exposes the problem of creating a psychological idea of giftedness as a phenomenon. It is found out that the leading centers of children’s giftedness investigation in Ukraine are the laboratories of creativity psychology and the psychology of giftedness at the Institute of Psychology named after G.S. Kostiuk at NAPS of Ukraine and the Institute of Gifted Child at NAPS of Ukraine. The author of the article describes the contribution of Ukrainian scientists and practicians to touching the problem of talent: V.O. Moliako, O.L. Muzyka, O.L. Kulchytska, R.O. Semenova, D.K. Koroliov, I.I. Karabaieva, N.A. Karpenko, V.U. Kuzmenko and others. It is found out that conceptual idea of creative talent as a personal phenomenon is realized in the results of biographical investigations: the peculiarities of artistic (V.O. Moliako), literary, scientific (O.L. Kulchytska), technical talent (O.L. Muzyka). The author of the article has investigated the state of the problem in the sphere of giftedness in pre-school education and analyzed the programs dealing with the peculiarities of work with gifted children: the State special purpose programme of works with gifted youth, Complex State program «Creative talent», the program «Gifted children», «Three Steps» (by O.L. Muzyka), Pre-school Children Developing Program for «I am in the world» and the Program of bringing up and teaching children aged 2-7 «The child». It is stressed on the necessity of making up a theory-methodological basis in this point of investigations. The necessity of reality in educational programs as to developing work with gifted pre-school children is proved. It is summed up that the most attention in science-methodological literature is payed to the problems of gifted children at school but at the same time children of the pre-school age are out of the attention of scientists and practicians. Only small part of the systems of work that are given in literature can be used while working with gifted children of pre-school age.

Key words: giftedness, gifted child, creativity, creative activity, ability, education, programme of development, individualized educational programme.