It is stated by the author of the article that the central problem of researches of the laboratory of N.O. Menchynska is the issue concerning the features of «ability to learning», defined as the ability to master knowledge and ways of learning. It is shown that the property of «ability to learning», according to N.O. Menchynska and her coworkers, is dynamic. It is shown that N.O. Menchynska considered fundamentally important in the development of a typology of students in the education process the indicators characterizing not only intelligence, but also other aspects of personality (firstly – motivation). It is established that educational experiment in the works of N.M. Menchynska and her coworkers, doesn’t have projecting and prognostic functions. It is proved that basic research strategy consisted in finding existing drawbacks of school education in the process of ascertaining experiment, identifying a series of educational experimentations the most effective way to address the shortcomings and build on this basis the guidelines that complement or modify the traditional method. It is established that the theory of stage formation of mental actions and the concept of educational activities that implemented the activity approach to training and were based on the identified psychological models, suffered criticism from N.O. Menchynska and her coworkers.
Key words: associative and reflex theory of education, ability to studying, educational experiment, activity approach, educational goals, pupils, mental activity, individual differences.
The study presents the results of psychological support of competitiveness development among managerial personnel of state educational organizations. The system of psychological support managerial personnel’s competitiveness of state educational establishments is identified. It is established that the system of psychological support of personnel’s competitiveness includes a number of structural elements: they are theoretical, diagnostic, practical tools. It is stated that the model of competitiveness of administrative staff of state organizations includes: 1) unit of educational-based characteristics; 2) management-based unit; 3) special competitive unit that has two subgroups of characteristics; 4) unit of «Psychological culture of personality’s competitiveness». It is found that for the diagnosing of competitiveness of state organizations’ administrative staff it is reasonably to apply an appropriate diagnostic tool «Managerial staff’s competitiveness in state organizations». In order to study the readiness to performing working duties it is stated to use the system of psychological methods of choosing managerial personnel of state educational establishments. Psychological support of managerial staff’s competitiveness of state educational establishments is realized by developing and implementing individualized programs of self-development of their own competitiveness and realization of the special training program on developing effective types of managerial staff competitiveness of state educational establishments. It is stated that training program «Development of administrative staff’s competitiveness of state educational organizations» contributes to the practical development of competitiveness. The practical significance of the study is in implementing obtained results, which can be applied in training of reserve managerial and administrative staff of state educational organizations as well as practicing psychologists to provide psychological support of managerial staff’s competitiveness of the state educational establishments.
Key words: competitiveness, managerial personnel, state educational organization, psychological support, training programmes.
The article proposes new psychodiagnostic technique, which is directed on the measuring of unconstructive experiencing the feeling of guilt. The results of psychometric test of constructed method are presented in the article. It was analyzed the elaboration of a problem of guilt in the foreign and domestic psychology. It is illustrated, that there is a shortage of diagnostic tools aimed at identifying non-constructive aspects of guilt and the necessity of creating a new questionnaire is reasoned. The relevant maintenance of the measured phenomenon of «unconstructive experiencing the feeling of guilt» is outlined. This phenomenon is determined by actualization of conflict senses, excessive concentration in the experience of guilt in the area of attitude to oneself, activation of mechanisms of psychological protection and the concentration of the protective process in the area of attitude to oneself and interaction with others, inability to correct the situation in the area of action and the use of specific protective ways of behavior for the guilt. It is empirically proved that the constructed questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the detection of non-constructive aspects of the experiencing the feeling of guilt and measuring the propensity to experience guilt in an unconstructive way. According to the results of the statistical test, satisfactory indicators of reliability, diagnostic discriminative ability of the method were determined and also test standards were established. The criteria for validation are selected and justified, and an informative, diagnostic and convergent validity of the constructed method is proved, that allowed us to describe a construct, empirically determine the features of the measured property. The scales of the constructed questionnaire are established and identified («expectation of punishment», «interest to others», «demanding for themselves», «focus on normative» and «regret»), which reflect a certain way of behavior or attitude in the process of experiencing the guilt.
Key words: the feeling of guilt, unconstructive experiencing the feeling of guilt, psychodiagnostic instructions, psychometric indicators, validity of the method, validation criteria, psychodiagnostic possibilities.
UDC 004.77 – 042.72 – 053.6
The article is devoted to research the actual problem of adolescents’ Internet addiction and manifestation of adolescents’ defense mechanisms. The psychological foundations of the concepts of «dependence», «Internet dependence», «defense mechanisms» are revealed. In the course of empirical research among studied adolescents we found: ordinary Internet users, Internet users who have problems and dependent Internet users. It’s established that each of these groups are characterized by some defense mechanisms (repression, denial, rationalization, projection). We have found that the group of investigated persons (ordinary internet users) is exposed such defense mechanism as a denial. Internet users with problems have such leading types of protection as rationalization, denial and displacement. The group of investigated persons (addicted internet users) is exposed projection as one of the types of defense mechanisms. During the conducted empirical study we have found that all the free time of dependent Internet users takes computer. The teenager who voluntarily chained the computer, has the problems with reality. The social adaptation is violated, it is difficult for him to find a common language and a common themes with other people. While ordinary Internet users do not spend a lot of time wandering through the pages of different websites. These adolescents use the Internet as an auxiliary source to find information. Sometimes they use the network for unloading or rest, i.e. viewing video or pictures, online games with logical content without protagonist, and it’s need to add an object, or look for lost and others. Their communication is real, not virtual, i.e. they do not communicate via social networks. These adolescents spend their free time with friends or read some science or fiction, attend various sections, to enrich their worldview.
Key words: Internet dependence, ordinary Internet users, problematic Internet users, dependence Internet users, mechanisms of psychological defense, repression, denial, rationalization, projection.
UDC 159.9.072.433: 159.922.8
The article discusses the results of the empirical investigation of the factors of emotional intelligence in juveniles. It was discovered that juveniles had low rate of emotional intelligence as more than ninety percent of all respondents had low or middle level of it. Factors were investigated which belonged to gender and age, as well as social and demographic factors, which, according to a number of scientific publications, could influence the development of emotional intelligence, namely, age, gender, future specialty chosen for studying (psychologists, engineers, lawyers, historians); family composition (complete, incomplete; availability, gender and the birth order of siblings); birth place (city, village, urban-type settlement); parents’ education (secondary, higher, scientific degree). It was revealed that male juveniles in general had more developed emotional intelligence than female ones, owing significantly to their ability to manage emotions; herewith this ability increases with age. It was found (on a tendency level) that juveniles who studied technical subjects had lower levels of emotional intelligence. It is noteworthy that psychology students could manage their emotions worse than students of other specialties. It was concluded that generally neither family composition nor parents’ education gave any statistically significant differences in the levels of emotional intelligence. The only exception was the rate of self-motivation depending on the sibling gender. The highest level of emotional intelligence in general and of self-motivation in particular was found in siblings of the opposite gender. It was analyzed how some aspects of emotional intelligence showed themselves depending on the birth place. In particular, the emotional knowledge of those under study who was born in urban-type settlements was higher than that of village-born juveniles. Further investigation of the peculiarities of emotional intelligence in juveniles having propensity towards victim behavior was recognized as desirable.
Key words: emotional intelligence, juveniles, factors of emotional intelligence, emotional knowledge, managing emotions, self-motivation, empathy, ability to recognize emotions of other people, victim behavior.
UDC 37.015.31:17.022.1]: 37(477)(092)
The article describes the genesis of views on issues of moral education of Ukrainian youth in pedagogical heritage of the outstanding Ukrainian scientist of the twentieth century, teacher, trainer Oleksandr Romanovych Mazurkevych (1913-1995). The years of active work of O.R.Mazurkevych were in the Soviet period in the history of Ukraine, when a leading role in the formation of Ukrainian scientific thought played the Communist Party of the country and the person of its first leader. The results of the analysis of scientific and pedagogical works of the scientist of this period indicate the unconditional influence on his views concerning the education of growing generation, in particular, moral and aesthetic, political factor. The author emphasizes the need for education of party spirit and teaching school subjects, such as literature, based on the decisions of party congresses, the program of the CPSU, «the Leninist line of artistic development of the society». At the same time, he makes a number of valuable methodological advice concerning the organization of moral education of pupils at lessons of literature. He considers the task of literature to be in the education of a man, in love with the work, a man of great inner beauty, lofty ideals. To carry out all these tasks, according to O.R.Mazurkevych we need teachers, especially teachers of literature. In addition, the scientist emphasizes the need to use at the lessons of the literature the invaluable spiritual values, which have been accumulated with the talent and intelligence of Ukrainian and other peoples of the world for centuries. Here we can see the transformation of scientist’s views on questions of training and education of pupils at lessons of literature. In the first years of Ukrainian independence O.R. Mazurkevych had an opportunity freely without political pressure from the ruling circles to express his thoughts about the role of literature in the moral education of the young man into a truly national school. He emphasized that the school is the main place of establishment and development of the spiritual foundations of the people, and the means is a native word.
Key words: O.R. Mazurkevych, pedagogical heritage, modernity, education, moral education, literature, Ukrainian literature, pupils.
The article presents the content and structure of the profession-relevant tolerance of heads of secondary educational institutions which comprises three interrelated components – the management tolerance proper, the pedagogical collective interaction tolerance, and the self-tolerance. The author gives a definition of the management tolerance proper as a component of the profession-relevant tolerance of heads of secondary educational institutions. The management tolerance proper of heads of secondary educational institutions includes the tolerance to uncertainty in managerial activities, the tolerance to changes in managerial activities, and the job stress tolerance. The article discusses the results of the empirical investigation into the levels of the three components of the management tolerance proper of heads of secondary educational institutions: the tolerance to uncertainty in managerial activities, the tolerance to changes in managerial activities, and the job stress tolerance. The investigation found low levels of the management tolerance proper being a key component the profession-relevant tolerance of heads of secondary educational institutions. The author makes a conclusion about the necessity of development of the management tolerance proper as an important component of the profession-relevant tolerance of heads of secondary educational institutions which can be effectively done in the system of postgraduate education by means of a special training.
Key words: professional tolerance of heads of secondary educational institutions, management tolerance proper, tolerance to uncertainty in managerial activities, tolerance to changes in managerial activities, job stress tolerance.
UDC 159.925 : 159.954
In the article a theoretical substantiation and empiric research of features of gender differences is given in the structure of creativity of personality. It is noted that the problem of sexual differences of creative potential of personality does not have a synonymous decision, in researches on creativity by the criteria of sex an accent is put on sexual differences rather than on sexual similarity. Two approaches in researches of creativity in connection with the sex are distinguished: orientations on sexual differences and on sexual similarity. Comparing the indexes of creativity of women and men mainly sexual similarity appears. Sexual differences appear by the criterion of character of interrelations of variables for women and men separately. It is emphasized, that one should examine information about sexual differences rather than as a certificate of sexual similarity, as differences between sexes are expressed an insignificant measure, although cited data in behalf of statistical meaningfulness of such differences is presented. The empiric study of features of sexual differences in the structure of schoolchildren’s creativity is realized using the test of E. Torrens (verbal and nonverbal batteries). It is concluded, that the models of gifted boys and girls are matched, however the indexes of structural types of verbal and figured creativity of girls are higher: girls have better developed verbal creativity and considerably higher indexes of «Elaboration», «Name», «Resistance of fastening» of figured creativity. The research proved that girls are better able to develop ideas, complement them with plenty of details. The girls have better developed capacity to fi gured information transformation in a verbal form, they give more abstract names to the pictures. Girls are not able to keep the stereotypes and «to stay opened» for various information for a long time.
Key words: verbal and nonverbal creativity, structural type of creativity, sex, gender, intersexual differences and similarity.
UDC 316.62 – 058.836: 316.356.2
The comparative analysis of the characteristics of quality of family life in the traditional and distant families was done and the following trends were found. Two institutes of a family were studied, in particular, traditional and distant. There have been shown the experimental methods by which peculiarities of a quality of family life in the traditional and distant families are studied. It is stated that family adaptation as family cohesion is characterized by gender nonspecificity. That is, as in traditional and distant families men statistically meaningful do not differ from women according to the parameters of family adaptation. It is noted that the distant family may be considered potentially disadapted because of its structural and quantitative structure is variable in the term and it carries certain risks. It is established that the level of marriage satisfaction does not depend on the type of family and demonstrates the poverty of families under research. The obtained data indicate the following trends: in distant families, more common is a patriarchal model: man is a raiser, woman is a housewife. This model represents the regulatory conditions of female subordination, characteristic for the traditional gender culture. The prolonged staying of members of the families at a distance from one another forms in men firm belief that their spouses need to perform traditionally established role of a «housewife», «mother». It is found that in the traditional family the woman is trying to take leadership in shaping the function hierarchy relationships, setting limits on behavior and chooses incentives and penalties. It is concluded that in the case of families whose members are on different causes at a distance from one another, the violation of the interpersonal component of family system functioning takes place, undergoing transformation and greater role is related to the interaction. It is noted that economic needs are more relevant to members of the temporary single-parent families, as part of earner takes in such families of higher hierarchical position than in traditional families.
Key words: distant family, temporarily incomplete family, the level of satisfaction of marriage, traditional family, gender inequality, family adaptation, role relationship, gender culture, family roles.
UDC 159.9.07: 377.1
The article is devoted to the analysis of negative psychological factors which predetermine development of certain psychosomatic illnesses. It is envisaged specific intraconflictal feelings appropriate to people with different psychosomatic illnesses, such as: arterial hypertension; ulcerous illness; bronchial asthma; diabetes mellitus; neurodermatitises; rheumatoid arthritis; endocrine illnesses. The author have analyzed and generalized basic theories of development of psychosomatic illnesses, such as: psychophysiological «theory of specificity» of F. Аleksander, conception of «convertion hysteria» of Z. Freud, theory of «desomatizations and resomatizations» of М. Schur, «neurochemical theory» of H. Selye, theory of «initial (base) disorders» of М. Balint, theory of «cerebral origin of psychosomatic illnesses» of К.М. Bykov. There were outlined 3 basic factors, which predetermine development of psychosomatic illnesses, such as: presence of specific intrapersonal conflicts of people with certain psychosomatic illnesses; vulnerability of certain organs (innate or purchased early); stress situation-accelerating, which influences on a patient. It is found out that a person with specific vulnerability of an organ and certain intraconflictal experiencing will become ill by corresponding psychosomatic illnesses only in that case, when the casual turn of events in his life is mobilized by his central conflict, resulting in destruction of psychical defence of organism; if a corresponding stress situation will not arise up, in spite of physiological vulnerability of organ and intraconflictal tendency, a person can never become ill of that illness to which he is inclined psychologically and organically.
Key words: psychosomatic illnesses, specific intraconflictal experiencing, physiological vulnerability of organs, stress situation.
In the article the problem of personality’s anxiety and its consequences for highly motivated senior pupils, who are in homogeneous group of abilities is describes. Observations have determined that students, who were in a homogeneous team by successfullness, showed neurosis features – they quite sharply reacted to estimates of the work, trying to outdo each other in quite harsh conditions, couldn’t understanding each other and make concessions, it was evident that young people trying to achieve the goal – to get the highest score by any means. The basic factors of personality neuroticism in the situation of achievements were investigated: the tendency of motivation of achievement, anxiety level, neurotic personality traits, probability of neurosis appearing. The author’s training of prevention of neurotic personality properties in situations of achievement, aimed to fostering prevention of stress and developing of individually oriented achievement motivation was presented. The results of the training testing – diagnostics of anxiety, achievement motivation, the probability of neurosis and neurotic personality properties were analyzed. It was proved, that this training helped teach children how to react to life situations, stress, control and express their emotions, to build business in order to achieve success in any activity, effectively allocate time and develop themselves. In conclusion the author states that after a formative influence number of students has increased, who have tendency to be successful, medium and low anxiety, low probability of neurosis. So we can say that this training is an effective means of preventing and dealing with the appearance of neurotic symptoms and personality traits and can be used by psychologists of general educational institutions to form individually oriented motivation of students’ achievement. The problems presented in the article generate interest of psychologists and can be recommended to specialists in this sphere.
Key words: motivation of achievement, «achievement syndrome», situation of achievement, anxiety, individual neurotic properties, prevention, formative influence, diagnostics.
In article results of empirical research of subjective social well-being are reflected. It is considered as individual experience of positive social functioning which reflects degree of satisfaction of social needs and realization of expectations. During research (686 respondents) it is revealed that the optimal result is the five-factorial model by confirmatory the factorial analysis. The first factor «Social visibility» characterizes a role of the person as the agent of social relations at different levels and reflects an estimation of the social importance of the person. Respondents are focused on a near relationship, the big social systems are not presented. The second factor «Social distance» describes experience by the person of alienation in social relations of different level and reflects presence of the negative emotional conditions connected with unsatisfactory social relations. Social coherence has not been allocated as complete positive experience. The third factor «Good relations with close people» reflects positive representations about family and friendly relations. The given factor included parameters of social support. The fourth factor «Social approval» describes perception the person of reactions associated with own achievements. Key parameter is the respect as an external recognition of the status. The fifth factor «Positive social representations» fixes presence of positive social beliefs about other people (their trust, kindness, honesty). Judgments about the positive future of the big social systems were not included into the given factor. Results of research testify that subjective social well-being is considered by respondents from the point of view of the nearest social communications (the characteristic of interpersonal relations). Features of the big social systems are not a basis for forming of judgments about own social wellbeing. The further work will consist in working out and validation the test which will measure level of subjective social well-being.
Key words: subjective social well-being, social visibility, social approval, social distance, confirmatory factor analysis.
The representation problem of reflective thinking in scientific sources is analyzed. That reflexive thinking view in terms of external conditionality content and objectives of the activity is established. It is concluded that the problem was a barrier reflective thinking in general put in some studies but not identified specific ways to solve it. The phenomenon of reflective thinking was revealed from the standpoint of psychodynamic approach, developed in researches of academician of NAPS of Ukraine T.S. Yatsenko. It is shown the effect of psychological protection as barriers of reflective thinking and their deep roots. The problem of subjectivity (distortion) of mental reflection is considered. The new direction of development of reflective thinking problems is defined due to the leveling of cognitive distortions caused by the influence of psychological defenses. A number of theoretical psychodynamic paradigm principles are revealed, they are fundamental to development of problems of reflexive thinking: patterns of integrated mental functioning in unity while asymmetry conscious and unconscious areas presenting «Model of internal dynamics of mind»; systematic action of psychological defenses (basal and situational). The category of internal contradictions of psyche is introduced in the scientific research, it defines a new view of the «problem» as a central category of the psychology of thinking and focuses on the psychological defense as a way to solve it. The organizational and methodological bases of deep psychocorrection according to the method ASPP in terms of their effect on leveling psychological defenses is solved, in particular, the principles of the organization; management of mental activity of a person under the laws of positive disintegration and secondary integration.
Key words: reflexive thinking, psychodynamic theory, deep psychological correction, the phenomenon of mental, psychological defense, oedipal dependence, cognitive distortions, positive disintegrations and integrations.
UDC 159.973: 159.922.1
The article is devoted to the problem of sexuality of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. It gives a review of the factors related with behavioral displays of sexuality of adolescents and adults with autism. The theoretical analysis of causes that may provoke inappropriate sexual behavior of individuals with ASD is given. The author stresses on the role of the essential characteristics of autism in development of such problems as lack and inadequacy of knowledge in sexual sphere, as well as difficulties in differentiating acceptable and unacceptable behavior. The hypothesis about correlations between the intelligence level, severity of the core symptoms of autism, the level of social functioning, different parenting styles, and behavioral displays of sexuality of individuals with ASD is checked in current research. The factor of diagnosis showed a great impact: individuals with ASD and their peers without developmental disorders were found to be significantly different at the severity of problem sexual behavior. The current study reveals that higher levels of social functioning and sexual education of adolescents and adults with ASD are related to more adequate sexual behavior. The intelligence level and severity of the core symptoms of autism didn’t show significant correlations with displays of sexual behavior of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The relation between different parenting styles in families with individuals with ASD and the severity of problem sexual behavior was also illustrated in the research. In conclusion, the author notes the importance of factors of diagnosis, level of socialization and parenting strategies for the functioning of sexual sphere of adolescents and adults with ASD.
Key words: autism spectrum disorders, sexuality, sexual behavior, social functioning, parenting styles of education, the core symptoms of autism, sexual education, intelligence level.
The article deals with results of the empirical study the valuable aspect of professional self-determination of boarding schools graduates. The quantitative indicators of value orientations of boarding school graduates and graduates from secondary schools are envisaged in the context of professional self-determination. The results of the factor analysis of boarding schools graduates’ value orientations are presented. The controversial character of value orientations of boarding school graduates is found in the context of professional selfdetermination: the lack of value of work in combination with high value of comfortable life and entertainment. As a result of disperse analysis the features of the factors of boarding school graduates’ value orientations were revealed in the comparison with graduates from secondary schools. It is proved that there is insufficient value of work for graduates from boarding schools, especially for girls, while for boys the value of work is quite high. It is found that factors «Knowledge» and «Productivity» are of great importance for graduates of boarding schools, regardless of sex, than graduates of secondary schools. Instead, the factor «Social activity» is of higher importance for graduates of secondary schools, especially for girls. The reasonability of the development and testing of psychological and pedagogical support of boarding schools graduates’ professional self-determination is admitted.
Key words: professional self-determination of the personality, graduates of boarding schools, value orientations, social activity, value of work
UDC 159.925 – 057.87
The work envisages some peculiarities of the origin and current condition of the research of the distinctive psychological facet of cognitive activity. Special attention is paid to phenomenology of style formation of a person’s psychical reality. The theoretical background of methodological approaches of cognitive style providing educational process of a person is considered as well. The idea of formation of «cognitive style» is analyzed from the point of view of M.O. Holodna. Ambiguity of interrelations of cognitive-style evolution with psychical formations as well as stability of cognitive-style characteristics are the subject matter of the research either. The condition of the studies of cognitive styles in Ukrainian psychology is presented. Psychological description of the cognitive style «informative surveying of flexibility-constriction» and J. Ridley Stroop’s me thods of study of «verbal and colour interferences» for the research of it are given in details. The ways J. Ridley Stroop arranged his study and interpreted the effect of interference in the test are considered. The outcome of empiric study of concatenation of cognitive style «informative surveying of flexibility-constriction» and successful educational activity of students are presented. The research came up with the supposition the pole of constriction is relevant to slow academic progress. Introduction of more profound professional content in educational process results in the increase of the number of «flexible» students (besides, there are more «flexible» senior students than juniors). Potential of modern research of the kind is proved, in particular it refers to the impact of cognitive style on academic success and effect of educational activity.
Key words: style, cognitive style, «informative surveying of flexibility-constriction», intelligence, mental activity, interference effect, J. Ridley Stroop’s verbal-colour test, success of educational activity.
This article is devoted to the problems of the effective using of limited responsibility, due to the specification at the intersection of science concepts. In the focus of the article there is the question of necessity of recognizing the psychological criterion of limited responsibility as one of the dominant factors in the cause-effect chain of implemented illegitimate action. The relevance of this issue consists of the ambiguity concepts in a historical context, the lack of a clear position according to this problem in the domestic and foreign studies, the possible legal consequences. It is proved that criminal and legal categories of responsibility, diminished responsibility and limited responsibility closely intertwine with categories of psychology, judicial psychiatry, and philosophy. The solution of problems of responsibility, diminished responsibility and limited responsibility is complex and it is possible only on a joint of sciences, with broad application of knowledge of scientific different areas. As in justification of any new scientific and practical concept, especially such which’s on crossing of branches, it is necessary to analyze the existing perspective for the entire period of existence there’s clear a timeliness of the psychological analysis of this problem in a historical context. The conclusion is drawn that introduction to the new criminal legislation of Ukraine of standard of limited responsibility caused carrying out numerous researches in various areas and became one of the main achievements of modern lawmaking which induces juridical areas of sciences (psychology, psychiatry, law) to thorough development of this problem for the purpose of improvement of a standard and legal regulation of judicial and expert activities.
Key words: limited responsibility, psychology, historical view, legislation, expertise, intelligence, will.
The article reveals the essence of the concept «the ideal image of the adult as a factor of personal development» – personalized system structure that reflects the view of a teenager about perfect oneself over time. The contents and components of an ideal image of the adult as a factor of personal development are distinguished: Mereal, Me-ideal, a Real adult and an Ideal adult. We justified the application of different ways of self-description method (leading in our study): semantic differential, diagnostic techniques of interpersonal relationships, compositions. Empirical four-factor model of an ideal image of adult is presented. It is noted that the ideology of developing program was based on the results of the experiment: on the basis of empirically discovered structure of participant’s notion about themselves and about the ideal image, supplemented by information about identification with significant social figures (SSST) and the content of Me-concept (DHS). The strong-willed, communicative and emotional aspects are highlighted in the developmental program. The developmental program of personal development of the adolescent, conditioned by the influence of the ideal adult is described. The evaluation of the effectiveness of educational program is presented. It is determined that the most effective it will be during the crisis of personal growth, signs of which were found at nine-grade children. It is noted that the quantity of students who were able to articulate their position in life has statistically significantly increased; the imagination of the future has became more realistic and integrated for almost half of the participants of developing programs. It is stated that the program, which was developed and tested in our scientific study can be recommended for pupils of secondary schools and other educational institutions.
Key words: ideal image of an adult as a factor of teenager’s personal development, empirical four-factor model of the ideal image of an adult, ideal and real adult, method of self-description, developing program of teenager’s personal development.
This article reveals the positive creative life-orientation impact (abbreviated as creative l-o) on the person’s somatic physiology and psycho energy. The creativity is considered as a vital self-organizing dynamic orientation. It is shown that a spiritual development and a linguistic-block removing catalyze the creative disclosure, all of that in totality leads to the life optimism and the psycho-somatic normalization. The positive self-appraisal, the ability for appropriate identification in the society, the successful life self-organization and the energetically balanced organism state (like an index of the health exponent) have been locked in. A dual nature of the creative l-o has been disclosed: initially it appears as a condition of the vital strategy formation, spiritual development, health stabilization and construction of the positive algorithm existence; at a later stage, it appears as a result, i.e., a person takes it as the main future life perspective when the projection to strengthening the spirituality stimulates the creative l-o at that, and vice versa, the manifestation of creative l-o extends the spirituality range; furthermore, various ancient Oriental (self-) renewal arts may substantially improve the psychosomatic status. It has been justified that the aura of all biological creatures represents both a protective capsule from any external damage and a mechanism of their energy exchange with the environment. It is shown that the ancient Oriental arts of the psycho physiological health renewal (including the Reiki system) are the complementary ways which positively affect the human body and person’s existence. For the first time, the scientific grounds of the Reiki doctrine and system, of the application techniques and the psycho philosophical basis of the Reiki system were given (as to the positive impact of this system on the regenerative body processes).
Key words: psycho-soma and physiology, creativity, mutual energetic circulation, vital self-organization, (self-)renewal system of the organism – Reiki.
In the article, there is analysis and evaluation of effective implementing the program which was designed to form deontological culture in future doctors by means of foreign language. The program was carried out through comparative analysis with the results of reference group researched by methods of primary and secondary mathematical statistics. The qualitative indexes of deontological culture formation level dynamics under the conditions of English language teaching are defined. The research of changes on the level of cognitive component of deontological structure has been done, carried out by means of conversations and interviews. The data of intellectual knowledge of future doctors before and after the experiment was compared and displayed in percentage. There are displayed changes in level of students’ empathic abilities after the complex of training exercises at the English lessons. There are also described changes in indexes of average level of students’ empathy. There are found out and displayed the indexes of emotional intellect level and behavior type in the professional activities of future doctor, which allowed to find out emotional and valuable components of deontological culture of the respondents. There is a comparison of emotional intellect level indexes before and after the training study. There is the analysis of dyna mics of changes in terminal values in forming deontological culture by means of English language teaching. Besides, there is the analysis of approbation results of experimental developing training at English lessons. These data are generalized, and their results are displayed as a diagram. There is shown a comparative view of forming communicative and organizational skills as components of deontological culture after the developing training in English language. There is an empirical fixation of dynamics in changes of future doctors’ psychology of personality, partially intellectual, willing, emotional and activity.
Key words: deontological culture, medical student, emotional and valuable component, cognitive component, connotative component, methods of psychological diagnostics, English language training.
The author focuses on the personal formation of the future doctor in a medical higher institution. It is noted that the main means of the above-mentioned problem implementation is a personality-oriented psychological and pedagogical technologies in the center of which there is a unique integrated personality who seeks to maximize the realization of his opportunities and is open to the perception of a new experience as well capable of conscious and responsible choices in different situations. The future doctor must have the skills of selfcontrol, positive emotional setting for the implementation of curative activity, readiness for professional and personal growth, activity and mobility to solve clinical problems, substantial margin of special psychological and pedagogical knowledge, ability to replenish them, to develop and to use them creatively in professional activity, and all these must be achieved through successful training. The author discloses the content and essential factors of formation of value and semantic sphere and medical students’ moral and ethical qualities. Personal factors are considered as characteristic components of future doctors professional genesis. There is an urgent necessity in the system of higher education for its modernization, updating of its content and technologies, criteria review for assessing of its quality and effectiveness. Therefore, the author emphasizes on the need to ensure and to implement a specialist model into which professional, creative, spiritual, moral and professional qualities of the person would be integrated. It is stated that medical students’ studying psychological disciplines contributes to their professional formation and personal growth.
Key words: personality, personal formation, personal factors, future doctor, professional training, professional genesis, axiological sphere, mental and ethical features, teaching of psychological disciplines.
L.M. Kobylnik, T.A. Katkova
The article deals with the phenomenon of self-actualization, which is considered to be the achievement of the highest degree spiritual development of future professionals (students-psychologists and students-teachers as an example). The technique of psychological support for the process of self-actualization of future specialists’ personalities during their studies at higher educational institutions through the study of the relationship between the process of value orientations and protective mechanisms. Studying the theoretical foundations of self-actualization process provided students with awareness of their individual characteristics, deepened their understanding of themselves and their current status. It is found that students-psychologists have qualities of self-actualization of personality rather than studentsteachers. It is defined the differences in motivational sphere of students, indicating the degree of dissatisfaction with the current life situation, internal conflict. The necessity to identify defense mechanisms that hinder the development of individual students, slowing down the process of selfrealization is proved. The students’ answers on creative tasks are analysed. It is established that they are able to highlight specific qualities that they have, which require further work, aware the obstacles and difficulties in self-actualization of their personality and outline ways of self-improvement. The correlation analysis by the criterion of Cramer-Welch is used. The article outlines ways for further study of the problem of research.
Key words: protective mechanisms, motivational sphere of personality development, self-actualization, value orientations.
UDC 159. 923. 2
The article states that the level of professional operational-investigation unit (OIU) officer’s self-concept development influences the dynamics of their professional development, professional skills improvement, successful admission to professional community. The results of the analysis of recent researches and publications on the development of professional selfconcept have been presented. It has been determined that the prerequisite for professional self-concept development is a comprehensive psychological support of professional activity which corresponds with the conditions of the development process, takes into account the individual characteristics of personality, his internal potential, promotes the implementation of professional self-development program. The author comes to conclusion that one of the most effective means of professional self-concept development is psychological and organizational technology. This technology is designed to ensure self-modification and correction of OIU officers’ behavior. Its main objectives are the following: to promote the development of the participants’ adequate, realistic picture of themselves as professionals (cognitive component); to develop participants’ skills in self-observation and self-programming and to allow to review their thoughts and feelings, to develop self-esteem and readiness to perceive the real self in the professional life (emotional component); to develop the idea of self as a subject of interpersonal, professional interaction, (including conflict one), to correct the OIU officers’ personal problems connected with professional communication, to develop leadership skills, self-confidence, ability for empathy as important characteristics of a professional (behavioral component); to develop the training participants’ skills of mental states self-adjusting (regulatory component). The effectiveness of the proposed psychological and organizational technology has been substantiated.
Key words: psychological and organizational technology, professional self-concept, personality development, conditions, tasks.
The article is devoted to elucidation of the state of the motivation sphere of learning activity of students of a Faculty of Dentistry of a medical higher educational institution. It is established that scientists mainly study a change of students’ motivation to study at a higher educational institution as compared with a pupil’s motivation to study and peculiarities of development of learning-andcognitive activity of students in different periods of vocational training. It was performed a comparative analysis of the matter of students’ motives who studied by the traditional education system which dominated before the introduction of a credit module assessment system in medical higher educational institutions and after its introduction. The analysis covered communicative motives, avoidance motives, prestige motives, professional motives, motives of creative self-fulfillment, learning-and-cognitive motives, social motives. It was established that among students who studied by the traditional education system as well as students who studied under conditions of the Bologna credit module system of education prevailed an average level of motivation by the specified constituents. It was detected a small increase of the level of academic motivation and motives of creative self-fulfillment of dental students under conditions of the Bologna credit module system of education; at the same time professional motives remained unchangeable. It is proved that students’ motivation to study the dental science does not come automatically with the introduction of the Bologna credit module system of education. It is emphasized on the existence of psychological and pedagogical task to form the students’ motivation to gain professional knowledge.
Key words: academic motivation, communicative motives, avoidance motives, prestige motives, professional motives, motives of creative selffulfillment, learning-and-cognitive motives, social motives, credit module system of education.
The article deals with the issue of cognitive basis of prosocial behavior development. It is noted that behavior in favor of other person is multifaceted; its development is dynamic process which involves all aspects of phenomenon. The research of central aspect of prosocial strategy such as cognitive basis is analyzed. Two scientific directions of cognitive structures of prosocialty analysis are outlined in the article, namely studying age genesis of system of notional aspect of mental creations and forming social cognition mechanisms. Domestic and foreign studies which deal with studying content of helping behavior conception and altruist behavior are discussed. The ontogenic aspects of prosocial notions perceiving are demonstrated, the issues of studying of content component of children’s conception, moral knowledge, evaluation opinions, believes are analyzed. Specific attention is paid to studies which observe connection of prosocial behavior with general level of cognitive area development, ability to understand inner world of communication partners, to single out intentions, conditions, desire of other people, to take them into account while choosing own behavior strategies. The analysis of research which is aimed at studying of procedural component of making altruistic decisions, singling out social-cognitive processes which were basis of behavior choice is done in the work. The author argued that the system of children’s ideas about the nature of prosocial behavior is associated with the level of general cognitive development so that it begins to form in preschool age and becomes a coherent system of ideas by the end of childhood. The idea of individual differences presence in social processing of prosocial content information is grounded, as well as features of cognitive operations of social situation decoding.
Key words: prosocial behavior, cognitive processes, prosocial concepts, altruistic conception, model of social cognition, age periods.
The article describes results of investigation of students’ realization of life events by psychosemantic methods. The author analyses main approaches to the problem of consciousness and realization in psychology and comes to conclusion that realization is closely connected with person’s language and speech. In order to realize a life event, its sense and meaning in life, one should put it into words, descriptions and life stories. While creating texts, life stories and narratives a person begins to realize and experience the past life events better and feels relief and alleviation. Empirical study of students’ realization of life events was conducted by a psychosemantic method, semantic differential. The process and results of the research are reported in the article, as well as the results of factor analysis conducted with the respondents. Four factors with the highest total variance percent are found. Scale data is given in a rotated component matrix for all four factors. The scales with the highest and the lowest value are shown. The following factors of students’ realization of life events are distinguished. The factor «Emotional saturation of the event» defines realization of a life event as emotional phenomenon, which has positive and negative effect. The factor «Coping and experience of the event» defines a person’s inner work concerning the event, inner personal aspect of the event for a person, including experience of this event. The factor «Realization, meaningfulness of the event» defines a rational, conscious component of the event, regarded as a conceived and realized one by the respondents. The factor «Spontaneity» describes the event as an unexpected, surprising and instantaneous one. The defined aspects of students’ realization of life events outline a concept of life events in a person’s consciousness as well as help to perceive the nature of person’s consciousness and understand the process of person’s self-development.
Key words: life events, realization, experience, psychosemantic method, semantic differential, factor analysis, emotional saturation of the event, coping with the event, meaningfulness of the event, spontaneity of the event.
UDC 316. 614
This article analyzes the essential features of national volunteering that has actualized as a society response to the tragic events in Ukraine and an inability to perform properly functions by the relevant state institutions. It is proposed to consider volunteering in the context of citizens’ hardiness and as an essential condition for overcoming difficult and crisis situations in various spheres of life. There is determined that the hardiness development not only makes people more enduring in crisis situations, but also provides «turning on» the certain volitional mechanisms, increases activity, effectiveness, enhances the orientation of the life meanings and humanistic values, creates the foundation for empowerment. Hardiness characteristics and installations can be formed during life, in particular, as a result of support from the social environment, reinforced and fixed by life experience, and act as constituents of personal resources. It is emphasized that people need to be active, indifferent to the situation, develop responsibility, be creative, well-navigate in resource mobilization and methods in the case to improve viability. Actually, volunteering enables such development secure. Moreover, it applies to those who provided support and volunteers. The conclusion is about the need of further study of volunteering in the interactive aspect and about the importance of developing a system of measures that induce people to empowerment and hardiness development.
Key words: volunteering, prosocial activity, hardiness, personality resources in a crisis.
The author defines temporal perspective as one of the most important factors motivating subject’s behavior. It is stressed that the particularity of the events that are in a timeline of student’s perspective determine its content, influence the activity and initiative of the subject’s educational process, form a sense of satisfaction with the training and awareness of its personal significance of the results of the acquired new knowledge. The terms that are close within the meaning are analyzed: life goals, life plans, ideas about the future, predictive ability, time orientation, temporal perspective, time transpective. The following items are distinguished: motivational objects that represent certain aspects of the subject’s personality; the action and the desire of the subject aimed at self-development, self-realization in the educational activity and in the profession; the desire for activity in general, in the educational and professional activities. The options of studying educational activity motivation are pointed out: internal and external, immediate motives, implied motives, and the motives of achievement. In case of a long time perspective more successful in its implementation are the subjects with the motivation of achievement than with the motivation to avoid mishaps. The options of temporal perspective are researched: content features, duration, remoteness, the level of realism, clarity, brightness. It is settled that the representation of the various categories of the motivational objects of their temporal perspective is uneven. In particular, a number of those of them that are correlated with the tenacity of a subject to self-realization is the biggest. In the studied groups of students absolutely dominated is the category of motivational objects of temporal perspective that relate to the aspirations of personal self-realization and self-development.
Key words: temporal perspective, options, motivational objects, level of motivation, content features, saturation, remoteness, duration, motive, educational activity.
The article analyzes the concept and structure of communicative competence. A psychological model of communicative competence of a specialist in physical culture and sports is created. The features of the communicative competence development of future specialists in physical culture and sports are studied. In the study, we distinguish four basic components of communicative competence: communicative and cognitive (cognitive), communicative speech, communicative and perceptive and communicative and interactive. The communicative and cognitive component of communicative competence consists in the following characteristics of the subject: communicative knowledge, intercourse experience, positive personalcommunication instructions. Communicative speech component of communicative competence includes: the ability to speak, listen, nonverbal means of communication. Communicative perceptive component of communicative competence includes: capacity for empathy; ability to regulate emotional state in the interaction; adequate capacity for interpersonal perception; ability to dialogic style of interaction in professional and communication situations. Communicative and interactive component of communicative competence includes: possession of flexible communication strategy; possession tactics of interaction; ability to constructive behavior in conflict situations; the technique of persuasion in interaction. The conclusion is made that communicative competence is a complex personality formation; it is a set of communication knowledge and skills necessary to effectively perform of skilled professional and communication activities. The proposed structure of communicative competence consists of four main components: the communicative and cognitive, communicative speech, communicative and perceptive and communicative and interactive, which serve as a tool to implement communicative and professional activities of the future expert in physical culture and sports.
Key words: communicative competence, psychological structure of communicative competence, the main components of communicative competence.
It is stated that in the clinical picture of psychogenic there is a clear link between the characteristics of the nature and manner of response under the influence of psychological trauma: the intensity and severity of the emotional and personal response depends on the congenitallyconstitutional and characteristic traits of the individual. It is found that the effect of psychotraumatic events provokes decompensations fixing neurotic behavior and exacerbating pathological features. It is established that somatogenics in this issue has not found an adequate display yet. It is studied the psychological specificity of non-psychotic disorders is expressed in: 1) over-intensive, inadequate, inappropriate strength of stimulation of the emotional reactions, provoking behavioral disorders, accompanied with neurotic and psychopathic symptoms; 2) cognitive disorders which do not reach the level of pathology, but have a significant impact on the behavior, adaptive capabilities of the personality and the nature of the interaction with others; 3) violation of the relationship of the personality: to oneself, to other people and to the world in a whole. It is established that the purpose of psychotherapy influence in the clinic of non-psychotic disorders is to achieve sanogenic effect through the activation of the basic mechanisms of personal transformation of the patient, which is due to a specific psychotherapeutic interventions and influences. It is concluded that the objectives of psychotherapy of patients with somatic diseases are the correction of inefficient psychological defense mechanisms, the correction of internal picture of illness and adaptation to the disease, the correction of the effects of the disease’s impact on the psyche as well as the formation of adaptive behaviors. The main purpose of the psychotherapeutic aid in somatogenics is to restore the personal «Me» of the patient.
Key words: psychological specificity of non-psychotic personality disorder, clinical model, psychological trauma, psychotherapeutic influence, psychotherapeutic assistance, rehabilitation, personal «Me», patient, psychotherapy.
Тhe affective component of primary school children’s attitude towards wealth and poverty was analyzed through the study of evaluative relations, person’s unconscious psychic phenomena. This component is the result of complex cognitive activity which combines cognitive components and affec tive factors of a personality. The individual style of behaviour, emotions and responses to significant and conflict situations and the individual aspects of primary school children hidden from the observation are investigated. It is concluded that the primary school children have a positive atti tude towards wealth and a negative one towards poverty. Moreover, the attitude towards these social phenomena depends on the sex. The dynamics of the emotional background of the attitude to wealth is found out. It indicates the stability of the emotional evaluation expressed by girls and the evident tendency to the decline in positive background changing into neutral expressed by boys. The research showed that only girls at the age of 8-10 years old have the positive emotional background to the poverty, both, girls and boys, have the neutral background and there is a tendency of growth of the students’ number with neutral background. The economic values are defined by means of structural components. These values are structured, given stimuli and taken on special significance. The primary school children’s dominant values which provide wealth status such as money, a house, a car, a swimming pool, a fountain and pets are explored. The factors which provide the status of poverty are a house, rain and pets. It is stated that the most significant factor in the hierarchy of primary school children’s values is a house. The dynamic of emotional assessment is determined. It shows that when boys and girls grow up, they establish more and more economic relationships, gain some economic knowledge, observe the economic reality, learn to analyze, compare themselves with their peers on material grounds and the attitude towards wealth and poverty becomes more conscious. It is observed that the attitude to wealth and poverty gives us the opportunity to take a more serious and objective view of the formation of primary school children’s assessment of economic reality.
Key words: poverty, wealth, economic reality, economic values, emotional component, home, money, primary school age, method of «family picture».
The article is devoted to relevant issue – preservation of children’s and adolescents’ health in the context of psychological support, during their different types of crises experience passing. The analysis of the essence «crisis» has been done, as well as main types of crises and crisis situations , that person experiences during the personality becoming and development have been defined. The nature of life crises occurrence and conditions of their flow have been analysed. Different opinions of scientists about the nature of crisis origin have been elucidated, among which the most interesting is seeing the crises occurrence in life through emotional response to a threatening situation on the one hand, in which it becomes impossible to achieve vital objectives; and on the other hand, the crisis is possible and can be provoked by quite peaceful life situations. However, their danger is that they are the strong stressful events in life. The psychological mechanism of crisis formation has been investigated and described as through the traumatic situation occurrence at the very beginning, later – injury, and only then – the crisis. The adolescent period with its crisis becomes especially significant in this context, and that is connected to a new level of self-consciousness, ability to cognate oneself as a personality with the only inherent unique qualities. The most stressful areas in the life and activities of teenagers as well as the most common crisis situations of this age stage have been clarified. The necessity to provide psychological assistance to children and adolescents during crises by appropriate and adequate means, mainly through involvement in various forms of creative activity, has been outlined. Among the possible forms of correction and rehabilitation work with implementation in creative activity play therapy, art therapy, music therapy, speech therapy, bibliotherapy, drama and Gestalt therapies have been described. The conclusion of the main task of the psychological assistance to personality has been made, which lies in the actualization of adaptive and compensatory resources of personality as well as the mobilization of his/her psychological potential.
Key words: crisis, crisis periods, life crisis, the crisis of development, emotional overload, mental states, post-traumatic stress syndrome, psychological assistance to children and adolescents, correction, rehabilitation, creativity.
UDC 159. 923
The article reviews the current views of scientists regarding the features of the competence approach to the preparation of practical psychologists. The conceptual prinsiples on professional training and personal development were analyzed (I. Zymnia, N. Kuzmina, L. Petrovska, O. Khutorskyi). The concepts «competence» (V.Bondar, I. Zymnia, O. Khutorskyi, I. Shaposhnikova, V. Shepel), «approach» (I. Zymnia, O. Kuchai), «competence approach» (N. Kuzmina, A. Markova, L. Petrovska), «role structure of personality of practical psychologist» (Z. Miroshnyk) «role competence» (P. Hornostai) were explained. It was noted that the role structure of personality of practical psychologist is a system, interconnection and sequence of performance of professional roles by specialist, which are united in a role complex. Role structure of a psychologist’s personality is psychological and personal professional growth, in which the professional roles are combined in constructive models of behavior (Z. Miroshnyk). Taking the above mentioned into consideration, we conclude that the practical psychologist is a specialist with higher education, who has the appropriate knowledge, skills, operates within a particular society, performs a number of professional and social functions, trying certain social roles; possesses moral qualities and ideals; is constantly been improved and developed both professionally and personally. The meaning of role-based competency is explained as a necessary component of personal characteristics of practical psychologist, which ensures the successful realization of professional activities. It is noted that the forming of professional competence of future professionals serves as the purpose of higher education from a position of competence approach.
Key words: competence, approach, competence approach, practical psychologist, role structure of personality of practical psychologist, life competence, role competence.
The author comprehends trust as a key condition for an individual to accept group values dictated by the majority of a group. The study emphasizes that trust in group majority is gained if group norms dictated by the majority promote group performance and group cohesion, discipline group members, contribute to building and maintaining a common system of coordinates and relations in society, determine codes of behavior and the specific character of relations with social environment, other groups and their members. The degree of trust may depend on sympathy and antipathy. The members of a group are not influenced by the majority if the former believe they are right or experience loss of trust in majority opinion. The research suggests that group expectations include some ideas of group norms directed at avoiding personal humiliation, promoting group cohesion and group performance. According to the findings, the group members are influenced by the majority only because the norms declared by the latter facilitate adaptation, group discipline, group performance, group cohesion; establish rules of conduct and relations with environment, other groups and their members; resolve conflicts. An individual accepts the influence of the majority in order to become a member of the group and to achieve goals by following the group norms and rules. The conclusion backed up by correlation dependence indicates that if the mentioned conditions remain unsatisfied by the majority of a group, suggestions will be ignored by the group members.
Key words: values, norms, group, group values, dynamic basis for developing values, students, correlation.
Y.A. Mykhalska, S.O. Renke
The scientific and theoretical analysis of mechanisms for the personality protection is presented in the article. The term «psychological defense» was firstly used by Z. Freud. The systematic understanding of psychological defense is analyzed by the following characteristics: the adequacy of protection, flexibility, security, maturity of protection. Protective mechanisms are considered as an adaptive mechanism. It is determined that in modern foreign scientific literature the idea of contiguity of protection mechanisms and different degree of their primitiveness become widespread. The varieties of psychological defense are considered to be: denial, repression, rationalization, supplanting, projection, depersonalization, alienation, identification, compensation, sublimation, regression and catharsis. It is found that the most common and important psychological defense mechanisms may be presented in the form of several groups: the first group consists of defense mechanisms which unites the lack of processing of the content that is subjected to repression, suppression, blocking or denial; the second group of psychological defense mechanisms is associated with the transformation of the content of thoughts, feelings, behavior of the patient; the third group of methods of psychological defense is presented by mechanisms of relaxation from negative emotional stress; the fourth group encompasses psychological defense mechanisms of manipulative type. If psychological defense mechanisms for any reason do not work, it may contribute to mental disorders. The ultimate goal of the defense process is achieving consistency between the actual content of consciousness and Me-concept. It is concluded that psychological defense is a special form of unconscious mental activity that enables ease, at least for a while, release tension and conflict, and in specific situations to change the meaning of events and experiences not to cause injury to notions about oneself.
Key words: psychological defense mechanisms, denial, rationalization, repression, projection, depersonalization, alienation, compensation.
The main approaches to defining types, structure and functions of image as a result of personality social cognition and self-determination are disclosed in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. It is emphasized that absence of the only interpretation of image generates many different approaches to defining its typology, structure and functions performed by it. Professional image is considered as a quality characteristic of personality which promotes his/her inner concepts, personal qualities, life competency, professional knowledge and professionalism manifestation through such outer expression as appearance, behavior, communication features, ability to organize life space. It is noted that positive professional psychologist’s image acts as an indicator of qualitative specialist’s realization. It is accented that it depends first of all on personality readiness for creating such an image. Advisability of forming that kind of readiness at the stage of studying in higher educational establishment is emphasized. It is denoted that difference of psychologist’s imag e in the area of psychology from specialist’s image of other occupations consists in necessity of efficient teaching organizing which will consist not only of integration and realization of professional activity but also of active transformation of inner world of prospective psychologist. The most important features of positive psychologist’s image were refined on the basis of conducted research. The most significant of them were excreted with the help of content-analysis. The mentioned features were united into groups of personal, professional and socially defined direction based on peculiarities of professional psychologist’s activity. The received data will be used for creating psychological model of psychologist’s image and developing system of work as to forming of readiness of prospective psychologists’ for creating and developing positive professional image in the conditions of higher education.
Key words: image, professional image, positive professional psychologist’s image, content components, personal qualities, professional qualities, socially defined qualities.
Z.V. Ohorodniychuk, O.M. Dubovyk
The article highlights the scientific approaches to the study of individual and personal qualities of future special psychologists. The authors analyze the works of famous scientists about professional and personal qualities of the expert, which are an important factor in professional life. Most researchers have the only consensus about the qualities that should have special psychologists. There are such components of structural professional activity of future psychologist such as gnostic, constructive, communicative, organizational, reflexive, and socially perceptive. Gnostic component is connected with a permanent generalization and systematization of scientific knowledge, the knowledge’s expansion in professional conversion. Projective component involves development of professional activities area to meet the needs of a comprehensive and individual approach to the client. Constructive component is associated with information support of professional activity. Communicative component regulates relations between practice psychologist and client. Organizing component is associated with the creation of common rhythm and mode of professional activity. Tasks of the reflexive component are the relationship with the customer, the ability to highlight key issue and determine the optimal strategy of psychological analysis of inner world of the client’s problems and social-perceptive role that includes the appropriate position and cooperation with the client. We will focus our future work on the study of professionally important personal characteristics of the future psychologist. As a result, it is ne cessary to improve training system for special psychologists to change the level of their professional orientation.
Key words: professional quality, special psychologist, components: gnostic, constructive, communicative, organizing, reflexive, and socially perceptive.
It is stated from the standpoint of theoretical analysis that a personality, being successful in any kind of activities, is a professionally mature personality who is in a continuous process of development, self-actualization, and self-realization. It is established that psychological potential of a personality is the driving force of society’s deve lopment and the key to long life and can be manifested in two behavioral tendencies: in forming a constructive idea in the society and psychological guidance on the vital need for joint formation of creative activity of a healthy lifestyle, interested attitude to the personal life and in the formation of directives of a passive-waiting type. It is found that the psychological potential is based on the aggregation of mental and psychophysiological properties of the personality. It is noted that family education, emotional family support and family traditions play a key role in the psychological potential of personal progress and professional development of socionomic specialists’ personality, formation and development of personality’s progress in professional activities, which contribute to the formation of personal «Me» of the personality as a regulatory function in unstandard situations of interaction. It is mentioned that the family is the place of development, formation and deepening of professional self-determination of the personality: the image of the professional, Me-concept of a successful professional are being enriched and corrected, the acceptance and self-realization of oneself as a professional takes place, the relation to the profession is being reviewed. Family and autobiographical scope of professional formation of socionomic specialists’ personality defines the limits of their personal progress by means of actions of acme-content that reflect psychological potential of personal progress, professional and personal competence by their importance and significance for a specialist.
Key words: family, family education, specialist’s personality, professional, professional formation, professional development, self-realization, self-consciousness, psychological potential of personal progress, professional and personal competence.
This article provides a theoretical justification of «style» approach to the study of the semantic characteristics of personality’s speech experience. Syntagma is defined as the smallest unit of speech messages, which embodied the unity of meaning and phonetic expression. This made it possible to provide that indexes, indicators, parameters of individual style of speech experience can be singled out through the analysis of syntagma and syntagmatic relations. The article reveals syntagma’s parameters, which are essential to analyze the speech experience in psycholinguistic aspect. The results of an empirical study of some types of intersyntagmatic relations prevalence in various speech products of respondents are presented. 75.2% of respondents were registered to have the same rank indicators of the types of intersyntagmatic relations. The predominant type of rank relations (43.8% of respondents) was found in syntagmatic relations of causation. In addition, the close relationships are found in intersyntagmatic relations of addressing (at 26.8%) and actions (16.9% of respondents). The analysis of results give us reasons to believe that in the personality’s speech experience there are the typical ways of information conceptualizing in the speech form, that are saved in different conditions of actualization of the content of the speech experience. This makes it possible to predict that conceptualization of verbal syntagmas of a specific speaker is similar in different situation of actualization and representation of the content of speech experience. Thus, the prevalence of type of intersyntagmatic relations is an indicator for identifying individual style of personality’s speech experience.
Key words: speech, speech experience, individual style, syntagma, syntagmatic relations, causation, addressing, actions.
The article presents the results of empirical research of selected by the author structural components of self-improvement in persons of youth age (as the leading in the study) and additionally in persons of teen and adult age. On the basis of comparison, detailed analysis and generalization of data obtained in each of three age groups, it has been found that youth age is the most optimal period for formation, development and functioning of all without exception basic structural components of self-improvement of personality – cognitive, emotional-evaluative, volitional, need-motivational and active, whereby it becomes possible to efficient and productive implementation of this selfcreation process. It has been proved exceptionally positive value of practical realization of self-improvement in youth age for solution of relevant to this age period problems of personal and professional self-determination, social functioning, becoming a life perspective of the future and self-realization of personality. It was concluded that the level of awareness and consideration of boys and girls of exceptional importance for the formation and existence of all structural components of self-improvement in their age and properly organized, purposeful, independent and systematic optimization of each of these components have a positive effect on speed and success of a practical implementation of this process, on the level of satisfaction with the end result and on its compliance with previous expectations and goals. It has been identified that the perspective aspects for further study of the problem are: the need to study a specific of formation of structural components of self-improvement of persons in youth age according to individual-psychological characteristics of their personality, life and professional orientation; clarify the sex differences of formation of these components; elaboration of psychological recommendations for optimization of each individual component.
Key words: self-improvement, self-education, self-actualization, selfrealization, self-creation, self- cognition, self-development, self-awareness.
Scientific and theoretical review of domestic and foreign studies which deal with issue of forming aggression and behavior deviants in youth environment are given in the article. The psychological features of destructive behavior and its characteristics from the position of psychology, sociology and law studies are considered. The mechanisms of antilaw actions are demonstrated and also influence of deviations on personality forming are analyzed. The analysis of social deviations of personality behavior which are formed under the influence of social institutes is done and also the analysis of theory of reasons of deviations appearance is given. The concept «aggression» is analyzed. The brief characteristics of its main types is given and negative influence on values and moral believes of youth are considered. The interpretation of issue of deviant behavior forming and its influence on personality destructing process are presented. The reasons which cause youth to anti-law, asocial actions are singled out and generalized. The approaches to studying teenage age crisis in the conditions of contemporary society are generalized. The new data concerning the specific features of aggressive behavior in adolescence is got. The conditionality of aggressive behavior of teenagers by their relationship with peers, teachers and parents is revealed. The influence of self-attitude, motives and social and moral values on aggressive behavior of teenagers is shown. The individual psychological and social psychological factors of aggressive behavior among teenagers are identified. The main tasks of empirical psychological studies of destructive behavior are singled out on the basis of scientific and theoretical analysis of contemporary domestic and foreign researches.
Key words: aggression, destructive behavior, teenage age, aggressiveness, negativism, destructiveness, psychological discomfort, social situation of development, defensive mechanism, hostility.
The article considers the current need for special development of the program of sensitivity development in the process of psychologists’ professional becoming in the system of education and testing. The features of problems on sensitivity development as a whole and its components in the researched professionals are analyzed. The basic principles of the program of counseling psychologists’ sensitivity development of the system of education are defined and psychological conditions necessary for its implementation are concretized. In accordance with the principles and psychological conditions of sensitiveness development the model and program have been elaborated; the methods for the correction of professionally important quality have been defined as follows: mini-lectures, brainstorming, group discussions, role playing, rapid diagnosis, psyhogymnastic techniques, trainings, homework, methods for individual independent work. The content of methods, techniques and exercises that are used to study the theoretical and practical aspects of all three modules of the program of psychologists’ personality sensitivity development in education system are proposed. The tasks for individual independent work of program participants are defined. The expected results of work for each module are concretized. It is concluded that the dynamics of program participants’ work is conditioned by the fact that the leader acted mostly as a facilitator. The prospects for further research concerns the evaluation and analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of testing program in the development of psychologists’ sensitiveness in the education system and the development of methodological guidelines for its implementation.
Key words: counseling psychologists, sensitivity, model, program of sensitivity development.
The article gives the detailed results of the questionnaire’s formulation and approbation on studying the peculiarities of development of the personal basic professionalism of the students of technical specialties. The theoretical development of the questionnaire deals with the understanding of professionalism of the future engineer’s personality as the integrated characteristic of the agent which contains not only the professional competence, but also reflects the high level of professionally significant qualities, professional identity, acmeological components, the motivational sphere and valuable orientations which provide the progressive development of the specialist. It was developed in two stages. The results of the first stage didn’t allow using the questionnaire because of the insufficient level of reliability and validity. At the second stage the checking results showed the correctness of the questionnaire and its possibility to be carried out with the future engineers. All together 363 respondents took part in the research. The validity and reliability of the Questionnaire was checked by means of such programs: a statistical package for social sciences of SPSS (version 20.0) and ITEMAN. The questionnaire consists of 31 statements the answer on which is given by means of Laykert’s scale. The reliability of the questionnaire (Alpha Kronbakh’s indicator) makes 0,77, the majority of scales of the questionnaire are coordinated among themselves and have rather high rate of reliability. According to the results of the correlation analysis many positive correlation communications are revealed, this confirms the questionnaire’s scales and statements interrelation. The regression and cluster analysis confirmed a validity of the questionnaire. The discriminatory power of its tasks has the adequate indicators in the range of 0,390 -0,516 that allows speaking about its sufficient reliability. The questionnaire scales are the following: attentional abilities, resistance to stress, creativity, commitment, assiduity, communicativeness, professional motivation, professional thinking.
Key words: professionalism of the personality, the future engineer, a questionnaire, validity, reliability, correlative, discriminative, regression and cluster analysis.
The article is devoted to the highlighting the problem of the professional mobility which is a complex interdisciplinary phenomenon. The scientific category of «professional mobility» is regarded as the peculiar personal resource, which is the cornerstone of effective transformation of the social environment and of itself in it; complex and many-sided both by the structure and the functional purpose, species diversity phenomenon, the key features of which are: mobility, efficiency, speed, flexibility and activity; internal (motivational and intellectual and volitional) personality potential, which is the cornerstone of flexible orientation and activity reaction in dynamic social and professional conditions according to own living positions; ensures readiness for changes and realization of this readiness in its vital activity (the personality readiness for modern life with its multifaceted factors of the choice); determines professional activity, subjectivity, the creative approach to the professional activity, personal development that promotes the effective solution of the professional problems. The necessity of structural and functional model of the personality professional mobility is grounded. Its following structural components are singled out: cognitive, operational and effective, valuable and motivational components which are integrated into social and professional competence and manifested in social and psychological space of the personality. The levels of the realization of both structural and functional model of the personality professional mobility: subjective, social, and behavioral are determined. It is shown that in the process of the professional training the professional mobility acts as the formation subject, and therefore the constituent part of the concept of specialists’ training in educational establishments.
Key words: professional mobility, structural and functional model, levels of realization.
The article envisages the topical problem of students’ time perspective development and describes its psychological peculiarities and existential mechanisms. The psychological meaning of «Time Perspective» concept is revealed as well as the factors of its deformation and optimal development. It is defined that the concept is an integral dynamic personality characteristics, which is a mechanism of sense self-regulation of behavior and activities associated with personality life decision taking and life way formation. The structure of «Balanced Time Perspective» is discussed together with its structural components (cognitive, «meaning and value», «existentially-operational»). The integral criterion for Balanced Time Perspective and the criteria for its balance at the level of each component is described. It is theoretically defined that Balanced Time Perspective is characterized by subjective ability to flexible switching between one’s past, present and future. The peculiarities of students’ youth Time Perspective at the level of each component (cognitive, meaning and value, existential-operational) and at the integral level according to the criterion of its balance are empirically proved. There have been established the specificity of students’ Time Perspective deformation and optimal development together with its balance interconnections to existential characteristics of a young adult. The conceptual model of Balanced Time Perspective development is created with account for its existential mechanisms. The psychologically-educational program of students’ Balanced Time Perspective development and its existential mechanisms actualization implemented in practice of university are grounded. The empirical results of psychologically-educational program implementation are described: students with Balanced Time Perspective are characterized by the ability to realize the meaning integrity of their past, present and future, they have flexible personality time center and time orientations, integrated past and a high balanced present and future orientation.
Key words: Time Perspective of a Personality, Time Perspective deformation, Balanced Time Perspective, subjective attitude to the Time, flexible time core, past experience integration, subjective involvement into the present, real future perspective construction, meaning and value time scale expansion, authentic life time experiencing.
The article presents a short analysis of psychological researches, which are devoted to the possibilities of using breath for self-knowledge of socionomic sphere specialists. It has been discovered that breath is one of the most striking examples of the liaison between psychological and somatic of a human. Particularly, it has been found out that according to ancient conceptions breath was identified with human’s soul and spirit. This idea is covered in works of epic cultures, language; it is practically presented and consolidated in world heritage of different self-knowledge and self-perfection spiritual practices. It has been shown, that techniques, based on conscience and purposeful usage of breath, are actively used in different spheres of modern science (valeology, medicine, pedagogics, sport, rhetoric etc.) and, particularly, in psychology. The prevailing part of the researches is about the influence of breath on psychological and psychophysiological states of a human. There are few researches about using breathing techniques for self-knowledge. It has been discovered that breath is two-sided process: on the one hand, mental states are reflected in breath – it makes possible the diagnostics and self-knowledge (psychognosis aspect); on the other hand, with the help of breath you can control these states (psychotechnical aspect). It has been assumed, that diagnostics and self-knowledge skills based on breath are important for specialists of socionomic professions. Particularly, self-knowledge with the help of using breathing techniques is possible through self-observation of one’s own breath and discovering the influence of different breathing ways and methods on one’s own mental and physiological states. The self-discovering with the help of breathing techniques can influence positively on the professional development of socionomic sphere specialists.
Key words: breath, breathing techniques, self-knowledge, psychotechniques, psychodiagnostics.
The urgent problem of the formation of psychology of family as a science is studied in the article. As a science psychology of family has begun to appear since the middle of 50-ies of the XIX century. It is proved that the formation of psychology of family as a science took place gradually and studying of the psychology of family relationships was conducted by scientists in the context of various scientific areas. We can define such main directions as: evolutionistic, functional, ethological, empirical and scientific. Six conceptual approaches to the analysis of the family and its role in society are described in the article as follows: psychoanalytical, sociological and futurological, familystical, cultural, gender, socio-philosophical. The approaches to family studying, defined by R. Hill, such as: institutional and historical; structural and functional; interactional and rolebased, symbolic interactionism; situational and psychological; developmental are characterized. Systematic study of psychology of family started in the late 20-ies – early 30-ies of the XX century. At this time different aspects of family life were the subject of psychological analysis, among them there are: the origins of formation of a family; formation of readiness for marriage and marital relationships; general trends of development of a family, peculiarities of marriage and family interpersonal relationships and other social and psychological problems. The rapid increase in the number of researches in this area has led to the fact that in 60-70 years there were active discussions on the possibility of separating of family problems in a stand-alone science. It is established that the psychology of family relationships at the current stage is developing in the context of solving problems of nervous and mental diseases prevention, and also prevention of problem family upbringing.
Key words: psychology of family, family, family relationships, conceptual approach, methodological bases.
The article substantiates the relevance of the study of psychological features of harmonization of personal and social requirements to professional success of a teacher. It analyzes a number of theoretical and methodological approaches that allow to find out the specifics of the interaction of «personality – professional activities – society», namely: understanding the social and personal boundaries in the achieving professional success; regulatory nature of social and personal interactions; social and psychological content of professional success; the process of transformation of social values into personal ones; the existence of contradictions between the society and the personality with respect to the objectives and effectiveness of professional success; archetypal character of personal focus on success; the need for «personal and professional development» as an integrated system; the achievement of a status and role balance of a teacher of a higher educational institution; the need to study the «locus of control» as a factor of the psychological direction of the teacher’s personality to professional success; consideration of organizational culture as a condition for professional development etc. The conclusion is made that the way to professional success – is a process of constant coordination of personal and social meanings in professional activity. It is clarified that the strategy of achieving professional success must be based on a personal hierarchy of meaningful goals, socially acceptable ways to achieve these goals, getting socially significant results and personal satisfaction from the professional achievements. The prospects for further studies of personality characteristics of self-actualization as a creative self-improvement and self-realization, which is an important foundation and prerequisite for professional development and professional success of university professors, are introduced in the article.
Key words: professional success, personal and social demands, social and personal interaction, status-role balance, professional archetype, locus of control, organizational culture.
The article analyzes the problems of using psycho-correction techniques in the context of the work with a problem of psychological trauma. Psychoanalytic approach, existential, behavioral, conversational therapy and transactional analysis were analyzed in the context of the methodological apparatus. The concept of «trauma» was presented and its brief analysis was also given. It was proved that the art is a reflection of the internal state of the author – it promotes knowledge of the contents of the unconscious. Projective techniques show their exceptional ability to assist in solving the problem of traumatic experiences by relaxation and objectification of unconscious tendencies of the mind. The analysis of the standardized methods for the study of the individual psyche was performed and it was found that they are able to admit the existence of the problem situation. The support in the solving of this situation cannot be provided with the standardized methods that are not aimed at understanding of the inner meaning but the projective ones that reveal the unconscious aspects of the subject’s psyche. The aspects of drawing projection were clarified and its peculiarities in psychotherapeutic work were also submitted. It is stressed that there is the necessity of the ability to interpret the results, which takes into consideration such features as: analysis of the obtained material, synthesis, the comparison with the existing material and its submitting to the subject. The article focuses on the efficiency of the use of psychoanalytic projective techniques which allow to objectify the system characteristics of psyche that is necessary when dealing with trauma. The analysis of the unconscious meanings, underlying the traumatic situation, can be realized by the subject through the use of such methods and techniques that have deep inner focus. It was established that the formal way of knowledge could generate artifacts due to the distortion of received information, because the personality of the subject was not taken into account.
Key words: psychic trauma, psychic techniques, projective techniques, deep psychological knowledge, system characteristics of psychic, test methods, psychoanalysis, unconscious, interpretation.
The author of the article examines this problem with the purpose of searching the connections between free temporal activity of young people and their family environment. The researcher, first of all, specifies on the forms of leisure time, preferred by adolescents, based on results of state and international researches. The article contains certain factors that identify the choice of this activity taking into account the domestic conditionality. The author analyses deeply the connection between the methods of free pastime preferred by young people and their family situation. The following factors were taken into consideration: own aspirations of parents, place of residence, education, material position and style of education. In this case the author also refers to the researches that were conducted in Poland. Leisure time can serve to the different aims and carry out the important functions; however it is not a rule. Therefore the author of the article shows the forms of free temporal activity that negatively influence on an individual and his surroundings. As a result of defective socialization and mistakes in upbringing (education) made by parents and educational establishments, young people can resort to such activities as: belonging to subcultures, criminal activity, violence towards others or prostitution. In the next part of the article the author concentrates on the discussion of the forms of help directed to children and young people that diversify leisure time and show the structural ways of regulation the pastime. In the end of the research the author brings the arguments pointing out the influence of family on the way of spending free time.
Key words: leisure time, young people, family, «children of the street», mass-media.
This article studies the age dynamics of affiliation aspiration of personality in young age. Understanding of the development of personality’s national self-consciousness in youth and its structural components are presented. The features of identification processes in youth are characterized, causing the appearance of certain affiliation aspiration of personality of this age. The essence of the national affiliation, natioaffiliation and anti-natioaffiliation aspiration is determined. The modified method of national affiliation study is presented. The features of age dynamics of levels of national affiliation of 17-22 years personality and its factors are empirically proved. The domination of national affiliation aspiration of a large part of youth is noticed that is at the ave rage level in most of them. The obtained result showed that in the field of youth motivation there is the correlation between focus on the nation and focus on the personality which determines the appropriate influence on their decisions making in different situations. An important psychological regularity of national affiliation in young age is discovered. In particular, it was found that in this period the national affiliation and aspiration of the desire to focuses on the nation and focuses on the personality are clearly expressed by oscillatory character. The clearly expressed oscillatory character of age dynamics of national affiliation allowed to state that youth is a period of the highest achievements.
Key words: national affiliation, natioaffiliation aspirations, anti-natioaffiliation aspirations, focus on the personality, youth.
UDC 37.015.3: 159.922.8.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the problem of psychological and pedagogical support of teenagers’ personality development in the context of subject genesis. The theoretical generalization of human being personality becoming in the period of adolescence was completed. The situation of uncertainty has been considered to be the determinant of psychological development in the given conditions. The concept of subject genesis is being analyzed as the important factor of personal scenarios in the existential choice of the life creativity. The important prefigurative type aspects of teenagers’ socialization in the terms of unstable modern society have been analyzed. They complicate the development of students’ ego-identity oriented to self-determination and self-development of the personality. The characteristics of different personality self-creation have been defined during the contradictive period of adolescence. The peculiarities of communicative (in particular perceptive and interactive) competence of a teenager as a measure of integrative personal inconstant of social intellect have been schemed. The generalized average statistic results of measurements of peculiarities of perceptive-interactive competence of students in their adolescence were presented. The tendencies of psychological and pedagogical support of constructive development of personal constructions of teenagers by the communicative modelling means have been defined. The article examines psychological components оf educational system’s humanization by implementing the strategic concept of personal development. The attractors of the process of communicative modelling of personal constructions have been proclaimed as the mechanisms of context making of communicative contour of phrases in the dialogue situation.
Key words: adolescence, subject genesis, self-determination, ego-identity, communicative competences, personal constructions, humanization of education, reflexive and dialogical interaction, modelling, dialogue.
This paper gives a survey of the problem on appearance of psychic consequences of public crises. It is emphasized in the paper that the realities of our present time in the world society are characterized with a high density of crisis states and processes. Under these conditions an individual goes through a traumatic experience of different crisis situations which are related directly to him/her or which are experienced by their near and dear ones. Certainly, crisis events differ in the force of their traumatic effect, but they result in person’s strong feelings, since they are beyond his/her normal daily experience. The psychoanalytic approach to trauma is presented. Based on the analysis of the forms, manifestations, dynamics and specifics of public crisis phenomena, as well as on the examination of the peculiarities of the psychical response to the crisis phenomena, the author presents an analysis of psychical conditions under which public crisis factors become pathogenic and cause person’s negative psychical processes and states. Psychoanalytic ideas concerning the mechanisms of traumatic experiences in the conditions of public crises are developed. It is emphasized in the paper that with the focus on psychoanalytic views it is possible to expand the understanding of scientific issues related to the emergence of negative psychical effects of public crises, as well as studying the prerequisites of their emergence. The elaborate study of long-term clinical experience of psychoanalysts and theoretical analysis of psychoanalytic papers testify that the subject’s traumatization is not predetermined by the principle of linear determinism (when the past affects the present), but on the contrary, the experience of the past can be updated as a traumatic one in the light of present events. In other words, the event of the past can get the traumatic significance through the sense of the event of the present.
Key words: public crisis, social transformations, extreme event, trauma, traumatic experience, psychoanalysis, metapsychology, aftereffect mechanism.
O.O. Khalik, T.O. Derypaska
This article deals with the analysis of the possible using different psychomotor games for senior preschool children’s fine motor skills development. The author determines the types of the psychomotor games and the play activities. There are finger games, lacers, games with counting sticks, activities with sand, water, dough, or paper, action-oriented games, game self-massage, etc. It was diagnosed the development level of hand’s and fingers’ motor skills by the methodology of T. Wiesel. The researching was provided in two senior groups of the kindergarten. It was found the dominance of medium development level of fine motor skills. About a third part of children have a low development level of hand and fingers motor skills. According to the results of this testing, the author developed the system of psychomotor games and play activities. Its aim was the improving the preschooler’s motor skills of hand and fingers. A defined system was implemented in the educational process of preschool institutions in the experimental group in three stages: preparative, practical, action-oriented. Preparative stage was considered to develop the system of psychomotor games and play activities for senior preschoolers to develop their fine motor skills. The practical stage involved gradual implementing of these games in the educational process of experimental kindergarten’s group. The aim of the action-oriented stage was in creating conditions for active and independent children’s play activities to the consolidating and improving motor skills. It was experimentally proved that the using of psychomotor games and play activities promoted senior preschoolers with fine motor skills. After the applying the system of these psychomotor games and activities the level of development of motor skills of the children’s hand and fingers has significantly increased.
Key words: psychomotor games, play activities, fine motor skills, motor skills, preschool age, senior preschoolers, finger games, activities with paper, games with water and sand.
The article describes the problem of inner emotional state of the parents who have children with disabilities, specifically the feeling of guilt. The topic was focused on the issue of effects of guilt on the interpersonal relationship within the family. The article gives the analysis of the psycho-analytical approach to the examination of the phenomenon of the feeling of guilt. The article provides the theoretical analysis of the foreign and native scientists’ works that gives us reasons to conclude that along with the empathy the feeling of guilt is a moral emotion of «higher level». The article emphasizes on the peculiarities in perception of the phenomenon of the guilt in different psychological schools. The analysis shows that feeling of guilt has both negative and positive impact on the person’s behavior. In this article we have explored that long-lasting effects of the guilt on the human psyche, deeply affecting human’s behavior. It has been concluded that feeling of guilt is related to the oedipal complex in the personality, that is dependent on the one of his or her parent of the opposite sex, and the feeling of guilt is therefore a reason of the inner conflicts. The main focus of the article is also related to differences in parents’ perception of information about the child’s disease. It has been concluded that society has a great influence on the parents’ adaptation to the process of disabled child’s upbringing. The article also gives the analysis of the connection between the inner emotional state of the parents and the peculiarities of psychological state of the child with disabilities. It has been explored that the main factor of the system of rehabilitation of children with disabilities is working with family members, mobilizing its potential in collaboration with doctors. It has been concluded that harmonization both of the parents’ personality and of the surrounding environment is necessary for optimization of the treatment process, rehabilitation and the general development of the child as well.
Key words: feeling of guilt, personality, family, child, emotions, psyche, adaptation, integration, society.
The concept of stress experience by a personality is investigated in the article. Theoretical and methodological positions of a problem of firmness to stresses are analyzed. In the article psychological scientific views concerning the maintenance and structure of concepts of «emotion», «experience», «stress» are systematized. A stage of stressful reaction development and the reasons and consequences of stresses occurrence are theoretically defined. Stress is an individual reaction to the situation of the individual. It is accompanied by strong emotional experiences and changes in the dynamics of mental cognitive processes, changes in the psychosomatic, motivational and behavioral areas. The reasons of social stress appearance are defined. The subjective reasons of stress are inadequate installation, thinking errors, stable emotional distress, changing social status, level of motivation. It is shown that the value motive differently affects the dynamics of the stress. It describes the effect of the procedural motive and the motive of self-affirmation. Procedural motive underlies the process of activities. This motive mobilizes activities. The motive of self-assertion causes negative emotions and affects the quality of work. Behavioral, intellectual, emotional and psychosomatic manifestations of stress are described. Different approaches to the dynamics of the experience of stress are analyzed. The results which specify in dynamism of subjective experiences, their dependence on stress level are shown in the article. In the work the indicators of stress are described. Objective indicators include the dynamics of psychic cognitive processes, psychosomatic sphere. Subjective indicators reflect the state’s self-esteem by the personality. The stages of stress are described: anxiety (mobilization of body reserves, the dominance of positive experiences); resistance (attempt to implement the maximum reserves of the body); depletion (steady decline in the level of health and general well-being).
Key words: stress, experience, dynamics, emotion, anxiety, resistance, mobilization, resistance.
The author of the article presents the effectiveness of the program of future teachers’ professional consciousness development. The basic characteristics of the graduate students’ professional consciousness indicate that even after getting professional education, they are not prepared for a productive activity. Under the current system of the national pedagogical education, development of students’ professional consciousness is possible through the implementation of a special program at the final stage of training – in order to ensure productivity of further professional activities. Psychological-and-pedagogical support has been recognized as an effective measure of the professional consciousness development – integral, systematic students’ activities organized by a tutor. In the process of such activities, special psychological conditions must be formed in order to promote a development of future teachers’ professional consciousness during the professional training. The main aspects of the developmental program have been considered: indicators of the dynamics of future teachers’ professional consciousness development; organizational items of the support. Indicators of the dynamics were quantitative changes compared to the components of professional consciousness – meanings, senses, sensual texture. The effectiveness of the elaborated psychological-and-pedagogical support program has been proved by means of consequent psychodiagnostic assessments and by mathematical methods. The possibility of actualization of the special psychological conditions for purposeful development of the professional consciousness structural-and-functional components has been confirmed. The positive dynamics of these components growth (professional values, meanings, perception) contributes to the development of the whole professional consciousness of future teachers.
Key words: future teacher’s professional consciousness, professional meanings and senses, professional motivation, readiness for the professional self-development, professional orientation and values, psychological-and-pedagogical support.
The article substantiates the role and place of personal anxiety in the occurrence of children’s neurosis. It has been noted that modern high-tech society changes the characteristics of anxiety and neurosis. Contents meaning of anxiety has been analyzed. The importance of the anxiety presented by scientists of psychoanalytic trends and mo dern researchers of this problem has been revealed. The notions of anxiety as emotional state and as a trait of a personality have been distinguished. Generalized factual material obtained during the psychological analysis of a separate case of child neurosis has been presented. The author presents his own view of the phenomenon of anxiety, based on personal observations. It is suggested that neurosis is a recurring phenomenon and manifests itself as a reaction to a stimulus. The influence of anxiety on the child’s behavior has been explained. It is showed how a state of anxiety activates defensive psychological mechanisms. The differences between children’s and adolescents’ anxiety has been illustrated. Children’s imaginations have been considered as a defense mechanism in the process of socialization. The specificity of children’s fantasy is that it is an idealized reality. This feature of the children’s fantasy that serves as a psychological defense, explains the emergence of unmotivated aggression and antisocial behavior of the children. It is explained that escape into the fantasy does not bring the child full protection and pleasure. It has been suggested that neurotic behavior does not allow the child to suffer and helps not to feel emotional pain. Specific features of anxiety and neurotic behavior of a child have been identified. An example of literature illustrates how the child’s subjective vision of the world creates his anxious feelings and causes antisocial behavior. The author considers that the solution to the dilemma of childhood neuroses is the elimination or reduction of external factors and correction of the imaginary world of the child.
Key words: antisocial behavior, infantile neurosis, childhood fantasy, and protection mechanisms, neurotic behavior, anxiety.
The article considers the emotional component of first-year students’ mental efficiency as a basic construct of a personality, subjective basis of their relationship to intellectual activities. The author carried out a theoretical analysis of scientific studies on the issue, stated that emotional processes directly regulate mental activities of the personality, maintain a certain level of mental activities. It is noted that despite the significant achievements in the field of this problem, the study of the emotional component of first-year students’ mental efficiency remains understudied issue. The emotional states of the first-year students (fatigue, monotony, satiation, stress) are experimentally investigated in the article. On the basis of the study it is concluded that the emotional component of first-year students’ mental efficiency is characterized by emotional states of the student’s personality, which are activated under the influence of mental workload, intensive or prolonged intellectual activities. Most first-year students are diagnosed with a slight decrease in stamina, errors in the performance of intellectual activities. In situations of monotonous work with the frequent repetition of stereotypical actions they are prone to a sense of boredom, drowsiness with the dominant motivation for a change of activities. Most students sometimes tend to rejection of subjective and uninteresting activities, which manifests in the refusal from mental operations.
Key words: emotional component, mental efficiency, fatigue, monotony, stress, first-year students.
The empirical descriptors of personal experience are considered to include motivational values, basic beliefs, operational characteristics of life tasks, existential realizability, vitality, and peculiarities of treating the Other, sense-life orientation. Applying multifactor analysis it has been established that personal experience of people with high level of psychological resourcefulness on the empirical level is characterized by nine-factor model, which in total describes around 97% of dispersion. The main characteristics of personal experience of psychologically resourceful people are: existential realizability; basic belief of resourceful people in their self-value; resourceful people’s understanding their selfishness, pride and ambivalence in attitude towards others; the main actualized resources are «work upon oneself» and «kindness to people», an exhausted resource is «self-realization in the profession» and «helping others»; the doubts in beliefs of resourceful people in kindness of people, that there is more good in the world than evil, necessity to be correspondent to the others’ expectations. It has been shown that personal experience of psychologically resourceful people differs from experience of non-resourceful people by changes of Me-concept according to the feature of «suspiciousness». There are reasons to think that personal experience of a person’s acceptance of oneself and others causes changes of person’s understandings of oneself as more altruistic. Correlation analysis has proved that changes of Self-concept of psychologically resourceful people by the feature «altruism» are connected with resource «confidence», changes of Self-concept by the feature «friendly» are connected with his rejection of humiliation as a form of relationship to others. Psychological resourcefulness as an effect of experienced changes of Me-concept characterizes a person’s readiness to organize situations which will favour the fullest self-disclosure.
Key words: psychological resourcefulness, personal experience, attitude towards the Other, Self-concept, existential realizability, hardiness, sense-life orientation.
UDC 159.922.73: 37.015.3: 688.7
The studies concentrated around the issue of national culture of the Ukrainian nation, its historical past are analyzed. Psychological features of Ukrainian folk toy, its stylistic differences from toys of other nations and cultures and its effect on personal development are defined. Classification of traditional folk toys on different grounds is adduced. The specifications of the most popular folk toys worldwide – a doll as a material object and image-symbol of a man, was indicated. The importance of image-toys in development of the child’s consciousness and dialogue communication are illuminated. The importance of learning of reduced communication and emotional relationship to an imaginary companion in gaming and everyday situations is emphasized. The basic positions and the prevailing forms of interaction with the dolls are defined. The author gave a special attention to an impact of dolls’ appearance, texture of the material, from which it is made, its proportions and character on the psychics of a child. The peculiarities of the selection of folk toys, in general, and dolls, in particular, according to the age characteristics of children are illuminated. The extremely broad functional purpose of a folk toy as one of the most effective mean of aesthetic, physical and mental development of children; the spiritual factor of cognition of an environment is emphasizes in the article. The opportunity to stimulate and optimize the mental development of children through the popular toy and through the implementation of cultural, developing, educational, functions of psychological therapy, socialization, self-knowledge and talisman are indicated.
Key words: folk toy, doll, image, symbol, culture, reduced communication, imaginary companion, play, playing role.
UDC 159. 923
The article envisages the problem of the contradiction between the current state of knowledge about the processes of socialization (mono-structure industrial society) on the one hand and on the other – the need to solve the psychological, pedagogical research and practical problems caused by the transition to a multi-structure society. The author proposed an approach to the analysis of processes of socialization and the formation integrity of the personality in terms of modernity, based on the concept of cultural multiculturalismф of modern society. The article presents the results of empirical social psychological study of the processes of socialization of students, conducted on the basis of this approach, which was made in 2014-2015 years by the Department of Psychology researchers of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. The article discovered two dimensions of processes of socialization of integrity determinants – cultural typological and psychosocial. It is established that in the first dimension the integrity of the personality is determined by the presence of typical individual value orientation according to one of the cultural structures (traditional, modern and postmodern), and the second – on the basis of specific types of psychosocial integrity of self-awareness (the total, partitive and harmonic). We described the multidimensional space of socialization with three cores focused on different cultural modes. It is concluded that students are more focused on the value of traditional or modern type. It is found that the degree of differences in the interpretation of the semantic content of values between different cultural typical orientations changes depending on the scope of socialization. This degree is the most consensus on public institutions (democracy) and increases in approaching to the private sphere (family, personal life and self-realization) aspects of socialization.
Key words: integrity of the personality, socialization, cultural mode, multi-structure society, values orientations of personality.
S.P. Yalanska, V.V. Onipko
Stimulation of personality’s creative activity belongs to the most relevant problems of social life and requires profound scientific argumentation of psychological essence of its factors. The problem of developing creative personality is one of the leading ones in the field of development of national higher education, particularly it is mentioned in National Doctrine of Education Development in 21st century, Conception of scientific, scientific and technical, innovational policy in the system of higher education in Ukraine, Conception of national and patriotic education among youth and others. In scientific references creative work is referred to as activity that leads to creation of another product in qualitative sense, which is distinguished by being unusual, original, socially and historically unique. We consider creative activity as effect of developing creative competence of prospective teacher, as we are certain that term of creative work can be regarded as pedagogical interaction. As a consequence, it provides creation of new original products of educational and cognitive process, ability to act in new pedagogical situations. It is considered that result of developing pedagogical creative work among prospective teachers implies outer (educational product) and inner (life and creativity, selfdevelopment) aspects. Teacher’s personal creative activity is irreplaceable in encouraging pupils’ creative activity. Received results of theoretical and experimental work confirmed possibility to encourage the development of prospective teachers’ creative activity during educational and pedagogical process in higher educational establishments by introducing author’s program of developing prospective teachers’ creative competence. Author’s book «Psychology of creative work» can be a guide in stimulating creative activity among the students of higher educational establishments.
Key words: stimulation, creative activity, student, prospective teacher, pedagogical creative work, creative competence, psychological conditions.
The article raises questions related to the identity problems in terms of postmodern reality. The problem of identity as a discursive formation of postmodern reality is investigated on the basis of the assertion about the existence of identities polyphony on the backdrop of social changes. The principles of the postmodern theorists about the fragmentation of the subject and the discursive nature of identity have been analysed. The statement of discourse is studied as a way of being of social institutions. The results of the theoretical analysis show that the phenomenon of identity discourse is aimed at the understanding of the social as a discursive construction. Some discourse constructs some discursive identity that corresponds to the content of discourse. The entry of the fragmentation in modern life is shown in the fact that the individual frees himself/herself from the artificiality of stereotypes, phenomenological reduction in general and seeks to live the life that he/she designs. The individual is more concerned with the values of private life, individual rights on autonomy, privacy. It is researched that making some individual and social acts, the individual searches for his/her identity in this way, he/she tries to look at the world through the eyes of Another, and the truth from that perspective loses its uniqueness and becomes mosaic and polyphonic. There is examined the idea of identity as a self-referent discursive formation, i.e. the formation that defines for itself the attitude to importance (significance) and the ability to self-determination, self-knowledge, self-creation, self-reproduction and self-realization. It is concluded that due to its characteristics self-referent identity can not only construct itself in the contexts of different discourses, but also affect social institutions, legitimising different ways of life in a variety of psychosocial and social practices, revealing other ways of social existence. The identification of mechanisms ensuring self-referent identity on the exam ples of different practices of matrimonial partnership and parenthood is envisaged for further studies.
Key words: social transformation processes, fragmentation, discourse, identity, practice, reflection, individual sense, problematization, selfreference.