The author focuses on the P.P. Blonskyi’s theory of human behavior; obvious role of the latter is in all human life. It is noted that the study of the determination of behavior opens wide horizons of understanding, direction and self-management of the human psyche. It is shown that scientific psychology is preparing the ground for the «creation of a genuine philosophy of correct behavior». It is affirmed that the study is not confined with only the area of human behavior; it includes animal behavior (zoopsychology), child (pedology) and abnormal human (pathopsychology). As opposed to the former psychology studying a man in his statics, scientific psychology examines the behavior as changing phenomenon and therefore has the task to discover the causes of this variability. It is mentioned that since any phenomenon is a function of time, human behavior should also be studied in its time sequence, starting with the child’s behavior. It is noted that putting the question of the origin of human behavior, that is a part of the social life, the answer should be sought in the behavior of the surrounding society, being its function. It is shown that in spite of the need, which Blonskyi came to the allocation in the structure of human behavior, its core – consciousness (understanding and value), the scientist did not consider the impact of these changed (social and symbolic) forms of activity on the regulation of behavior and personality’s activities. It is mentioned that the essence of specifically human ability to change and transform the reality associated with consciousness instead of «intra cerebral transformations», however important they might be. It is concluded that the role of consciousness and semantic-symbolic forms of reality representation in the formation and development of specific forms of human interaction with reality has been disclosed by other prominent psychologist, contemporary of P.P. Blonskyi, nowadays known as a classic of national psychology – Lev Semenovych Vyhotskyi.
Key words: theory of human behavior development of P.P. Blonskyi, origin of human behavior, social life, the regulation of behavior, activities of the personality, scientific psychology, behavior determination, the human psyche.
The article describes and characterizes the directions of scientific researches in Psychology of Creativity in general and Psychology of a creative potential of the person in particular. The actuality of studying the problem of a creative potential of future specialists was justified. A cognitive potential, a moral one, the ethical potential, a communicative one, the aesthetic potential and a creative one of a person were characterized. The components in a structure of a person, which correspond to those indicated potentials, were described. The components distinguished by V.A.Moliako and N.V.Kuzmina in a model of a creative potential of a person according to a teacher of foreign languages were structured. A social component including into the structure of a creative potential of a teacher of foreign languages was justified. Its substructures were described. It was clarified the meaning of «social creativity» and «communicative competence» in the structure of a creative potential of a teacher of foreign languages. It is mentioned that we attribute the substructure «social creativity» (it contains the ability to self-actualization, social motivation, communicative competence, communicative (verbal and nonverbal) sensitivity, behavioral sensitivity, social imagination, etc.) to the structure of social component of a creative potential In the article it was specified the structure of communicative competence of a teacher of foreign languages. It was indicated that communicative competence consists of linguistic, sociolinguistic, strategic, social and psychological competencies. To the structure of a creative potential of a future teacher of foreign languages we include «personal component», which contains the following substructures: 1) individual qualities; 2) the structures of skills. It had been modeling a psychological-pedagogical technology of the development of a creative potential of future teacher of foreign languages. It was shown that proposed technology involves the following stages: a motivational and purpose-formulated stage, the organizational stage, a contentactivity one and a diagnostic stage.
Key words: creativity, a creative potential, the structure of the personality, a social component, social creativity, communicative competence.
T.V. Artemieva, T.V. Dutkevych
The article underlines the necessity of studying of the process of the understanding of humor texts regarding the age and dynamics peculiarities. It was showed that understanding of comic text depends on the full and exact child’s recreating of problem situation at her/him mental space. This problem situation includes the acting persons, the connections between them, the symbolic meanings of these connections. The comic context of tasks demands the additional children’s work such as recreating in their psyche space the text participants’ thoughts, motives, emotional states. The child is an observer of the situation and can understand it when compares it with own psyche units. The imaginations, which appear at child’s psyche space during the understanding of comic text are colored with her/him inner feelings and are the result of unconscious personality’s transformation of initial stimuli i.e. objective content of comic text. The studying of the sense of humor was conducted among children at age of junior pupil. It was used such methods as G.Guilford questionnaire for parents and teachers, subtest «The sequential pictures» from the Veksler’s test (child version). It was set that understanding of comic text makes the mental complexity which is connected with child’s ability to act not only logically but also dialectically i.e. to operate with contradistinctions. The understanding of humor texts presupposes the cognitive and emotional aspects and is possible when child has the emotion maturity, the ability to understand the emotional states. The children at age of junior pupil with high level of the understanding of humor texts constantly use humor during family communication with parents, sisters and brothers, during educational process with classmates. The future studying is connected with forming the ability of the understanding of humor texts at junior pupils, with ensuring the condition of this forming during educational process in school.
Key words: humor, junior pupil, understanding, comic text, contradiction, emotion, thinking.
The article envisages that the realization of the availability of pre-school education for all citizens regardless of their social or economic status and health is being solved in the following priority areas: availability of preschool education; development of variant forms of preschool education; development of an inclusive, integrative and special pre-school education; ensuring access to the education and the determination of educational routes for children with disabilities and special educational needs; psychological and pedagogical support to the families: assistance to the parents who educate children in the family. It is showed that the general ideology of inclusive education is tolerance and respect for differences that is why one of the main directions of development of inclusive education is the formation of tolerant attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities. Variability in the organization of education presumes an existence of divertive developing environment: required teaching aids, learning tools, barrier-free environment, as well as divertive methodological basis of education, and using it a teacher can apply in his work a variety of methods and tools from the general pedagogy as well as from the special one. It was stressed that particular attention is given to those children who do not attend preschool establishments. In this connection there arose a need for the organization of divertive forms of preschool education, which along with the traditional preschool institutions could assist the family in the upbringing of the child and his preparation for the school. For the children with severe and combined disorders Special federal state standard of general education of children with disabilities provides an individual «unpropertied» version of getting the education. It is mostly determined by the individual capabilities of the child, and carried out on an individual educational program which deepens into the area of knowledge and skills, which are necessary for the child in everyday life.
Key words: availability of pre-school education, children with disabilities, divergent forms of preschool education.
The article is devoted to the problem of creative activities of children, including creative designing. The knowledge about children’s creativity is developed, the approach to the analysis and organization of children’s creativity is determined in the light of strategical approach. Creative activities, creative design is defined as the process of solving creative problems, which is an adequate model of creativity. It is shown personal characteristics and process controls of creative designing. Procedural aspect (it provides an analysis of the entire process of creative search) and individual aspect (it appears in subjective ways of thinking of the children) are the basic components of children’s creativity. The program «Children’s Сreative Constructology» has presented the system of organized influence and supportive control of children’s creative activities. As a base of this program we have activities of design and the most popular children’s activities such as: play, observation, experiment, drawing etc. The program’s content is a consistent series of specific tasks, creative playing exercises. The structure of the program includes theoretically-informational, practically-training and creative design units. These units provide updating, gaining of the basic children’s knowledge about the mechanism of creative actions, theoretical information about the meaning and specific strategies in everyday life, create prerequisites for the development of creative trends during the performance of practical tasks, creation of thought about creative actions, development of design activity’s skills, finding solution to solving the tasks that require self-selected mechanisms in the different conditions. Psychological and pedagogical conditions, principles that stimulate children’s creativity are being detected. The most effective ways and forms of development of cognitive activity and children’s creativity are being established.
Key words: children’s creativity, creative design, program, support system, creative task, children’s creative constructology, «CCC»
Creating the conditions for the full upbringing and education of children with disabilities, which are appropriate to their condition and health, in particular, the introduction of inclusive education is allocated to the one of the priorities of states’ social policy. Inclusive approach to education is called to life by the reasons of different nature. Together, they can be described as a social order of the attained certain level of economic, cultural, legal development of society and the state. This stage is connected with the rethinking of society and the state of their attitude to the disabled, with the recognition of not only the equality of their rights, but also with the awareness of their responsibilities. It was showed that the introduction of tutor position to the staff of the educational institutions is necessary with mandatory training on special psychology. The pedagogical staff needs carrying out at least shortterm training courses at a special psychology and pedagogy, at inclusive education technologies. The students receive theoretical and practical professional training for the work with children with specialties in the development. The principles of inclusion (humanity, non-discrimination, justice) are included in all courses: «Inclusive education of children with disabilities», «Organization and maintenance of special psychological care for children with HIA», «the general methodological aspects in education in special educational institutions», «special pedagogy», «Special psychology» etc. At the department of psychology and special correctional pedagogy there was developed a course «Innovative technologies in Lekoteks» (72 hours), which allows organizing the students’ knowledge on the organization of comprehensive care for children with multiple disabilities and for their parents to form a competence of the support for disabled in the new divertive conditions of special education.
Key words: inclusive education, tutor, Lekoteka, disabled children, divertive conditions.
The correlation between the features of the world picture and indexes of cross-cultural adaptation of students-foreigners in the country of studies is analysed in the article. It is educed that the world picture is the result of human’s subjective interpretation of external and internal reality that allows to make and to realize decisions. It is certain that it is possible to distinguish such elements in the structure of the world picture: ideas about self (self-image), ideas about other people, ideas about the surrounding world, ideas about own life. The article contains supposition that features of the world picture are the substantial factor of cross-cultural adaptation and predetermine success of personality and professional development and psychical prosperity of students-foreigners in the country of studies. It is shown that the indexes of cross-cultural adaptation success are adaptive and interactive styles of adaptation, high level of subjective satisfaction by life quality, moderate experiencing of culture shock. We drew the conclusion that forming of adaptation strategies of depression, nostalgia and estrangement, low subjective life quality, deep culture shock testify about unsuccessful crosscultural adaptation of students-foreigners in the country of studies. It is well-proven as a result of empiric research, that success or unsuccess of foreign student’s adaptation is related to the certain features of their world pictures. The features of world pictures of successful foreign students are confessed as optimal for the cross-cultural adaptation in the country of studies. It is educed that optimal features of the world picture are positive self-picture and picture of other people; ideas about kindness, justice, testability of the surrounding world, saturated sense of life and testability of life.
Key words: students-foreigners, cross-cultural adaptation, world picture, self-image, images of other people, image of the surrounding world, attitude to life.
The psychological features of students’ value self-determination in higher educational sphere are considered, university education is showed as complicated system of making special socio-cultural and psycho-spiritual environment which promotes growing of student’s psychological and creative potential, realization of their constructive activity-position concerning self-being’s value formation, realization of personal spiritual function. The development of student’s spiritual culture is analyzed as the process of self-cognition deepening, young person’s readiness and ability to understand and re-reflect spiritual experience, realize need in value self-determination. A spiritual experience as one of the components of the content of educational process is analyzed, the specific peculiarity of which is that, in contrast to expertise, it can not be specified using traditional software and teaching tools, and requires a specific socio-cultural and psychomental environment, new intersubjects forms of interaction. It is shown that the joint educational activities of the teacher and students built as a value-semantic process of intersubjects communication promotes active, creative, conscious attitude of a young person to reality and makes spiritual growth possible through additions to the cultural ties and relations, the development of social norms parity collaboration, mastering the concepts of value and value formation and responsible attitude to their own life. Phasing of students’ spiritual growing is characterized in parity educational interaction process which is possible through: a) their uploads to socio-cultural communications and relationship, b) social norm parity cooperation familiarization, c) value notion acquirement, d) formation of value and responsible attitude to own livelihood. It is concluded that respectively generated value-semantic educational environment promotes development of students’ spiritual culture, awareness of their own cultural self-being, cultivation of self-developmental value system.
Key words: spiritual culture, educational process, higher school’s socio-cultural spiritual environment, value self-determination, spiritualcreative potential, spiritual self-development.
UDC 159.922.2 + 615.851
The empirical model of the problem research is developed on the basis of analysis of domestic and foreign literature and the author’s theoretical understanding of the problem of forming relationships between psychotherapist and client in the course of psychotherapy. The procedure of research and its stages are described. In view of depth of the research challenges the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic work, the importance of examining the issue is stressed and lists of factors that influence on the effectiveness of psychotherapy are generalized. The specificity of the psychotherapy approach which psychotherapist chooses and the method he uses provides a degree of directivity in his work. Prescriptive as well affects the peculiarities of client confidence to the therapist, as well as the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Designation of factors that affect the performance and effectiveness of psychotherapy, in turn, is established to be divided into three groups: the process flow, associated with therapy-related characteristics of the client, and those related to the characteristics of the psychotherapist. It is noted that there is not a strong prevalence of study on the interaction of client and psychotherapist. But this direction is one of the priority issues of studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy in general. To study the efficiency of interaction between client and psychotherapist, as the properties of their relationship, need practical development of new and effective methods and techniques based on the achievements of previous researchers. This is why we have to develop an improved empirical model of the study of the interaction between psychotherapist and client which included means of studying the dynamic component of these relations.
Key words: psychotherapist, client, personal characteristics, relation ships, therapeutic alliance, confidence, decision, effectiveness of psychotherapy, psychological compatibility, role expectations, the process of psychotherapy, a method of psychotherapy, empathy.
The article deals with the term of the Personality of the risk, which is characterized by an integrated risk capacity for action in situations of uncertainty and danger, which operates in a continuum of «willingness to take risks – risk appetite», «impulsivity – rationality», «willingness to take risks – the risk of both coping and protection». The conceptualization of this area, identifying its fullness and semantic structure we propose the term «personality of the risk». The investigation shows there are three types of personality assessment: constructive, destructive and adaptive, which have different levels of such parameters as the search for thrills, improper desire to difficulties, intolerance to monotony, risk tolerance and willingness to take risks. Personality of the risk correlates with tolerance, hubristic motivation and urgent dependence. Adaptive personality type is characterized by moderate risk in the pursuit of difficulties, the desire for diversity of life, intolerance of monotony, low risk tolerance and high availability to risk. This type involves the highest positive attitude towards challenges and urgent dependence. This personality type involves the pursuit of difficulties, high motivation to achieve, which is reinforced by their high willingness to take risks. Destructive personality type is characterized by high risk willingness to take risks, which are manifested in the high level of demand for the thrill of entertainment risk appetite. The characteristic of this type is a high tolerance for uncertainty. This type has the highest level of the risk tendency. Constructive personality type is characterized by low levels of striving for risk and unjustified extreme behavior. This type is characterized by higher levels of excellence in comparison with other types of personality of the risk. This type provides assertive behavior and is the best for successful activity and life.
Key words: personality of the risk, risk, urgent dependence, uncertainty avoidance, hubristic motivation.
UDC 159.9: 316.6
The article is devoted to the empirical study of distant family. There have been described in detail the sample of the study, relationship between gender and experience of family relationships, the relationship between family type and level of education. The distribution of family roles in traditional and distant families is studied. The notions of «role relationships», «distant family», «adaptation», «psychological support», «family crisis», «family relationships» are envisaged. An attention is focused on the social and demographic characteristic of a sample of the study. The changes of the traditional social roles in distant families are considered. The author pays particular attention to the comparative analysis of role relationships in traditional and distant families. The problems of changing traditional roles are analyzed. The level of adaptation of a couple at a distance is studied. The experience of family relationships in a distant family and traditional family is considered in detail. On the basis of scientific sources analysis the hierarchical structure of family roles-interactions is defined in traditional and distant families; a social institution of the family is considered. It is established that both types of families have leading roles-duties like those that are key to social and economic functioning of a family. The roles that are often carried out by partners are compared. The content of the concept of «role» and its specific application in family relations is studied; the changes in traditional social roles in distant families are examined; the basic problems of modern distant family are showed. The attention is focused on the distant relations, comparing them with family relationships. The comparison between the experience of family relationships in traditional and distant families is made. The emphasis is put on the relationship between family type and level of education. It is concluded that the results can be used in the preparation of future specialists in teaching psychology of the family, in practice in teaching courses «Psychology of the family», «Social Psychology», «Family counseling». In the future research considers the creating of training group of families to adapt married couples to each other for better roles adaptation and reducing emotional distance.
Key words: role relationships, distant family, adaptive capacities, psychological support, social environment, acceptance, interfamily relationships, distant relations, traditional family, role interaction, family structure, family roles, functional and role structure of a family.
UDC 159.9.07: 377.1
The article is devoted to the presentation of some exercises from authorial practical program «Psychology of becoming of healthy lifestyle in the educational process»; they are sent to the development of motivational component of culture of healthy lifestyle of senior pupils, teachers, practical psychologists in educational process. The authorial complex of psychological exercises is created and approved for development of culture of healthy lifestyle of personality in the conditions of educational process. The contents of practical program-work is based on the social and psychological and individual measuring of structure of personality. Exercises are sent to development of: healthy communicative skills, healthy sociallypsychological climate in a collective; motivations of healthy lifestyle; healthy social self-realization, healthy orientation of lifestyle; healthy character traits, valued relation to itself, to other, to the situation, to maintenance of health; reflections as understanding of mutual relations between of the state of own health and lifestyle; experience of the use of psychological methods of self-regulation, relaxation, maintenance of health; intellectual creative activity on a theme the healthy lifestyle; psychophysiological readiness of personality to the studies (to labour). Recommendations are created for practical psychologists, teachers, senior pupils in relation to organization of educational process on principles of healthy lifestyle. The complex of psychological exercises is sent to maintenance and strengthening of physical, psychosomatic, psychological, social, spiritual health, on development of psychological culture of healthy lifestyle of senior pupils, teachers, practical psychologists in the conditions of educational process.
Key words: motivation of healthy lifestyle, maintenance and strengthening of psychosomatic, psychological, social, spiritual health, educational process.
The article is devoted to the study of theoretical approaches to the researching communicative reactions as a form of communicative behavior. The author found the substance of categories of «response», «communicative response» which are components of communicative interaction. In the process of theoretical study the communication is described as a process of bilateral exchange of views and information represented by two interrelated acts: the influence of the interlocutor and features of response to directed impacts. Accordingly two main components of the communication process are singled out: communicative impact and communicative response. By means of analyzing the psychological literature on the study it is found that at present stage communicative influences are thoroughly studied, namely: researchers have analyzed communication strategies of intercourse, techniques of verbal influence, techniques of consciousness programming, forms of manipulative influence. However, the communicative response as forms of social behavior are not enough studied and need to be scrutinized. On the basis of scientific sources analysis it is revealed that communicative response are actions which are carried out in response to the communicative influences of interlocutors and indicate feedback that exists between the communicator and the communicant. They depend on the orientation, modality and semantic filling of incentives. Accordingly, the reactions are divided into different types: cognitive and affective, constructive and destructive, directed to external circumstances and themselves. Different versions of the communicative response are caused by individual characteristics of communicants and external conditions of the communication act.
Key words: communication, reactions, communicative responses, communicative influences.
The senior preschool age, as such, that is a starting point in the development of the semantic sphere is analysed by the author. The article focuses on the determinants of becoming the value orientations. In this article, the theoretical rationale and empirical study of internal determinants of semantic sphere development at older preschooler are made. Considering the peculiarities of life activities of a preschooler and direction of age period for preparing to school, the focus of the research has been done on the extracted complex of value orientations (health, active and productive life, knowledge, education, strength of will, education), which determines the operation of basic dynamic meaning systems of the child’s personality (cognition, learning, playing, communicating). It is experimentally found out that these dynamic systems of meaning and value orientations of older preschoolers are connected with the following individual psychological characteristics, as the mean level of self-appraisal, low rate of anxiety in relationships with children, according to the nature of frustration reactions – problem-resonance of impunitive direction. These findings significantly enrich the information field of the problem of semantic area evolution and can be formed as the basis for making up the program support of axiogenesis of a child’s personality. The conducted study of features of the initial stage of the semantic sphere of the individual, which accounts for preschool childhood, does not exhaust the problem of axiogenesis, because it is clear that, having its own psychological characteristics, each stage will be determined with certain system of factors. The study of the last is the prospect of further crossing researches.
Key words: value orientations, dynamic semantic system, moral standards, adaptive capacities, self-appraisal, anxiety, frustration.
This article deals with active methods of learning foreign languages which facilitate the forming of communicative competence of students of nonlinguistic higher schools. Features of organization of communicative directional learning effect on the cognitive students` competence are analyzed. The formation of oral speech communicative competence in the studying of engineering students to increase opportunities for the activation of their creative abilities is proposed in this article. The creative analysis of active methods of the learning of a foreign language, which increase students’ motivation of technical higher schools, and also contribute to the professional and personal development of students is analyzed. The modern specialist is studied to get new professional information through foreign sources. It is investigated that learning of a foreign language contributes to the realization of such areas of professional activity, as the introduction of new technologies, scientific hypotheses and trends, innovations in the fields of technology; restores contacts with foreign firms, and educational institutions; increases the level of professional competence of specialists. Foreign language is not a sign of prestige, but it needs for a modern specialist. Mastering a foreign language by students-specialists in the technical higher schools is characterized to be directed on technical foreign language. This fact implies the abilities of foreign language teacher to combine skills of students from general foreign language and their professional knowledge in a particular field of science and technology. The analysis of previous investigations on the problem of the phenomenon of oral speech communicative competence in students of technical specialities is made in this article. The reading of the professional oriented texts is analyzed to require from the student and the teacher the formation of the new skills and a higher level to be able to read and understand what they have read.
Key words: active methods of learning, communicative competence, communicative interaction.
The article examines the actual problem of the determinants of psychological well-being of modern men and women during early adulthood. The author presents the results of the various indicators operationalization of the main areas of personality realization in early adulthood. The list of the most significant social and psychological determinants of psychological well-being of modern men and women is revealed. It includes «educational level», «marital status» and «residence». The comparative analysis of the identified determinants impaction the basic parameters of psychological well-being of modern men and women during early adulthood period has been carried out. Men and women with higher educational level have better meaningfulness of their lives. The influence of educational level on many scales of psychological well-being of modern women is found out. The factor «marital status» is more significant for men than women. The results of quantitative and qualitative analysis of the investigated methods have shown better competence of married men in various life issues, their positive attitude to themselves and their past, higher ability to establish relations with loved ones. The factor of «marital status» is closely related to the «educational level» and «residence» for women. The highest rates were found for married women who live in cities and have higher education. The lowest rates were found for married women with secondary education living in the country side. It was found that the factor «residence» has the most significant influence for the overall level of psychological well-being of young women. The limited opportunities for self-realization and the presence of additional household stress have negative influence for the psychological well-being of women living in the countryside. The low indicators of psychological well-being of men living in the cities are related with the influence of gender stereotypes and higher demands of the surrounding world.
Key words: psychological well-being, psychological well-being factors, modern men, modern women, early adulthood.
One of the most global and fundamental problems of general psychology is announced – the problem of psychical self-regulation, research of that opens large, something specific, unconventional possibilities for understanding and semantic explanation of general conformities to law of construction and realization of own arbitrary activity (activities, behavior, communication and others like that) by a man. The attention is focused on the special role of systematic approach in becoming of modern ideas about self-regulation, within the limits of that it is marked on the necessity of its study as the process that has multilevel determination. Essence of the realized self-regulation, being considered by the author as the system organized process of internal psychical activity of a man from initiation, construction, support and management by different kinds and forms of arbitrary activity that realizes the achievement of the aims put directly, is exposed. The methodology of V.І. Morоsanova »Style features of self-regulation of behavior» is used for the sake of study of regulator processes and regulator-personality properties of personality of students of senior courses of speciality »Primary education», teachers of primary school of middle and pre-pension age. It is educed three levels of development of self-regulation: high, higher middle and middle. Thus, those under investigation of all three age-related groups are independent, they flexibly and adequately react on the change of terms, advancement and the gaining of aim is largely realized for them. It is marked that among the structural components of self-regulation the noticeable indexes of high level students have flexibility, teachers aged 35-40 have planning and flexibility, teachers aged 55-60 have planning.
Key words: self-regulation, systematic approach, regulator processes, regulator-personality properties.
T.V. Dutkevych, T.A. Panchyshyna
The article considers the components of mental activity and its functions aimed to construct the speech expression of irreal wish. It was showed that speaker’s mental activity consists of motivational (contradiction, need, motive) and operational (psychological tools, perception, memory, thinking, mental acts and operations) aspects, its result is the understanding of the ways to overcome the contradictions. It was revealed that contradiction which generates the speaker’s mental activity during construction of expression of the irreal wish is a consequence of interrelation between two basic notional components, i. e. the real state of things (the real situation) and the possible state of things (wishful situation). This interrelation reflects the speaker’s seeing of the alternatives as the results of analysis of the situation and the prognostication of its developing. It was proved that the construction of expression of the irreal wish based on the clear-cut idea about the interrelation between real and possible state of things and speaker’s mental activity aimed not only to the realizing of this interrelation but also to the construction of adequate speech expression. It was set the components of speaker’s mental activity during construction of expression of the irreal wish i. e. the contradiction (the real situation vs. wishful situation), the need (the transformation of real situation), the motive (the creating of conditions for transition to wishful situation), the aim (to achieve the wishful situation, to realize the wish), the means (cognitive processes, mental acts and operations), the result (the construction of expression of the irreal wish). It was showed that means of speaker’s mental activity (cognitive processes, mental acts and operations) fulfill the compulsory (the analysis and prediction of the situational conditions) and facultative (the determination of time relatedness to the past, present, future) functions.
Key words: mental activity, motivational and operational aspects, cognitive processes, expression of the irreal wish, contradiction, motive, speech, speaker.
N.V. Zhyliak, N.Y. Hotsuliak
It is proposed to systematize psychomotor abilities of the subject according to the levels of movements formation distinguished by M.O. Bernstein. It is approved the system of tests, representing the psychomotor abilities of students at different levels of movements formation: psychomotor coordination capabilities of students to fulfill the tasks of semantic actions, which have the leading level of regulations A (investigated with the test «Flamingo» for static equilibrium and balance while standing on maintenance one foot on the floor); performing the semantic tasks of actions which have the leading level of friendly movements and the standard stamp B (fidelity and walk for 5 to 7 meters); performing the semantic tasks of actions which have the leading level of space field C (performance of accuracy triple jump from place to benchmark); performing the semantic tasks which have the leading level of substantive action and semantic chains D (studied by means of manipulation test «assembly –disassembly»); coordination abilities of students to implement semantic tasks which have the highest leading cortical level E (psychomotor test for restructuring stereotype of writing). Problem of the determination of complex psychomotor abilities of man is relevant, and its solution is useful for psychological and pedagogical practices. Improving training of future professionals in higher education is not possible without a holistic understanding of mental and motor activity of the subject. Practically unlimited variety of psychomotor action complicates the search for indicators of complex human talent to perform psychophysical actions. It is shown that the study of patterns of objectification of semantic problems in the movements of the subject of psychomotor activity it is appropriate to apply the activity-based approach. It is proposed to explore the multidimensionality of semantic tasks involving motor actions system of concepts that reveal different aspects of image display: image-meta, conceptual model, operative image. It is proved that psychomotor abilities are advisable to study comprehensively, at all levels of building movements. It was found that programming and management of psychomotor activities were carried with the help of hierarchy links of the central nervous system according to the semantic tasks and actions and available afferentiation, and the principle of dynamic subordination functions in the hierarchy of interaction levels of the central nervous system, providing a level of building movements. It is concluded that the same subject under study has different level of skills of the regulation of motor actions at different levels of formation.
Key words: psychomotor ability, levels of movements formation, psychomotor abilities of students, comprehensive research, coordination of movements, tests.
The article proves the necessity of professional systemic psychological assistance to people who were witnesses or participants of traumatic events and got psychological trauma or post-traumatic disorders as a result. But today an eclectic approach concerning psychological assistance to victims prevails in psychological practice. The purpose of the article is to make a theoretical analysis of the problem, give some practical recommendations on working with personal senses during post-traumatic stress disorders. The author envisages the content of the psychological trauma and its signs and symptoms. It is also stated that the evaluation of an event as traumatic by a person largely determines the origin and progress of posttraumatic disorders. The syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder, its gender differences and specific manifestations in children are examined comprehensively. The process of disintegration of personality into sub-personality is analyzed during the mentioned disorder. It has been found that the main mechanism through which personal symptoms occur during posttraumatic disorders, including sense-pathological disorders, is considered that one in which a person is unable to integrate traumatic experience into a coherent structure. It is established that there is a disintegration of the being into life before the trauma and after it in the mind of a person. It has been concluded that post-traumatic disorders are mainly sense disorders and both the nature and the content of pathological sense formations have been considered. A list of senses which an expert can use while helping victims has been offered. Naturally caused senses according to age categories are given. The senses naturally caused by age are proposed. It is concluded that the main mechanism of formation of a new vision in changed circumstances is a psychological mechanism of sense formation, which refers to individualized reflection of reality, expressing the relation of a man to that for which this or that form of activity, especially industrial activity and communication is developed. The article sums up that the research work in this area is important but not profound from the standpoint of practice. The theme needs further researching both in theoretical and practical fields.
Key words: post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological trauma, human senses, social isolation, stupor, fear, a sense of guilt, disruption of behavior, sense creation, latent phase.
The article envisages a correlation between socially dangerous acts and aggressive behavior of the mentally ill patients (for example, patients with Epilepsy). The necessity of a multifaceted study of aggressive behavior of patients with Epilepsy is connected with its originality, difference from the accepted norms, as well as the prevalence of offenses against the person. There are cases when it is the first symptom of the disease, which is important for the early diagnosis of mental disorders and the prevention of dangerous actions. The paper presents an analysis of the basis for measures of sanity, in terms of psychopathological and motivation, personality-based, cognitive sides of the subject, the social factors that have the influence on socially dangerous acts. It is emphasized the significant role of psychological diagnosis during the examination, which helps to identify the depth of disorders, especially emotional response and aggressive manifestations in different nosologies, due to use of special diagnostic scales and questionnaires. One of results is a deep differential diagnosis of psychopathological states with similar clinical symptoms, and it demonstrates the structures of personality which play a key role in his/her psychological maladjustment. It is proved that the aggressive behaviors of patients with Epilepsy are associated with personality changes and cognitive activity, which in some cases makes it possible to apply to him the category of «diminished responsibility». It is the introduction to the Criminal Code a new legal norm corresponding to the concept of diminished responsibility, provides for the protection of the rights of persons whose mental illness is limited to border forms of pathology and does not exclude sanity, but in some way affects their wrongful conduct; when at the time the crime was committed, in view of the existing mental disorder, the patient was not able to fully understand his actions and to guide them.
Key words: psychological diagnostics, aggressive behavior, diminished responsibility, patient, epilepsy.
UDC 159. 992. 6 + 316. 772. 5
The results of an empirical research of psychological characteristics of Internet communication in adolescence are described in the article. Also, the topical research questions of adolescents’ Internet communication are formulated. The absence of a single methodological approach to the study of the phenomenon of virtual communication is pointed and the own version of the questionnaire is proposed. A worked out questionnaire aimed at clarifying the psychological characteristics is presented and principles of its construction are disclosed. Researching process is described. At tention is focused on necessity of distinction between the empirical researches of phenomena of Internet communication and Internet addiction. The dynamic of susceptibility to network addiction in adolescence is analyzed. Data about subjective significance of virtual communication for teens is collected. Superior duration, the popular Internet communication topics of a studied sample were found. A comparison of comfort of communication in network and in real life was done. The specific of manifestations of frankness in virtual communication is revealed. The features of the attitude of teenagers to avatars are analyzed. Avatars are images that represent individual in internet and may indicate satisfaction or dissatisfaction with teenagers’ own qualities. Genesis of teenagers’ using of expressive means of Internet communication (smiles, audio and video files) was found. The presence of elements of Internet jargon in the speech of children was found. The information about real social circle of users of social networks is obtained. Conclusions about the development of acquirement of Internet communication means in adolescence were made. The prospects for further research issues in the context of improving the developed diagnostic tools and clarifying the main reasons of using the Internet are analyzed.
Key words: Internet-environment, Internet-communication, adolescence, Internet-addiction, duration of Internet-communication, content of Internet-communication, expressive means of Internet-communication, representational images, virtual individual.
The necessity of the marital conflict research in the married couples with big age difference representatives are analyzed and substantiated in the article. In particular, the psychological features of interaction in conflict situations of a couple with significant age difference are defined. The author outlined and explored the conflicting spheres of family life such as: the relationships with relatives and friends, the parenting, the harassment of autonomy, the breach of role expectations, and the lack of coordination standards of behavior, displays of dominance of one partner, jealousies and finance. Types of conflict behavior display in different areas of family life couples with substantial age difference are described. The intensity of conflict reactions of members of the couple is studied. The indicators of conflict interaction in married life of couples with substantial age difference, the ratio of blame for a conflict and the recognition of himself as an initiator of conflict are described. Parameters to the family conflict are presented. Statistical significance of correlations of passive and active responses in the marital conflict of married couples with big age difference is substantiated. It is found that among those under investigation of both groups the predominant is the passive attitude to conflicts and the prevalence of denial of personal fault. It negatively affects the family relationships and reduces the chances of effective resolving of marital conflicts. The tendency to passive attitude to conflicts is noted to be slightly less pronounced among men in the control group, they are more focused on their active solution. The psychological features of interaction in conflict situations of couples with substantial age difference are established.
Key words: family, multi-age marriage, interaction, communication, marital conflict, conflict area, conflict response, conflict interaction.
In this article the results of a scientific research of adolescent’s emotional intelligence (EI) and features of his relationships with parents are presented. Also, the theoretical base of the investigated problem is considered as follows what paternal settings are supporting, and which prevent the developing of his EI. The data of the empirical research confirms that the reflection of the situation in family comes forward one of the factors that are influenced on forming of adolescent’s EI. The psychological features of relations and communication in family system of the teenager with the different levels of EI are analyzed. It is revealed that for adolescents with normal and high level of EI family well-being consists in an acceptance, collaboration, consent and emotional closeness with parents. The meaning of parental control is analyzed for the formation of EI. The results of the research of development of adolescent’s EI with factors that are reflecting their subjective perception of family relationships are presented. It is confirmed that the features of communication in family system are influenced on the level of adolescent’s EI. The relationship between the development of EI with the subjective reflection of emotional closeness and such family parameters as a presence of barriers of communication, conflicts among family members, aggression and fa mily anxiety is investigated. It is confirmed that there is the differentiation of the development of adolescent’s EI: 42% have high level; 26% – middle level, 32% – low. At the same time the demonstrated level of adolescent’s EI is closely related to the differentiation of «Me». There is a tendency that excessive self-esteem is closely to low level of EI. Our sample was divided on three groups depending on two criteria: the level of EI and differentiation of «Me». It is proved that the bases for the development of EI are created with the acceptance, collaboration, consent and cooperation with parents. It is revealed that parental control is a necessary but not significant condition to determine high level of adolescent’s EI.
Key words: emotional intelligence, adolescence, emotional closeness, differentiation of «Me», parental control.
The propagations of personality disorders (PD), the features of these disorders and their impact on the social and professional adaptation were examined. There have been found the high level of disadaptation among the population in developed countries which exert influence on quality of life. The recent research and medical literature analysis include the information about how PD started. Manifestation of PD generally started in childhood (near to teen-age). The diagnostic interview gives us information about spreading PD in the world throughout the life in the general population: between 10-13%. There have been considered Axis 1 and Axis 2 in clinical differentiation. According to DSM-IV, there are 3 classes of PD: Clusters A, B, C. The necessity of assiduous differential diagnostic of PD with organic damage of brain is grounded. The adaptive approaches are studied to be more effective in shortlasting therapy; they can help patient deal with the crises and effectively problems solving. Frequently used treatments include crisis intervention and support-psychotherapy. It is concluded that the drugs polytherapy have a risk of the combined toxicity. This result to a suicide and drugs addiction. The output of this is helping to the patient with his coping-mechanisms developing and a social habit acquire. The development of new coping-mechanisms and better social skills is effective decision of a problem. Even with active pharmacotherapy our aims can be achieved only with psychotherapy. We should choose the way of psychotherapy. The resource therapy made by the specialists in this direction has an effective influence on stabilization and making better condition of a patient; than just drug therapy.
Key words: personality disorder (PD), personality style, Axis 1, Axis 2, cluster of PD, therapeutic approach, adaptive viewpoint, organic damage of brain, constitutional factors.
UDC 159.9, 159.96
In this article we discuss issues that are devoted to the study of the problem of mental states of the personality. In this article the comparative, structural and systematic analysis of the material is made. It is accented that the study of human mental states is the actual problem of modern psy chology. The current state and trends of the problem are determined. The different approaches to the interpretation of these psychological phenomena are investigated. It is emphasized the necessity of studying the human mental states. The author revealed the introduction of views and ideas of home and foreign scholars who in one way or another gave the highlight to some aspects of these issues. It is noted that the allocation of categories of mental states allowed to fill the gap between mental processes and mental qualities, as well as mental and somatic spheres. The importance of the study of patterns of internal factors preserving the psychological well-being of the individual is revealed. It is noted that the analysis of theoretical and methodological approaches that exist in various scientific fields, shows the exceptional complexity of mental states, and suggests four structural levels: socio-psychological, psychological, psychophysiological, physiological. It is established that the experimental studies play an important role in the structure of social and psychological and psychological levels. It is established that any mental state is a complete unite, a kind of syndrome. It is proved, when we do not treat the function of mental states as a passive human adaptation to the conditions prevailing at the moment, but in terms of active interaction between the individual and the environment, we can emphasize that the function of mental states has also a managing role. It was concluded that the knowledge of the nature of mental states lays not in the field of actual conditions and organization, but in the analysis of their dynamics, development and relations with other mental phenomena, it is a valid indicator of the state of the individual; the most distinctive feature of major mental states is their high degree of subjectivity, because through this mental states represent a human as a personality.
Key words: mental state, personality, systematic approach, analysis, man, managing role, indicator of the personality, active interaction of the personality, development, experimental studies.
The article presents results of study of the effect of married couple’s personal maturity on the attitude to a child. The levels of personal maturity in a married couple are distinguished. It is found that parents with different levels of personal maturity have both excellent atmosphere in the family and attitude to their children. The differences between the couple’s role-adequacy degree and couple’s atmosphere with different levels of personal maturity are established. In troubled families, there is a significant difference between the expectations and claims of a couple that causes the appearance of conflicts of household, parenting and educational, social activity, emotional and therapeutic areas, the area of visual appeal, e.i. areas of interaction in the family. This feature may be the cause of problem families formation. While studying mature families it was found the correlation of role-adequacy levels between each other. The claims of one couple meet the expectations of others. Matching the levels of role-adequacy means that a couple is satisfied with the opportunities it has. It is established that couple’s claims in a mature families respond to the expectations of their partners compared with spouses from problem families. It is noted that in troubled families, interests, needs, intentions and desires of family members come into conflict, leading to severe and prolonged negative emotional states and negative impact on the psychological atmosphere in the family. It is mentioned that the confrontation of interests and needs of family members is particularly sharp in nature and covers important areas of family life. Family members take irreconcilable positions relative to each other without agreeing to any compromise. It is concluded that married couple with personal maturity displays the ability to self-cognition, constant acquisition of experience, use knowledge about real human relationships in their attitude to the child as opposed to the personally immature married couple.
Key words: family, married couple, personal maturity, family values, role settings, attitude to a child.
UDC 316. 614
The article analyzes the characteristics and content of psychosocial support as a factor of the individual difficult situations overcoming in the context of the psychology of social work. There is determined that the social support, taking into account their own capabilities, requirements to the human, response to possible environmental effects and belonging to a social group act as social factors of behavior overcoming strategies. The natural process of restructuring consciousness must be supplemented, optimized by socio gained experience over themselves and their inner world. It is emphasized that social and psychological support is found in the socio-psychological direction, reflection, understanding, enhancing, directing human activity in the right direction. Content of psychosocial support is determined by needs of a particular individual and conditioned by the difficulties of his particular life situation. The conclusion is about the need of development of psychological support and «psychologization» services for clients of social work in Ukraine. This assistance should be based on a combination of theoretical knowledge and the results of empirical studies on the approaches of understanding the situations of varying complexity and characteristics of response, behavior in them. Psychosocial support should be seen as a resource and strategy to overcome difficult situations and as an important mechanism for the regulation of relations in the individual interaction, social and environmental situation.
Key words: psychosocial support, overcoming behavior, difficult life situation, psychology of social work.
The article considers the efficiency and activity of program of development of leadership’s qualities of students on base of responsibility. The results of experimental formation of the system of leadership’s qualities are analyzed by means of development of components of student’s responsibility. It is observed after training, that the quantity of students with leadership’s qualities, which are developed on strong and middle level, is growing up. The considerable shift between the levels of sociability’s development indicates for changes in the system of leadership’s qualities. The dynamics of different aspects of responsibility of participants of training is inquired. The relevance of analyzed changes in system of leadership’s qualities is statistically confirmed in connection with development of components of responsibility by means of method of comparison of two selections after the T-Vilcocson’s criterion. The shift of factors of leadership’s qualities of students is stated under the influence of development of responsibility on statistically important level. We can make the conclusion, that methods of active social-psychological study are effective and can be included in complex program of development of inner localization of individual’s control. Basis for the development of leadership qualities of students’ development of responsibility serves as an integrated personality, which has a complex structure and is manifested at different levels. In terms of training and gaming technology creates favorable conditions for the development of leadership skills of personality for study of practice patterns and mechanisms of social influence to learn leadership skills.
Key words: leadership’s qualities, responsibility, communicative ability, organization ability, contrition, social responsibility, program of development of leadership’s qualities of students.
The study of public administration as a form of social management is done. The attention is focused on public service, and in particular its role in the implementation of public management. The public service is noted not just to indicate social connections and relationships, but the social orientation, bringing the constitutional ideal of the democratic state to objective reality. It is a form of public display of social connections and relationships, indicator of humanity level and existing social orders. Today, if extremely complex, both economic and social situation in the country, especially the difficult tasks are assigned to public service. There are quite a large number of Western, Russian and Ukrainian works, which highlights the essence of the problem of public administration as a form of social management, and in particular the direct role of public service in the implementation. Governance is a joint effort of a group of people in the context of the state for the purpose of public policy based on the coverage of all branches of government. It is noted that governance is a wide-ranging mix of theory and practice, designed to promote better understanding of government and strengthening its relationship with society, and promote public policies more responsive to social needs, and follow such administrative practice of public bureaucracies aimed mainly at efficiency, productivity and increa singly to meet human needs. Governance is performed through civil service, whose purpose is to implement management and efficiency of the formation and implementation of public management. Public service is different from all other service by specific characteristics: its publicity (nationwide interest, not private), professionalism (as a profession), persistence (not on a temporary basis, but on a regular), functioning public management. Overall we can conclude that there is a need for effective functioning of public administration as a form of social management, and the vital importance of significantly increasing role of public service in the effective and smooth implementation of public administration. Thus, there is the need to prepare a new generation of highly qualified public servants capable in extremely difficult social and economic conditions to implement reforms in the country effectively. It is concluded that the public administration is a type of social management that is organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling influence aimed at organizing the society, creating conditions for the material, cultural and spiritual development of individuals.
Key words: public management, public service, classification of types of public service, specific of public authorities, governance aspects, functions of public officials.
The article analyzes the results of empirical investigation of envy varieties in early adolescence. We consider envy as a system of relations between personality and different sides of objective reality (benefits), which determines the socio-psychological attitude to success (better achievements, possibilities, results) and is accompanied by a set of negative emotions, is motivated to overcome subjective inequality and neutralize advantages of others. It is noted, that typical objects of envy regard physical, social, relevant activity and personal sphere. It is established that dissatisfaction with current needs and awareness of other benefits, internal dissatisfaction transferred to interpersonal interaction and individual level of functioning. The study covers the following types of envy: constructive, which manifested envy as motivation to equal or surpass the success of the opponent (provided by 36% of respondents) and destructive, which jealousy manifested as motivation to select desired, but in the case of inability to achieve – ruin it. It is determined that the destructive envy is divided into destructive depression (34%) or destructive aggressive (21%). The given paper investigates that these varieties mean the phenomenon of envy as a personal psychological quality and is a reflection of low selfesteem in one case and inadequately overestimated – in another. It is studied that dissatisfaction of the actual needs of leads to envy performing signal and catalytic function. It is confirmed that the kind of destructive depressive envy, which has self-humiliating accent, is associated with low self-esteem, motivation, decision-society, negative behavioral orientation. The kind of destructive aggressive envy, which has self-centered accent, that is associated with inadequately high self-esteem, motivation to satisfy the egocentric needs, aggressive orientation. Pathogenic nature of envy directs subject’s activity to the destruction of the object of envy and changes its attitude towards social environment. Based on empirical research it is concluded that basically self-sufficient individuals aren’t jealous, they can positively perceived successes of others and constructively evaluate their own failures.
Key words: envy, jealousy, varieties of reactions to the success of the others, motivation to success, self-esteem, coping strategies, early adolescence.
According to the personal experience of the author and the literature data analysis, the author has established that the motivation component of medical students’ readiness for the productive interaction presents with the combination of motives which provide for the tendency of the doctor towards preventing conflicts or their productive decision. The article studies the notion of the productive interaction readiness’ motivation component and defines the basic motive groups which provide for such interaction: social-altruistic and scientific ones. The author detects the high level of the motivation component development under the formed tendency of the doctor towards the productive interaction with the partnership basis and altruistic position of the doctor with the medium empathy. The author defines the low level of motivation for the productive interaction as that characterized by undefined tendency of the doctor to support the patient due to individual, material or social factors, dependence of the physician on the socially approved behavior (prone to answer the social expectations), or undefined motivation for the medical activity due to false expectations or superimposed career choice. To detect and correct the productive interaction readiness’ motivation component the author has offered a set of psychological drills in English during the practical classes of the subject «Medical Foreign Language with special purposes», the types of drills described in the article. The article contains the results of the subsequent survey of the students after undergoing the drills, which have proved their effectiveness in relation to increased study interest and changed professional activity motivation. The author considers the future perspective of the comparative study of the program effectiveness between the Medical School and Medical College students.
Key words: readiness for productive interaction, medical students, Foreign Language classes, altruism, social motives group, scientific motives group.
This paper considers the issue of cognitive readiness for innovations of personnel of educational establishments and the purpose of finding out the efficient methods of its improvement through psychological training. The author underlines the significance of teacher’s cognitive readiness for implementation of innovations into the practice and the importance of this aspect of teaching practice for the development of modern educational establishment. The problem of innovations in its general sense and in details is also said to have been studied for a long time, but the aspect of cognitive readiness of personnel of educational establishments has not been examined enough even though it proves important as it develops in the social plane. Diagnostic instruments and terms are defined in the article, modern research being considered. The developed training program is noted to be based on modern scientific views of innovative processes and methodological principles. The aim of the training is possible to realize. General principles of working with teachers in this author’s training program were systematic character, problematical character, complexity of methodological tools, voluntary participation, activity of teachers. The attention is also paid to a great number of methods and forms of work and variety of exercises used in the program. The results of post-training diagnostics are the confirmation of affective training. To summarize the article, the author stresses concomitant effects of training. Furthermore, the prospects for future research are outlined.
Key words: author’s training program, cognitive readiness for innovations, educational establishment, pre-training diagnostics, methodological principles, psychological training.
The article deals with the efficient use of active learning methods, including training technologies of psycho-pedagogical orientation as an effective means of doctors’ professional competence formation of their professional education in medical schools. The model of psycho-pedagogical training program is proposed in the article, the development of a professional identity of competent specialist in medicine as a sequence of professional guidelines and tasks in terms of gender issues are considered in the article also. The author reveals the features of gender-oriented training program that is focused on the development and formation of the personality components of future doctors’ professional competence: value and motivational, communicative, behavioral, reflective and creative. The content of the training, forms and methods of group work with medical students are characterized. There has been proved the actuality of gender mainstreaming in the construction of the training program and conducting of the group sessions with experts on the future specialists in medicine that promotes to gender sensitivity of the students and helps their gender outlook and skills equal cooperation. As a result of gender-based training and summarizing of the experience of its implementation in the educational process with the students of Medical University, author proved the effectiveness of the proposed methods of group work for the development of certain components of professional competence of future physicians.
Key words: gender-oriented training, professional competence of a future doctor, assertive personality, psychological and educational technology.
The comparative analysis of personalityoriented psychotherapeutic approaches is made by the author. The mechanisms of therapeutic effects of psychotherapy are studied to serve as those internal conditions of psychological situation that provide factorization of all healthy influences in the process of psychotherapy, and serve as explanatory models of psychotherapeutic effects’ efficacy. The prospect of psychotherapy development is established to consist in searching common mechanisms of therapeutic effects for all psychotherapeutic schools and directions, regardless of their theoretical orientation in the perception of the basic principles of psychotherapeutic process. It is noted that the models of common universal psychotherapeutic mechanisms are offered by many foreign and domestic authors, where the basic mechanisms of therapeutic effects and specific interventions are the following: confrontation, understanding, insight, interpretation, giving the information, corrective emotional experience, catharsis, acceptance (acceptance, empathy, positive attitude), learning, gaining skills, coping behavior, activation of resources, self-revelation and self-studying, which cover all three planes of patient’s personal transformation, they are cognitive, emotional and behavioral. The possibilities of personality-oriented psychotherapy and other domestic areas of reconstructive therapy are outlined, with respect to treatment of somatic diseases. It is concluded that the objectives of psychotherapy for patients with somatic diseases are the correction of inefficient mechanisms of psychological defense, correction of internal picture of disease and adaptation to the disease, correction of effects of the disease on the psyche and the formation of adaptive behaviors. However, the main goal of psychotherapeutic help consists in restoration of personal «Me» of the patient.
Key words: personality-oriented psychotherapeutic approaches, personal «Me» of the patient, psychological defense mechanisms, psychotherapy of patients with somatic diseases, correction, personality-oriented psychotherapy.
Place attachment is defined as the affective link that people establish with specific settings, where they tend to remain and where they feel comfortable and safe. For non-native students the new city of studying is specific space where they have to carry out their scientific, intellectual and social activities. This study was done to understand better how and in which way psychological peculiarities and determinants are connected with place attachment in native and non-native students. It is also aimed to look at the impact of individual psychological traits, socio-psychological adaptation and sovereignty of psychological space on students’ types of attachment to city, where they study. In this study, questionnaires were used to collect data for process of testing. Statistica software was used to analyze and interpret the survey results. Obtained results show that in non-native students the peculiarities of the formation of attachment to the city are connected with psychological characteristics of students. In particular, the formation of active attachment is associated with sociability, emotional comfort, acceptance of others; traditional type – with sovereignty of psychological space, sovereignty of things and territory, emotional maturity; lack of attachment are linked with such personality traits as neurosality, escapism, aggressiveness and excitability. In the group of native students the quantity of such relationships is smaller: active attachment is associated with internality and a reduction of level of depression; lack of attachment related with the sovereignty of things and conformity. To sum up, the psychological factor has a significant role in the formation and maintenance of attachment to the new city of residence, and his understanding and analysis help optimize relations between student and a new environment. This positive link has benefits for both – for student and for environment.
Key words: place, place attachment, sense of place, socio-psychological adaptation, emotional ties, sovereignty of psychological space, length of residence, students.
The article presents the results of a theoretical study of the formation and development of the biofeedback method and analyzes the results of an empirical study of the formational features of diaphragmatic breathing of preschool children with general speech underdevelopment by using logotherapy complex of biofeedback. At the present stage one of the urgent problems of correctional pedagogy is the problem of the development and use of innovative forms and methods of providing timely assistance to this category of children. Moreover, due to the increased integration in the last decade capabilities of computer science, medicine in preschool education the computer technology became to be used actively in recent years. Special approach to the use of computerassisted instruction in special education was applied in the development of biofeedback (BFB). This technology combines computer, therapeutic and corrective developing methods of influence on the child. Because of this, this method is being actively promoted in the preschool educational system. This article presents the results of not only theoretical but also experimental study of the need for the use of method of biofeedback in the correctional work with preschool children with health disabilities. During the study we analyzed the psychological and pedagogical literature on the subject, in the course of the experiment there were studied the characteristics of diaphragmatic breathing at preschool children with the III Level of general speech underdevelopment by facilities of biofeedback technology and developed guidelines of organization of correctional work with children with the III Level of general speech underdevelopment by using the biofeedback technology. Thus, the results of the study showed that children with the III Level of general underdevelopment of speech the functional has a broken breathing, that most of the children are breathing by chest, with raising the shoulders. This affects the quality of breathing and amount of the margin pulse on the inhale and exhale in a moment suffers, what affects the overall physical development of children. Therefore it is recommended to do systematic corrective exercises by using biofeedback technologies.
Key words: innovative technologies, diaphragmatic breathing, general speech underdevelopment, biofeedback technology, correctional pedagogy.
The author states that the emotional intelligence is emotional competence, including empathy, self-control, self-consciousness and other skills. It is noted that the prerequisite of emotional intelligence is the comprehension of emotions by the subject. The final product of emotional intelligence is a decision based on reflection and understanding of emotions, which are differentiated appraisals of the events that have personal meaning. It shown that emotional intelligence positively affects the activities: the higher emotional intelligence is, the more successful activities are. It is established not to be a universal recipe of success. It is summed up that emotional competence serves as an integrated important feature of a true professional; it may be and must be successfully developed in order to create a more harmonious Me-concept of a professional. It is concluded that the emotional component is very important in the educational process and is necessary for professional psychological training of future professionals, because it promotes the formation of their general culture, empathy, understanding of that in the emotional sphere there are driving forces of human active attitude to life, to different types of activities. It is established that the development of emotional competence of future specialists in socionomic professions will promote to their professional formation and personal improvement, updating of adaptive abilities, prevention of «emotional burnout», harmonious functioning in the society, life achievements. It is proved that emotional competence involves integral progressive development of the personality’s emotional sphere and is a set of knowledge, abilities and skills that enable managers to act adequately on the basis of processing of all information. It enriches the experience of the personality, promotes rapid analysis of emotional situations, acts as a condition for human success in all areas of life, and reflects the emotional maturity of a personality, combining the intellectual and regulatory components of the psyche.
Key words: emotional intelligence, emotional sphere of personality, emotional maturity of personality, emotional competence of future specialists in socionomic profressions, integrated significant property of a real professional.
Cognitive and reflexive aspects of psychological competence of the teacher of visually impaired children (typhlopedagogue) are envisaged in the article. The analysis of reflexive activity of the teacher, its content and direction are demonstrated. Different classifications of reflection, existing in psychological and pedagogical literature are given. The connection between the problems of subjectness and self-consciousness of the teacher and the problem in reflection of professional activities is showed. It is noted that the main directions of development of the problem of reflection in the psychology of professional activities consist in its study in three perspectives: personality-based (understanding of personal «Me»), subject-functional (comprehension and analysis of their own activities) and interactive (awareness of their actions through other people). It is determined that an important feature of maturity of reflection and professional skill of the teacher is the ability to provide feedback. Reflection provides the ability to solve difficulties in their professional activities. Based on the literature review, it is determined that reflexive processes are the impetus for psychological knowledge. It is found that the specificity of psychological knowledge is conditioned by the humanistic oriented knowledge as a special type of knowledge, characterized by interlocution. It is determined that the decision-making is considered the central stage in the processing of information in the psychology of activities. Teacher’s decision-making takes on behavioral and activity levels of its activity. It is noted that the specificity of psychological knowledge of a typhlopedagogue is conditioned by the need of practical management of mental development of children with visual impairments. The psychologically competent behavior of typhlopedagogue contributes to achieve positive changes in the personality development with deep visual impairment. The effectiveness of the implementation of psychological competence of typhlopedagogue is provided by cognitive and reflexive functions.
Key words: psychological competence, the teacher of visually impaired children (typhlopedagogue), cognitive function, reflexive function, professional self-consciousness, pedagogical activities, persons with visual impairments, deprivation.
Public assistance and social work aspire to support individuals, social groups and communities. A law about social help contains tasks that determine the special role for social workers in restoration of the public functioning, assurance of supplies and prevention of social dysfunction. Modern social reality brings many problems. A person experiences stress, depression, weakness towards different types of threats – from uncertainty of the future to suffering and lack of help from relatives. His public functioning is improper and this state is determined by a crisis. Organizations of social help, including social workers, have an opportunity to influence on person by means of different types of methods and instruments to decrease the tension and to counteract the crisis, in which individual or family was found. In Poland people, who are in need besides different types of monetary support in the form of shelter, meal, clothing, institutional help and consulting, can receive psychological assistance to cope with crisis. A great importance is attached to intervention in crisis situations. Help has the psychological and educational dimension. The psychological aspect concerns the emotional sphere, in particular, educational aspect has the cognitive character. Support of people experiencing crisis c onsists in emphatic entering into one’s situation and studying in what way a person can manage in difficult situations, what is the important stage of crisis intervention. The basic task of social work is to teach an individual how to control one’s behaviour and reactions on negative impact. An important problem in this field is the preparation of social workers for this type of work. The article was prepared by the author within the scope of Scientific and Practical Research Project Nr 19/2013 initiated by the Department of General and Practical Psychology of Kamianets-Podilskyi Ivan Ohienko National University under a heading «Actual issues of psychology of individuality and interpersonal relations of XXI century in the context of Ukrainian and Polish researches» that was finished in March 2015.
Key words: public assistance, social work, social problems, help and support, crisis intervention, social changes.
In the result of the study it was determined that the values can be considered as the focal point of personality’s professional realization, as they determine the general attitude of the personality to the professional goals, objectives and requirements, the possibility of professional self-realization, and is one of the central components of personality’s structure that determines its focus on realization of certain relations, content of ideas about his «Me», behavior and normative evaluative attitude to the environment. They are the result of mastering the environment because of its importance to meet the needs of the individual and demonstrate the level of social maturity. It was established that professional development of future specialist is under constant selection of the personality of relevant professional values, their correlation with the ideal image of a professional in their field. It was determined that social and political activity of the personality is necessary for the implementation of a system of values: only that part that is included in the activity as a subject of one or another component of the action, as its direct objective is actually understood. The formation of values is firstly social in nature. Secondly, it is closely related to the nature of activity and its procedural characteristics (motivational, operational and executive, subjective). Thirdly, it is mediated by the communication between individuals (in different areas, using the implementation of different roles, status relationships, functions, etc.). Fourthly, the formation of values reflects the significant activity of the personality (formation of ideals). Fifthly, it is associated with appraisal that accompanies virtually all acts of mental activity of the subject, leading to the formation of subjective image of the objective world.
Key words: values, professional values, professional development, professional orientation, personality structure, activity of the personality.
The importance of the emotional component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education is shown in the article. The selection of methods for determining the level of development of sensitiveness’ emotional component is proved by integrating the results of theoretical studies on the problem of sensitiveness as a professionally important feature of counseling psychologists and its components. The research results of features of emotional component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education are presented. The indicators of the sensitiveness’ emotional component of counseling psychologists in the system of education are determined as follows: the levels of emotional awareness, empathy and recognizing of emotional states of other people. The levels of sensitiveness’ emotional component are determined according to the generalization of indicators of three aforementioned empirical referents of the sensitiveness’ emotional component. It is concluded that more than half of the psychologists under study have prevailing average level of sensitiveness’ emotional component. About third part of respondents have low level of the emotional component, while one tenth of the psychologists under study have high level of the emotional component of sensitiveness. It is revealed that the third part of the psychologists under study have low level of the emotional competency, about half of the respondents have average level, and less than one fifth of the psychologists under study have high level. It is found that one sixth of diagnosed counseling psychologists have low level of empathy; and the fifth part of respondents have characteristic problems related to the recognition of emotions of other people. It is found that gender and age features of the emotional cognitive component of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the system of education are defined. It is established that older male psychologists have higher level of sensitiveness’ emotional component. Female psychologists are found to have higher level of sensitiveness’ cognitive component than male psychologists have. However, the distribution of women-psychologists of all ages for levels of sensitiveness’ emotional component is virtually unchanged. There have been outlined the expediency of empirical studies of other components of counseling psychologists’ sensitiveness in the education system (phychophysiological, behavioral) and the definition of the integrative index and social and demographic (age, sex, place of residence), and organizational and professional (school type, qualification category) factors of sensitiveness on this basis.
Key words: counseling psychologists, sensitiveness, components of sensitiveness, emotional component of sensitiveness, level of the development of sensitiveness’ emotional component.
The article is devoted to the investigation of the features of an axiological component of a future engineer’s personal professionalism to which personal and professional satisfaction and an image of the engineering profession are referred. The complex of psychodiagnostic techniques is used in the research: the questionnaire on studying of satisfaction with the chosen profession by future engineers, semantic differential for an assessment of a profession by V.P. Sierkin, a questionnaire of on activity self-organization by E.Y. Mandrikova, the test «Index of life satisfaction» by N.V. Panina. It is revealed that in general the satisfaction with their own choice of profession dominates at future engineers, they realize its sense and value, but there is an uncertainty in successful employment. The dynamic of a profession satisfaction during the study in a higher educational institution is analyzed. So, the dynamic of the most students of technical specialties either raised or didn’t change that is connected by them with teaching interesting disciplines, the increase of level of professional competence, having practical training on production. The decrease reasons of a profession satisfaction are disinterest to a profession, the lack of practical training and employment complication. The analysis of an image of the engineering profession shows that it is important for the graduate now and it is demanded by the society in the future. By means of the factorial analysis three factors having the greatest effect are emphasized: «An idealized positive image of the engineering profession», «Image of important, but insufficiently perspective profession», «An inadequate image of the engineering profession». By means of the one-factorial dispersive analysis the ideas of a profession of respondents with the low level of personal and professional satisfaction are revealed.
Key words: personal professionalism, profession satisfaction, future engineer, image of a profession, professional self-consciousness, personal and professional development, successful professionalization.
UDC 37. 011.3. 015.311 – 051
The article discloses the psychological analysis of the problem on the development of a teacher’s creative competence in the process of professional becoming. The content of the problem on the development of a teacher’s competence at the highest creative level is defined. Understanding of essence of the professional becoming of a teacher is presented. The article scientifically grounds the concept of teachers’ creative competence in the process of the professional becoming. We mean the creative competence as the greatest level of the professional competence development, when personality carries out professional activity on creative basis stably and continuously. The article investigates the psychological conditions of development of creative competence. The works of scientists are examined in the field of investigation of psychological mechanisms of creativity, issues of professional development, skills and professionalism. This article also defines the leading researches of scientists, who work on the problems of development of creative personality in an educational environment. The article revealed the theoretical analysis of the development of a teacher-beginner’s creative competence. It is noted that psychological problems of professional growth of future specialist are the most relevant. The problem on the professional development of a teacher in the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical aspects is analyzed. We found that a large number of respondents believed that the psychological portrait of the ideal teacher should include professionalism, ability to provide favorable psychological conditions for cognitive activity of children, knowledge of creative competence, empathy and reflection in the surveys of students. Strictness to themselves and others, and responsibility are of the same importance.
Key words: creativity, creative capacities, creative competence, development, psychological conditions, teacher, future teachers, professional becoming, professionalism.
Basic meaning of psychic is subjective reflection of objective reality. We rely on statement of T.S.Yatsenko, according to which objectivity of determinants’ subjectiveness of psyche belongs to sphere of the unconscious. Deep cognition of the unconscious aspects of psychic assumes probabilistic prediction and contextual cognition which is realized by psychologist in the process of interaction with respondent. Psychic by its content is subjective reflection of objective reality. Psychic reflection is ideal (represented as an image) and simultaneously subjective, inherent only to this given subject and depends on internal prism of perception. It is difficult achieve deep cognition of psychic reflective function without figurative material and creation of conditions for spontaneous, involuntary activity of the subject, according to psycho dynamic theory. In the process of deep cognition archetypical symbols promote leveling in the image of oppositions and antagonisms, which proves involvement of archetype to internal order of psychic. Actual psychic act always has expression in the horizontal «cross point» (basic defense) and vertical (situational defense), which requires exposure of the content in dialogic interaction with subject for purposes of demarking conscious and unconscious aspects. The most important professional problem of the psychologist is the ability of probabilistic forecasting of individual peculiarities of intrapsychic interconnections. Everything mentioned aggravate the problem of cognition of psychic reflection deep aspects of objective internal and external reality.
Key words: psychic reflection, deep-psychological cognition, objective reality, psychological defense, dialogical interaction.
The attempt of semantic interpretation of scientific category «social expectations» is realized in the article. It is marked that the term «concept» is related to the anthropocentric paradigm of linguistics and cognitive-pragmatic methodology, and it is used next to such key notions, as «discourse», «world picture» for representation of world view, intellectual and emotional intensions, that are intentions and aspirations of personality, represented in its creations – texts. Semantic concept is considered as a semantic unit of semantic analysis of scientific categories, notions, determinations, definitions. The analysis of semantic concepts of scientific «social expectations» category is carried out in the dictionaries of scientific terminology, certificate-encyclopaedic literature, scientific theory and practice. The supposition is expounded, that the selection of semantic concepts, will help better to investigate social expectations of personality, will clarify in socially-psychological maintenance of the investigated phenomenon, will assist the selection of meaningful scientific information, will generalize the scientific inheritance of initial scientific category. Semantic concepts of scientific category «social expectations» are shown evidently. Semantic range of the investigated problem is outlined. The variety of scientific concept units is distinguished, in particular the most widespread are subjective orientations, subjective presentations, valued orientations, reasons of behaviour, the system of expectations, requirement, approval, mental condition, form of hope, method of behaviour, prograded series of feelings, side of co-operation. It is shown that descriptions, functions, signs of social expectations are sometimes met in determination.
Key words: social expectations, semantic analysis, concept, category, notion, value, definition, semantic space.
This article is devoted to the style features of students’ training activities. Scientific approaches that reflect the research problem were characterized in the article. According to the results of the study concerning style organization of training activities, there has been developed a scheme of students’ learning that is based on key areas of the personality, namely cognitive, emotional, behavioral and motivational. We have made an attempt to identify the style parameters of training activities. On the basis of the theoretical analysis of the literature, we allocated the following style parameters: cognitive styles, emotional styles, self-regulating styles, motivational styles, styles of training. We also revealed features of each category of styles. Cognitive styles refer to a form of higher range intellectual activity, comparing with traditional descriptive features of cognitive processes. The exploration focuses mainly on cognitive style field «dependence –independence», and the style «flexibility – rigidity» of cognitive control. The emotional styles are considered as the relationship between objective requirements of emotional activity and personality characteristics. There are distinguisged the following motivational styles: achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, motivation to avoid failure and styles of self-regulation. The author bases on structural-functional approach to the study of styles that is based on the allocation of the main stages and functions. The focus is on teaching model D. Kolb, who identifies four basic training styles: akomodators, dyverhators, assimilators and konverhators. There was made a suggestion that the organization of training style of each individual student is a certain structure the elements of which can be as separate training styles aa well as their complex. In style structure of students’ training, the training styles were presented differently. In the article, we tried to prove the expediency of using the scheme that was proposed by the author.
Key words: style features, cognitive style, emotional style, self-regulation style, training styles, training activities, personality, individuality.
The author envisages the problems of the formation and development of personality’s cognitive styles in studies of native and foreign scientists. It is found that the term «cognitive style» appeared in American psychology within researches focused on individual differences in perception, analysis, categorization and reproduction of information. Cognitive theory of personality is based on the results of works on cognitive style. It is confirmed that the determinants of personality traits and uniqueness of individual behavior should be sought in the peculiarities of perception, structuring, coding, categorization, interpretation, prediction and understanding of human reality. It is shown, that existing foreign studies describe about two dozen different structural components of holistic cognitive style identity, mostly in field-dependence / field-independence, narrow / wide range of equivalence narrowness / latitude categorization, rigid / flexible cognitive control, narrowness / latitude scan, impulsivity / reflectivity, cognitive simplicity / complexity and others. The basic psychological characteristics of cognitive style parameters are presented, the content of these cognitive styles and methods of diagnosis are mentioned in the majority of scientific researches. It is concluded, that modern psychology considers cognitive styles as individual unique ways of processing information about subject’s surroundings; sustainable methods of cognitive processes that are individually specified, mentally hierarchized, affecting all levels, including personal property, integrated personality characteristics associated with the type of response or choice of action, strategies person’s behavior or control features of his or her cognitive processes covering a number of individual characteristics of individual cognitive activity during its development and are revealed empirically.
Key words: cognitive style, cognitive control, individual style, stylistic approach, the style sphere of personality, cognitive theory of persona lity.
In the article the problem of psychological treatment of hyperactivity as disorder of behavior of preschool children is clarified. Based on the analysis of foreign and domestic specialists in various fields, there is described the psychological characteristics of hyperactive children, and diverse methods of psychological correction are aimed for their overcome and compensation. There is grounded the diagnostic criteria and outlined the productive and psychological methods of early diagnosis of kid’s hyperactivity. The author determined the methodological approaches and justified the format of specific conditions, created for effective training of children with hyperactive disorder and attention deficit for school. There is generalized the known program of hyperactive preschoolers’ correction. There is argued the need for an integrated approach to education and training of hyperactive preschoolers, disclosed the content of the comprehensive multimodal program of correction and psychological support of children with hyperactive disorder and attention deficit in the process of education and training. Given the key features of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disorders of the preschool children with hyperactive attention deficit disorder (volume, stability and productivity of attention, self-esteem, impulsiveness, susceptibility to aggressive and antisocial behavior) there was carried out the experimental verification of the implementation of complex multimodal authoring program of psychocorrection of hyperactive children, that combined work of pre-school psychologist with the professional support of educators, parents and doctors.
Key words: hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), impulsivity, attention deficit, psychological support, comprehensive approach, multimodal complex psychocorrection, psychological education.
The article deals with the psychological characteristics of step family teenagers’ meaningfulness of life. The author analyzes the role of the family in the development of adolescent personality and their system of values paying special attention to the rationale for research of step family adolescents’ system of values. The author presents the results of an empirical investigation of teenagers’ system of life values. It was found that adolescents from step families differed from their age peers from families of other types in their overall meaningfulness of life which fused their ideas about themselves and the world. Those teens had vague life goals which suggested their poor understanding of life and lack of a tunnel vision. They usually lived in the present, did not have time perspective and did not want to plan ahead. Regarding ‘the process of life’ scale it was found that the emotional intensity of the present and its meaningfulness were rated by the step family adolescents much higher than those of the past and the future. Given their low scores on other life values scales, step family adolescents had poor understanding of their future lives. Besides, the step family adolescents were shown to have scores on the ‘life efficacy’ scale lower than those from the families of other types which suggested their dissatisfaction with their past lives. It was also found that the majority of step family adolescents believed in their inability to control their lives.
Key words: life value system, teenager, value system, meaningful life, step family.
The article is dedicated to the important and relevant aspect of parental psychology – the problem of becoming and developing of paternal identity of men, in particular the analysis of self-concept peculiarities of men in preactualized and actualized stages of paternal identity formation. The article describes features of self-concept of men with and without children. Based on the analysis the article outlines the general trends of paternal identity of men in preactualized and actualized stages of formation. It is proved that the real parents as opposed to potential put greater emphasis on social and active «Me» in their self-concept that is actually required for optimal performance of their family and parental roles and duties. Real parents are observed to have a high level of actualization of behavioral component in their self-concept in general and in particular the paternal identity. It is proved that having own actual family and children or their prospect in future forces men to take responsibility and make important decisions, and therefore it is necessary to be able to control himself, his emotions and to be stress resistant. At the same time modern men are highly emotionally polarized. The transition to actualized stage of paternal identity formation is a crisis period which is accompanied with significant stress reactions and emotional experiences. The study made it possible to establish the availability of problem areas in the formation of personal identity, as well as the low level of reflection in a certain category of men of preactualized and actualized formative period of parental identity.
Key words: man, parenting, identity, self-concept, paternal identity, preactualized period of paternal identity formation, actualized period of formation of paternal identity.
The article deals with the grounding and development of a conceptual potential of concepts of «activity», «subjectivity» and «reflexivity» as a methodological basis for a constructive solving of the problem of overcoming the employment crisis of unemployed. According to the results of theoretical analysis of the actual problem it is established that psychosocial adaptation of unemployed special role is played by personal determinants. The author demonstrated that absence of subject activity of the unemployed in the crisis experience process, without internal readiness to reflection of own internal resources and active work of sense to discredit the inadequate to new social situation values without conscious attitude to independent searching for new meanings of new professional prospects the successful overcoming the crisis is hardly possible. It is noted that for the analysis of conditions and opportunities of constructive overcoming the employment crisis of unemployed the concepts that relate not to individual characteristics of emotional and regulatory sphere of personality but with its integral representation in the form of system-dynamic, integral formation are needed. It is grounded theoretically that categories «activity», «subjectivity» and «reflexivity» have such a conceptual potential, which specifies the content of transforming activity of the unemployed in the situation of overcoming individual employment crisis, remove it beyond the simple rebalancing, providing thereby constructing new social situation of employment. It is concluded that the unemployed who takes a proactive position of a reflexing subject, who is able to more focused and efficient search for solutions to the crisis of employment.
Key words: personality, personality determinants, activity, subjectivity, reflexivity, the crisis of employment, unemployment, crisis overcoming.
The paper analyzes the results of studies of teenagers’ perceptual actions with subjects with variation forms. It is revealed the specificity of perceptual actions with the variability of objects. This specificity shows the fact that this kind of perceptual actions is used not for the detection or identification of objects, but it is indicative for the formation of a special scale to assess the variability of the subject. This type of perceptual processes should be balanced against the veiled purpose of perceiving the human system to encode the function, which reflects the object and purpose of the action with it during the human activity. It was found that the scale of items elasticity has priority while studying the subjects of variation. This scale provides a measure of variability of the object on the basis of subjective assessments of a person to recognize objects with variation forms. It is confirmed that the assessment of the variability of the object is not the effect of mixing and it is not correlated with the evaluation of other parameters of individual object (e.g., shape and size of objects). Evaluation scale of object’s size and the scale of evaluation of its forms which were used in the experiments of A.V. Zaporozhets with other types of perceptual actions are not used in evaluating the variation form of the object. It is investigated, that the scale of assessment of variant form of the subject (scale elasticity) is important in the perception of objects with variation form, but it is not used in the perception of the size of the hard shape of the object. This scale (of elasticity) is a representative indicator of formation of teenager’s skill to perceive objects of variation forms and ealuate their degree of variability.
Key words: variation form of object, perception, perceptual actions, teenagers, objects with variation form, objects with hard form, exactness of scale, scale of elasticity.
UDC 159.923.2 : 321.02
In terms of the theory of systems Ukraine is a Holon that is separated, autonomous social system and a part of a broader civilizational system at the same time. Social and political crisis in our country is an indication of the struggle between the so-called second and third human civilizations. Consciousness at the all stages of ontogenesis is a heterogeneous pluralistic entire, in which ordinary and extraordinary realities coexist. However, the boundaries between the spheres of reality are not absolute. They have competing, alternative character in relation to each other and need some coordination and consistency between them, which is achieved by managing system settings. Phenomena and rational constructions of external objects are not in the relationship of causes and effects, and are relatively independent forms of representation of external objects, which correlates with each other. Against the backdrop of the social shock that Ukraine is experiencing, there is an increasing of mythological level of personal and social consciousness in the countries that are involved to the conflict. Coordination in the human community is based on the meaning (sense), so it is considered that myth may be one of the organizing factors of both the personality and social systems. Myth is distinguished from a system of ideas by emotional intensity. Myth becomes the basis of a common identity of representatives of the present culture and social group. It provides anchorage ground, angular stones for perception of the world, creates scheme of descriptions, explanations and evaluation of reality through creating a «perfectly correct» model of the world and «correct» model of one’s own behavior. That is myth is a stabilizing factor of a system, which sets the conditions for the functioning of cognition and behavior in society.
Key words: myth, mythology, idea, consciousness, society, system, phenomenological world, civilization waves.
The article is devoted to the concept of modern methods of researching factors of influence on the formation and development of inter-ethnic communication, their application in practice of the study of inter-ethnic relations. According to the article the object of study of foreign and domestic scientists is psychological mechanisms that underlie the formation factors of influence on the formation and development of inter-ethnic communication. The author considers that modern society needs additional social and psychological research to study the unexplored of these factors features that remain in this field of psychology, leaving tremendous opportunity for scientists searching creative discovery. In the article it is considered the perspective and the actual directions of the study of inter-ethnic relations. The author considers factors of influence on the formation and development of inter-ethnic communication in the plane of existence of ethnic groups. Much attention is given to characteristic discontinuity between the theoretical description of inter-ethnic relations and their practical solutions applied in the study of social psychology as a field of scientific knowledge. According to the article the process of settlement of ethnic conflicts implies the use of a complex variety of techniques, with one of the most common and effective technique of negotiations. It is established that inter-ethnic communication in Ukrainian society has potentially dangerous elements of relationships between different ethnic communities. The author comes to the conclusion that there is a need of development of system of early prediction conflicts situations and a model of the emergence and spread of conflicts. This system will effectively prevent the crisis state of interethnic relations with dangerous consequences.
Key words: inter-ethnic relations,inter-ethnic tension, ethnic conflict, resolving of ethnic conflicts.
This article envisages leisure and dance practices of social couple dancing as a method of psychotherapy. It provides a definition of the phenomena of social couple dancing, leisure and dance practices and tango therapy. We have studied the urgency of the use of leisure and dance practices as a method for prevention of depression and treatment of various mental and somatic disorders. We suggest using leisure and dance practices as a treatment of mental depression in interpersonal psychotherapy. The article singles out the components of psychotherapeutic foundation of social couple dancing. Allogrooming is identified as one of the key factors in stress release and trust building helping to demonstrate the affiliate behaviour and to strengthen mutual attachment of community members. We analysed various studies of the use of tango therapy in the treatment of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, as well as a number of other mental illnesses and disorders. The article gives a summary of unique features of tango as a psychotherapeutic agent identified by western researchers. We have come to a conclusion on the prospects of using leisure and dance practices as a method for prevention and treatment of various mental and somatic illnesses. The article highlights the specifics of the use of leisure and dance practices in the prevention and treatment of certain mental and somatic illnesses. In the article we suggest the prospects of development of techniques for the application of leisure and dance practices as a therapeutic agent in specialized treatment and prevention centres.
Key words: leisure and dance practices, social couple dances, interpersonal psychotherapy, tango therapy, allogrooming, depression, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease.
The methodology was elaborated within the research of psychological readiness of polytechnic university students to future professional and managerial activity. It was concluded that this methodology gives the opportunity to research the student’s expectations regarding his/her future activity in organization’s team, particularly, his/her own opinion of himself/herself, feelings, behaviors, as a member of future staff. It was summed up that one of the most efficient approaches concerning methodology construction and result interpretation is cognitive behavioral approach to understand a person’s behavior. The analysis of cognitive behavioral approach has been conducted as an approach within which the research of the structure of psychological readiness of students for future professional administrative activity has been carried out. Particularly, the structure of psychological readiness of students is the aggregate of necessary competences for future professional and managerial activity: individual, educational, educational professional, value and managerial. The cognitive behavioral approach is one of the modern approaches which gives the chance to study human’s expectations towards himself/herself and other people through correlation of his/her thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It was identified that this methodology provides the opportunity to reveal the peculiarities of student’s activity orientation in future organization, expose his/her position in future organization. This method came up with the notion «organizational self-esteem» and levels of organizational self-esteem for the first time, more precisely: inadequate-overestimated, adequate, and inadequate-underestimated. The mentioned method can be implemented on students while conducting psychological counseling aimed at psychological preparation for future professional and managerial activities, carrying out lessons of psychological and pedagogical disciplines, and selecting the personnel.
Key words: self-efficiency, organization, organizational self-esteem, activity orientation, cognitive and behavioral approach, future professional managerial activity.
This article considers modern scientific researches which pay attention to the adaptive capacity of the personality, to the process of overcoming problem (stressful) situations, being essential in the prophylaxis of health disorders. Skills, resources of the personality, as well as environmental factors that impact the personality and provide an optimal adaptation to stress factors were accentuated in this work. Adaptation may include protective mechanisms and take the form of withdrawal from stress influence. It is established that determining role in the process of psychological adaptation has the phase of stress factor evaluation due to the various parameters (valence, controllability, variability, degree of certainty, repeatability, correlation with personal experience) – stage of formation of subjective image of the situation, opportunities and preferred ways of its permission according to the established system of ideas, needs and values. Stress overcoming is considered as «efforts to reduce the impact of stress on the individual’s state». Phases of the stressful situations mastering and various methods of stress overcoming are described in this research paper. Resources which help to cope with stressful situations are established: personality’s resources (Self-concept; infernal locus of control; cognitive resources; affiliation; empathy; people’s attitude towards life, death, love, faith; spirituality, values and motivation structure of the personality) and the resources of the social environment (the environment in which we live, and the ability to find, make and provide social support). There have been analysed the peculiarities of coping process, factors that affected its efficiency, that proved that the apparent objective of psychological prevention and correction work with orphans came to the fore the problem of formation of adaptability and coping resources of the personality.
Key words: adaptation, stress, stress resistance, stress factors, emotional sphere, overcoming, coping, coping resources, defense mechanisms, self-concept, locus of control, self-efficacy, cognitive development, affiliation, empathy and social support.
Оne of the strategic directions of modern psychology is the creation of a unified system of correctional assistance to children, which have complex disorders. The training and education of such children is comparatively poorly known and difficult problem of special pedagogy. However, the practical need for the study and definition of educational opportunities for children with difficult (complex) disorders, as well as in the development of their socialization is extremely high. Significant role in the life of a child with complex developmental disorders is given for the formation of life competencies as a prerequisite for further effective educational inclusion. The article presents the results of an empirical study aimed at evaluation of the level of formation of communicative competence of children with complex developmental disabilities, who attend the Lekotek. To identify the characteristics of development of communicative abilities of preschool children there was developed a program of research, which included a study of the prerequisites of communicative activities, as well as non-verbal and verbal components of communication. Four levels of formation of communicative competence, which were set for each child in accordance with the average score for the performance of all experimental tasks and qualitative evaluation, performed during the course of the study, were allocated.
Key words: communicative competence, children with complex developmental disabilities, Lekotek.
The article analyzes the importance of dialogical approach as the main condition of high-quality professional training of future psychologists in the system of higher education. The author has determined the factors of efficiency of dialogical communicative practices in higher education. The author noted that today many complex problems in various areas of human activity cannot be solved without the involvement of professional psychologists. That is why the problem of the quality of their training became increasingly urgent. There is emphasized that improving of the quality of education is one of the main tasks of modern education policy, national priority and a precondition for national security. The article argued the feasibility of dialogic approach in higher school with the aim of conscious development and improving the professional competence of future psychologists. The author has analyzed the scientific and theoretical patterns and features of creation of the dialogical approach in psychology. Theoretical generalizations of scientific concepts about dialogical interaction in educational space of higher education are made. Article reveals the role of dialogical learning and collective productive activities of the subjects of educational process in the formation of professional consciousness of future psychologists. The possibility of formation of professional competence of future psychologists on the base of interactive teaching methods is determined. The analysis of the difficulties, that prevent the effective use of interactive methods in higher education, is made. Author determined factors of successful formation of dialogic competence of future psychologists.
Key words: dialogical approach, psychological competence, professional self-development, high-quality education, interactive education.
The article deals with the functional-role traits of psychologist’s personality. Phases of program of the development of the role structure of future psychologist, and the results of verify the effectiveness of the proposed program are set. It is shown that the program has three stages: motivational, emotional and reflective and roll, providing the development of emotional intelligence, empathy, reflectivity and professionally important qualities corresponding to the role structure of psychologist’s personality. It is determined that the purpose of the motivational phase is to ensure positive motivation to participate in developing the program (first stage aims to provide positive motivation to participate in developing the program through the dissemination of its purpose and content, and the second stage was a provision of positive motivation to participate in developing the program through familiarization with the motivation of the manager of developmental program that led to its creation and implementation). The article reveals the essence of emotional and reflective stage of the developmental program aimed at the development of affective components of the functional areas of the role-space psychologist’s personality (emotional intelligence, empathy and professional reflexivity of the future psychologists) and communicative role stage, which included the development of components of conative field in functional and role area of a psychologist’s personality (the skills and abilities required for professional roles of psychologist – consultant, trainer, therapist, scientist, teacher). The article proves that as a result of the program implementation it is stated the increase of indicators of emotional intelligence, empathy, communication and organizational skills, as well as the role of reflexivity and competence of psychologists in statistically significant level.
Key words: role structure of psychologist’s personality, emotional intelligence, empathy, reflexivity, developing program.
UDC 159.9.072.7 : 372.3
The article has been deepened the content of the notion and values «observation» as a professionally important quality of future educators of preschool educational establishments. The psychological features of professional observation of future educators have been characterized that indicate the level of noncompliance of the requirements that apply to the personality of the future teacher. The favorable conditions of development of professional observation have been defined: orientation of the content of disciplines and industrial practices on the development of observation; using different methods and forms of organization of the teaching process for this purpose; formation of future educators’ professional motives and professional and value orientations, adequate and deep idea about the essence of observation and also development of adequate self-estimation of observation as a professional important quality, ability to reflection and empathy. The psychodiagnostic detection instruments as collateral psychological and pedagogical conditions of professional observation in the practice of educational activities have been presented. The results of empirical studies indicated of lack of purposeful development of this quality. The conclusion is made about necessity of intensification of the development of professional observation of future teachers of preschool education in preparation for professional educational activities. It is concluded that the observation is a professional important quality of future educators of preschool educational institutions, the essence of which is to fix and interpret significant characteristic and even subtle external manifestations of individual features of the subjects of educational process of preschool educational establishments (children, parents, teachers).
Key words: observation, professionally important qualities, future teachers of preschool education, psychological characteristics, educational activities, professional training, educational activities, psychological and pedagogical conditions.
UDC 159.9 (075.85)
The article reflects the results of an experimental study of the features of the rules in the regulatory situation of junior pupils with normal and abnormal intellectual development; identification of correlations between rules and age new formations. The peculiar relations of the junior pupils with other people determine the development of his psyche. Each age period has its own specific for its social situation of development. The question about the role which sense of humor as a personality trait plays in human life is a very interesting for us, and it is important to assess what are the features of the self-concept of pupils with different types of sense of humor. The culture is referred to as a space of human activity, as a system of normative situations, the rules of behavior that an individual must acquire to adequately interact with others. The experimental study, aimed at examining the features of the rules in the regulatory situation of junior pupils with normal and abnormal intellectual development, suggests that junior pupils with normal intellectual development correspond to the content of the rules of regulatory situations that directly correlate with the tumors in this age. The results of the studies also indicate the deviations in the development of the regulatory situation of junior pupils with intellectual disabilities from the general trends of the development of the junior pupils as a subject of regulatory situation. The differences in the content of the regulatory situation, which indirectly generates the psyche of the child and which is the process of becoming a person in a culture, also allows us to assert that the junior pupils with intellectual disabilities may have originality in the development of the individual, and as a result they have difficulty in integration, social adaptation among healthy students and in society in general.
Key words: social situation of development, regulatory situation, rule, young pupil, subject of culture.
О.А. Chekanska, Y.P. Danchuk
The article is devoted to the study of mental health of single mothers. A theoretical research has been conducted which allowed to clarify the definition of «mental health» and identify the factors that negatively affect the mental health of mothers raising children alone. It has been indicated that motherhood in single-parent families is associated with a number of complications in life; namely, ambiguous response of friends and neighbors to the pregnancy of unmarried women; lack of support and sometimes negative attitude to the child’s father. Major psychological problems are caused by the lack of time for personal growth; guilt before the child for being unable to offer a two parent family, excessive anxiety and excessive child care; single mother’s fear that from now on she belongs only to the child and will never be able to arrange her own personal life. The presented findings of the empirical research have shown that single mothers display average levels of satisfaction with life. They typically report that they are not satisfied with their work (career), personal achievements and aspirations, health, and communication with the loved ones. However, it has been found that the mental state of mothers who are raising children on their own is associated with more favorable outcomes. It is established that women of this category do not experience neuro-psychological tension, depression, feelings of loneliness and anxiety, they have increased stress resistance. They are quite satisfied with their interpersonal contacts, feel the support of the loved ones, feel confident and relaxed in public. It has been determined that women who are raising children on their own are self-confident, convinced of a positive assessment by others, are full of self-awareness, have a strong feeling of ‘own love’, exhibit sufficient selfesteem and at the same time value the approval of their ‘self’ by others.
Key words: mental health, motherhood in a single-parent family, quality of life, stress resistance, loneliness, depression, personal growth, interpersonal relationships.
The article highlights the specific manifestations of egocentrism in the subjective internal picture of the world of pregnant women of different groups («healthy» and «with the experience of infertility treatment on the background of problems with eating behavior and weight»). It is shown that the perception of corporeality experience among pregnant women is determined by the peculiarities of ego-functioning system – the correlation between complementary mechanisms of centrationdecentration, which represent the assimilation of skills of coordination of subjective and objective poles by the individual of the experience and are included in dispositional system of regulation of behavior. The mechanisms of centration are revealed to be based on the information that is stored in the past experience of the subject, the mechanisms of decentration are based on the perception of information «here and now» and the «feedback». It is described, that moderate centration on a subject allows him to self-assert, to concentrate in own values, to defend its interests, positions, plans, to insist on its point of view and its solutions to the problem, that is necessary for the realization of its intentions and achieving desired goals. The excessive egocentrism of personality is displayed to function as a distorted (pathological) egocentric «protection», which manifests itself in excessive fixation and concentration on the subject itself, excessive focus on own positions; to accompany any resistant intentions of personality to achieve the desired or any of persistent reproduction of the problem behavior, even contrary to common sense and logic, particularly, destructive patterns of eating behavior. It is noted that, in most cases the behavior, which is determined by secondary gain, is accompanied by unconscious sensations of pleasure that in the future contributes to the formation the corresponding semantic components of consciousness and fixation of egocentric personality qualities.
Key words: traumatic experience of corporeality, destructive patterns of eating behavior, egocentrism, ego-system, mechanisms of centrationdecentration.
The problem is formulated of the absence of empirical grounding of the role of resources in self-realization of a person. Viability is supposed and grounded to be the empirical descriptor of personal potential. With the help of correlation analysis the connection has been established between psychological resourcefulness and «Person». Using the method of cluster analysis it has been established that psychological resourcefulness belongs to the cluster component existential realizability; in this cluster it is most closely connected to the scale «Person». With the help of the method of comparative analysis it has been found that as the level of psychological resourcefulness of research participants rose, their level «Person» did not increase. At the same time, people with the high level of «Person» are characterized by the higher level of psychological resourcefulness. On the basis of empirical results of the research it has been grounded that psychological resourcefulness is a component of personal potential. The disclosure of personal potential is manifested as actualization of psychological resourcefulness in such direction as support, i.e. the acquisition by the person of autonomy and self-determination with respect to serving the others. The effect of disclosing personal potential is disclosing «Person», the extent to which a person approached maximum complete self-realization. «Person» is connected with such resources of personality as love, responsibility, self-assurance, belief in good, success. In coordinates of existential realizability psychological resourcefulness is actualized in the vector of selftranscendence. We consider the function of psychological resourcefulness in disclosing personal potential to be providing the level of intentionality, on which a person is able to realize oneself in such aspect of moral-ethical attitude to the Other as support, and in this way, to personalize.
Key words: psychological resourcefulness, personal-existential resources, personal resourcefulness, personal potential, self-actualization, existential realizability, «Person», self-realization, self-transcendence, synergy.
The article is focused on one of the actual problems in modern psychological science – psychological prevention of school violence. The work presents summarized results of scientific literature theoretical analysis, qualitative research projects and programs of school and family violence, which were conducted in Ukraine in the last decades. The best domestic experience in prevention violence at school has been summarized. The components of psychological violence prevention among children of primary school are clearly outlined, according to the levels of prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) containing formulation of the goal, the level of psychological influence and relevant preventive measures. The main tasks and levels of psychologist’s work in line of the humanistic, cognitive and behavioral psychology have been considered. The basic principles that define both processual and resultative indicators of the programme realization have been presented. The author’s model of psychological prevention of school violence among primary school children is theoretically grounded and developed. It is aimed at correcting, prevention and reduction of aggressive behavior in pupils. In the bullying preventing programme the main vectors of junior’s personal growth are considered: the child’s understanding of uniqueness and value of himself and others, his emotions, development of the ability to self-analysis and adequacy of self-esteem, improving the skills of behavior self-regulation, education of directive on dialogic as an important prerequisite of harmonious interaction with others. The author’s program in psychoprophylaxis of school violence involves interaction with teachers of elementary school and parents of pupils.
Key words: school violence, psychological prevention, psychological education, junior pupil, bullying, aggression, demonstrative behavior, anxiety.
T.A. Yanovska, Y.I. Kaliuzhna
The problem of purposeful development of students’ cognitive interest in psychology in higher education institutions in the context of their personal self-knowledge and self-development is considered. An interactive learning, based on the interaction of people in the process of learning is characterized and it is a powerful tool to enhance the young people’s cognitive interests. It is analyzed that interactive teaching methods include the organization of young people’s group work to solve the problems of professional content. The results of empirical research of structure of students’ interests are analyzed; and the methodological tools of development of future teachers’ desire for mastering psychological knowledge are outlined. Analysis of the results shows that the usage of interactive methods of teaching psychological disciplines is essential for the formation of future teachers’ cognitive motivation, which ensures the effectiveness of their professional development. Learning activities with the usage of interactive methods will attract future professionals to interact in solving professionally important situations, creates conditions for increasing their mental activity and promotes each student’s orientation to achieve results in the team work. Attention is paid to the fact that the activation of cognitive motivation in psychological knowledge can be significantly increased through counting the other, already formed students’ interests. Further search for opportunities of the usage of interactive methods at lectures, practical and laboratory classes in psychology based on the relationship of motivational structures may be the key to increasing students’ interest in this course and awareness of its necessity for the teacher’s further professional selfdevelopment.
Key words: personality, motivation, cognitive interest, psychological knowledge, the structure of interest, teaching tools, the development of interest, interactive learning, professional development.