The article envisages the key figures who determined the formation of genetic psychology. One of them is analyzed to be the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, who related the genetic psychology to the individual child’s development, its ontogeny. The Piaget’s significant achievement is considered to be the creation of his special method of research – clinical interview, the use of which allows us to study not the external manifestations (symptoms) of psychic phenomena, but open and deploy internal processes, which are the cause of their product and their appearance and functioning. Piaget is shown to describe the development as a movement from ego-centeredness to intellectual decentration and its functioning was represented in the form of successive groups arising from each other. The theory of Piaget is argued to remain one of the most extensive systems of conceptual and methodological concepts concerning the genesis of the psyche, and it gives special significance that it is based on numerous empirical data. It is, unfortunately, rather the exception for modern psychology. It is concluded that genetic psychology, unlike the genetic epistemology of J. Piaget, should have as its object the study of psychic phenomena; their origin; formation of new mental mechanisms in life processes; functioning; effective revival of lost functions of these phenomena. The diversity of the concept of «genetic psychology» is found to consist in three more or less profound aspects of content that interpenetrate each other: the mental development of a man lasts during his/her activities; complex of scientific knowledge, gained by humanity in the industrial, cultural, social and artistic activities; system of scientific knowledge is created through the implementation of scientific methods and especially the experiment in the psychology, and as a result it acquires the status of science to develop new knowledge.
Key words: genetic epistemology, the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, genetic psychology, personality, human, development, activities, individual development, psyche, mental development of man.
Approaches to psychological counseling of extreme activity profile have been analyzed in the article, in particular of fire rescuers who have difficulties in communication field. In order to optimize the consultation process of the Professionals the monitoring of their psychological problems was conducted. The main problems have been identified and integrated into three categories: intimate and personal (which also included interpersonal), existential and problems of professional development. The strategy and psychotechnology of fire rescuers counseling who have interpersonal problems have been worked out. The most of these problems are established to be connected with the level of the development of communication field of personality and the availability of the necessary knowledge and skills. Besides these difficulties arise in personal and business communication which are connected with age or/and gender of the partner; management and submission problems; ability to resolve or prevent conflicts etc. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technology consultation before and after counseling session psychological testing was conducted which has proven that there have been significant positive changes that contribute to a more affective interaction with others and with themselves in the field of customer communication. It is concluded that these changes are due to the development of social land personal communicative competence which is the direct result of deliberate psychological impact of psychologist-adviser and his cooperation with the client.
Key words: psychological counseling, interpersonal problems, communicative field, fire rescuers, communicative competence.
UDC 364.2: 159: [9364-787.2]
The article deals with the phenomenon of social support for people with mental health problems in self-help groups. It is noted the importance of support to such persons within the self-help groups outside of psychiatry and medical treatment. The term «social support» is theoretically proved. The social support is determined as a way of providing psychological, material and other resources to the person, who needs it, within the interactions and relationships that may improve the ability to cope with problems, to reduce the impact of stress, improve health and promote positive healthy behavior. It is found that there is no single point of view in understanding by researchers of the range of support functions related to psychological well-being of people with mental health problems and ways of their classifications / typologies. The theoretical model of social support is discussed in terms of its functional survey in the distribution of the components of social support according to Maslow’s concept. The components of psychological support are distinguished; they are structured in accordance with the structural elements of the Maslow’s hierarchical system of needs. The integrating function of the psychological component of social support is described. The role of self-help groups is analyzed as a condition for integrating function of psychological component and the model for testing samples of social interaction in the practice of everyday life of users of psychiatric services.
Key words: self-help group, mutual aid, social support, psychological support, coping, people with mental health problems.
The given article provides the analysis of the essence of socio-psychological practices and their role in the system of cultural values. We suggest to consider practices as means for contributing to search for renewed identities, providing awareness of the originality by the personality. They give the individual an opportunity to respond flexibly to social changes, move towards a new experience and succeed in fulfilling oneself in the society. It has been covered in the article the possibility of practices to be turned into the imperative, a rule, a way of behavior. It has allowed to find out if they are the provision of a social order. The author also describes individual practices that aim to transform, improve oneself. It leads to social success as socially significant and acknowledged result of individual’s social actions. It has been found out that the practices are articulated on the basis of selfperception and perception of the surrounding world. The role of experience based on traditions, education, knowledge received from parents, teachers, and other sources has been presented. It has been shown that the practices suggest an intuitive understanding of what may be consciously told and done. The practices are not the result of obedience to the rules, although they are regulated objectively, perceived naturally and performed collectively. However, incentives, which are causing the practices, have an effect only when an individual is ready to accept them. It has been covered that the field of social and individual interpenetration is a form of life, a traditional way of behavior performing a regulatory function, synthesizing experience and contributing to self-identification, self-institutionalization. Thus, we suppose that «practices of success» as an important factor in forming the individual’s success are a synthetic product of fusion of external circumstances, situational variables, personal expectations, dispositions, inclinations and skills.
Key words: socio-psychological practices, cultural environment, social success, self-construction, value system, background expectations, habitus, interpretative schemes.
Theoretical aspects of attention development of mentally retarded primary school pupils in the process of study are reviewed in the article. It is noted, that a special place and regulatory function of attention, which is a core in mastering social experience in the process of study and education of a child, because attention is a necessary condition of internal mental activity; and it determines the effectiveness of the implementation of any external practical activities. It is envisaged that the use of the theories of cultural and historical development of the psyche of L.S. Vyhotskyi, the concept of forming higher psychic functions – random, regulated by conscience, is a productive solution to the problem of mental development of primary school pupils with mental retardation. It is shown that the use of the activity approach is considered to be prior, namely the use of theoretical items considering that psychic is formed (developed, corrected) in activities (O.M. Leontiev), especially in leading. It is set that the leading activity for primary school pupils is studying, due to which, especially in terms of its special organization, effective mental development, including consideration, can be implemented. Relationship between the attention forming of primary school pupils and the efficiency of cognitive activity, learning and process of study is set. We have determined certain conditions for the development and activation of attention at the lesson (selection of contents of teaching, using different methods, taking into account the level of formation of a child’s attention, its individual properties; individual features of a pupil, etc.). To conclude with, correction-directed process of study, which aims not only on mastering social experience, such as knowledge and methods of action (skills and abilities), necessary for life, but also on the development of the child, contains the possibility of attention development of mentally retarded primary school pupils.
Key words: primary school pupils, mentally retarded children, educational activities, cognitive activity, leading activity, learning, attention, development of attention.
The article is aimed to reveal the results of comparative research of dominant value-meaning orientations of technical college students and University students of the Humanities. The actual directions of young personality’s value-meaning sphere in its connection with professionalization are identified by the author. The actuality of student’s value-meaning orientations research is defined on the basis of actual state of development of problem analysis. Within the theoretical research of problem on main actual approaches to understanding the personality’s value-meaning sphere and youth’s professional self-realization are analyzed. Actual investigations of value-meaning orientations of technical college students, their life priorities that are the base of this comparative research are implemented. The specificity of respondent’s general meaning of life is analyzed. The technical college students’ and humanitarian university students’ meaning of life accuracy indicators are compared. The specificity of colleges and university students’ value orientations hierarchy is described. Wherein, the data of most and less expressed values of different research group students is compared. The interpretation of this values influence on attitude to chosen profession and professional activity is accomplished. The general for youth age value priorities in life and professional self-realization are established. The analysis of dominant value-meaning orientations expression in professional study and self-realization in a professional activity is made by the author. On the base of results of theoretical research of the problem and empirical investigation of students’ value-meaning orientations we made the conclusions and defined perspectives for further researches.
Key words: values, value-meaning orientations, value-meaning sphere, value hierarchy, technical college students, university students of the humanities, meaning of life, professional study.
UDC 376 (075.8)
O.M. Verzhykhovska, I.L. Rudzevych
The main principles of methods of conscience and belief formation of mentally retarded pupils are listed in the article. First of all we have made structural and semantic analysis of the term «belief» as a hypothesis, evidence, argument. In the article we pay attention to methods of conscience and belief formation. The main issue of the article is to outline the potential of the application of methods of conscience and belief formation when working with mentally retarded primary school pupils, who are characterized by the following: non-critical perception of what is inspired, so they have a complete imitation of activities and behavior of others, that is especially negative, if the example is not positive; low level of understanding of ethical generalizations and awareness of their duties; inability to self-test their knowledge in practice and inability to learn how to pass their knowledge to companions. Thus, as we consider, using the methods of conscience and belief formation of mentally retarded primary school pupils there should be developed: critical thinking, which is possible only with a systematic and balanced exposure of teachers during the various activities; personal qualities, namely to explain to children the essence of these categories, to form their adequate attitude towards these categories, and also to develop appropriate categories, personal-willed and personal-moral qualities on the basis of awareness; ethical knowledge through the motivated explanations, interesting short stories, instructions concerning the consequences of the wrong action. That is why the role of the methods of conscience and belief formation is to teach mentally retarded primary school pupils to use their own knowledge in any situation and to transform existing knowledge into beliefs.
Key words: mentally retarded primary school pupils, beliefs, conscience, informational method, method of the search, discussion method, method of mutual education.
UDC 159.923.2 : 128 : 159.955.4
The article envisages the issues of agent activity of personality expressed in capacity for reflection. The author stresses the key role of reflexivity as personal property in sense-creating processes of future teachers. There have been singled out the following forms of reflection: systematic reflection, selfanalysis and quasi-reflection. It is noted that systematic reflection allows us to see the situation of interaction in all of its aspects, including both the pole of the agent and the pole of the object, as well as alternative possibilities. While self-analysis being produced by the dominance of orientation of consciousness on oneself and ignoring the external situation, is a one-way process, and therefore it does not help proper perception of oneself in the situation of interaction. And quasi-reflection is more a form of psychological defense due to diversion from an unpleasant situation, the real solution of which may not be found. It is studied that future teachers have developed self-analysis and quasi-reflection most of all, indicating a lack of «subject» reflection. It is noted that an immature system of systematic reflection is reflected on the nature of problem-solving strategies implemented in a narrow range of solving value and moral dilemmas. In the course of study there wasn’t found any significant differences in the manifestation of a certain kind of reflection in respondents with different types of sense-creating systems. It is pointed out that the reflexivity effectiveness is ambivalent on the situation of choice. It is assumed that reflexivity can be improved through deliberate influence that will be based on understanding the psychological mechanism of reflection.
Key words: agent activity, reflection, reflexivity, systematic reflection, introspection, quasi-reflection, self-development, self-actualization.
The relevance of the problem of the sovereignty of the personality is analyzed in the article. The philosophical and psychological content of the problem as a significant component of existence that defines the strategy of a person’s life is presented. The theoretical platform is defined and it is proved that the category of «personality-based sovereignty» requires psychological, physiological and socio-cultural clarification. The diversity of views concerning the content, nature and functions of personality-based sovereignty is compared. The personality-based sovereignty is defined firstly in psychology with the concepts of «authenticity», «autonomy», and later – «sovereignty». In most cases, the concepts are viewed more as synonyms, and concepts that have their own volume and phenomenology. It is stated that the achievement of psychological sovereignty (personality-based autonomy) determines the perspective of the study of the personality’s psychological space and incorporating the complex of physical, social and psychological phenomena which a person identifies himself with (territory, personal items, social preference, installation). Therefore, sovereignty can be regarded in relation to the different dimensions of psychological space. Sovereignty is manifested in the experience of authenticity of our own existence, relevance in spatial-temporal and axiological circumstances of life that promotes the adoption and confidence of people that acts in accordance with their own desires and beliefs. The psychological sovereignty is characterized as sociopsychological construct which is the condition and result of productive activities in different fields. Therefore it can correlate with objective and subjective indicators of life success, adequate to age stage and concrete life style of a person. Thus, the psychological sovereignty can be interpreted as a qualitative characteristic of the personality-based style of the person, which manifests itself in the ability to protect, develop and expand their psychological space.
Key words: personal sovereignty, psychological space of the personality, autonomy of the personality, the crystallization of «Me», independence of personality-based style.
С S.O. Dienizhna, M.O. Sova
The content and the specific character of psychological training of law enforcement officers are revealed, due to risk conditions of their work. Destructive determinants of mental conditions that adversely affect their performance in situations which are dangerous to life and health are considered. Psychological characteristics which act as victimogenic factors for emotional instability, stress, fear, aggression under risk are analyzed. The essence of the concepts of «psychological competence of law enforcement», «psychic self-regulation», «emotional, volitional self-regulation», «psychological reliability» are defined. The program of psychological training of law enforcement officers how to act in emergency situations has been developed. It includes: theoretical training to optimize the development of mental states and methods of self-regulation; practical training to master the techniques of relaxation, neutralize negative and traumatic emotional states; psycho-training to master the techniques of self-control and self-regulation, anti-stress behavior, to overcome fear and panic, methods of reducing aggression, frustration, affect. The best conditions for psychological training have been grounded. The complex methods (simulation of extreme situations, using techniques of logic, self-persuasion, self-order, visualization, distraction, controlling the muscle tone, respiratory self-regulation) are suggested, the use of which contributes to psychological competence of law enforcement officers. We have provided the performance criteria of the program and recommended measures to control and analyze the results of psychological training of law enforcement officials.
Key words: psychological preparation, emergencies, psychological competence, emotional and volitional stability, self-regulation.
The article analyzes the diagnostic investigation of the nurses’ behavioral activity types, which was developed to build a high professional mobility level and carried out by comparative analysis with the results of the investigated control group by the mathematical statistics methods. The most common behavioral activity type of investigated nurses – type AB – is found. The nurses’ behavioral activity types are compared and demonstrated as a percentage. The author’s method of «Professional Mobility» is presented. It helps to reveal and present nurses’ levels of professional mobility that allowed to diagnose the personality’s level of readiness quickly enough and successfully master a new technique and technology, to acquire knowledges and skills that ensure the efficiency of professionally oriented activities. It’s shown the presence of high level professional mobility in strained conditions of work (intensive care, cardiology, neurology, emergency surgery departmens) allows the personality to adapt to various changes in the professional field, to think and act, to solve professional tasks of various levels effectively, to be able to professional self-development and self-improvement. The nurses’ professional mobility levels are compared and shown as a percentage. It’s proved, that with the increasing of the behavioral activity on type AB the tendency to high professional nurses’ mobility level will grow, that is to the professional and personal development under the influence of external and internal conditions, that enables the personality to adapt to new technologies quickly, and will develop and form the ability to adapt to the various tasks of the nurses’ professional activities for the improvement of patient care and to enrich nursing practice.
Key words: nurses, personality, behavioral activity, professional mobility, professional activities.
The article analyzes determinants that cause significant changes of a subject, affect the structural components of a professional’s personality and in general effect integral competitive space of a personality. Normative crises of professional development are noted to have their own characteristics due to the peculiar age periods, stages of professional development. However, non-normative crises are caused by difficult life circumstances accompanied by the relevant manifestation features of integral competitiveness space in the structural components of personality. Significant influence on the personality crises at early stages of professional development is caused by objective factors, starting with the stage of adaptation entering in the profession and to further stages of primary and secondary professionalization and particularly at stage of mastery the role of subjective factors is increasing. We made up a conclusion that psychological characteristics of determinants and manifestations of integrated competitiveness space in crisis periods of professional development are primarily specified by socio-professional orientation and personal activity of a professional, socio-economic conditions of life, age psycho-physiological changes, qualitative positive and professional development that restructures motivational, cognitive, occupational, behavioral spheres in the structure of the individual and creates the aggregate positive impact on the competitiveness of professional, promotes constructive exit from the crisis of professional identity formation.
Key words: peculiarities, determinants, competitiveness, crisis periods, professional formation, personality.
General model of the reflection and creativity effects on the self-development of personality is presented in the article. Theoretical analysis of the positive and negative effects of reflection and creativity is carried out. The variables system, obtained using factor analysis, is presented. It allows to characterize the structural and functional organization of selfdevelopment (progressive and intergressive subsystems, components of selfexpression, self-regulation, mutual development, ideal «Me»), the structure of relations between reflection and creativity (reflection of personality, creativity of personality, intellectual reflection and creativity, negative reflection). The differentiated impact of the indicators of reflection and creativity on the certain subsystems of self-development is proved. The multidirectional orientation of the personal reflection and creativity in self-development of a personality is showed: the first one is related to the social (ethical) direction of self-development, the second one – with its focus on the individual success. The personal creativity has a greater impact on the progressive self-development subsystem, providing the person the possibility to behave in an original and unusual way, moving to individual success; the personal reflection – on the intergressive subsystem, it gives the developmental act ethical dimension, the possibility of self-awareness in the interpersonal relations. Intellectual reflection and creativity are related to the progressive subsystem, this factor makes a negative effect on the intergressive subsystem. Negative reflection has a negative impact on the progressive self-development subsystem.
Key words: self-development of personality, self-development subsystems, self-development components, reflection, creativity, model, self-development direction, negative reflection.
UDC 925 : 159.923
The article deals with the problem of social intellect as a certain, fairly stable system of intellectual abilities, which are expressed in the process of social behavior of the person. The author of the article described psychological concepts in which intellectual potential of the person was shown in a paradigm of mental qualities and mechanisms. These mental qualities and mechanisms determine the existing level of intellectual capacity of the person and the possibilities of self-development of his/her intellect. The author of the article singled out and described the theories in which social intellect was presented as a system of cognitive qualities of the personality. From this point of view social intellect consists of three basic components: social and perceptual qualities, social imagination and social technique of communication. The effectiveness of subjectsubject communication depends on the development of these three basic components. The author of the article proposed and described the conception of social intellect of a teacher. It was shown that social intellect of a teacher consisted of three substructures: a cognitive one, a mnemonic substructure and the emphatic one. It was established that a cognitive substructure of social intellect included a set of fairly stable knowledge, ratings, rules of interpretation of events, frames of human behavior, their relationships, etc. based on the existing system of interpretations on micro and macro structural levels. It was shown that a mnemonic component of social intellect of the teacher described developed ability to interpret events, life events, behavior of other people and their own as the subject of these events. Emphatic component of social intellect is largely dependent on what shape of the behavior the person chooses as a priority that he/she expects his/ her business associated with the complex of interpretative value in relation to the world of the person. It was concluded that the emphatic component of social intellect was also dependent on what the person expected from other subjects of interpersonal interaction, what valuable interpretative complex of relations to the surround world was formed inside the person, what possibilities the subject also had when we told about the usage of mechanisms of anticipation in solving various problems of professional and social life.
Key words: intellect, social intellect, intellectual abilities, social and perceptual abilities, social imagination, social technique of communication, cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic substructures of social intellect.
The article deals with the problem of structural components of the professional competence of specialists in different areas of the professional activity in the functional paradigm of psychological approaches. The definition of the professional competence of a specialist of professional legal activity was proposed. The structure of the professional competence of future lawyers was disclosed. It was indicated that the lawyer’s professional competence consisted of the following components: 1) a motivational target component; 2) a cognitive component; 3) a social component; 4) axiological component; 5) auto-psychological component. The author of the article describes the structure of a motivational target component of the professional competence of a specialist of legal scope, which includes: a motivation to perform legal activities; a motivation to succeed; the ability to set goals and to achieve them; professional self-determination, which is the criterion for successful realization of the professional activity; professional orientation as a psychological orientation of students performing professional activities, including contextual and motivational sides; professional readiness of students as a condition characterized by scientific, theoretical, psychological, legal and also by physical readiness. It was determined that a cognitive component of the professional competence of a specialist of legal sphere of the activity involved the development of knowledge, abilities and skills of the person, significant professional experience, and also highlighted the development of the ability to use these knowledge and skills, frames of the professional experience in practice. It was noted that the structure of social component of the professional competence of the lawyer consisted of communicative competence, emotional and expressive peculiarities of the person and the characteristics of motor-volitional sphere of a specialist. In the article it was determined that basic substructural elements of auto-psychological component of the professional competence of the lawyer were: a professional self-determination and self-actualization of a lawyer, which in general could be described as a long process of person’s attitude to his/her profession and to himself/ herself as a (potential or real) subject of the professional activity or professionalism in a whole.
Key words: the professional competence, a motivational target component, a cognitive component, a social component, axiological component, auto-psychological component.
L.D. Klymanska, M.B. Klimanska
The proposed article is devoted to the research of the Soviet Union image in the sphere of human sciences, its basic characteristics as an object of communicative memory. Theoretical analysis of research work, conducted by other authors permits to state, that the image of the Soviet past is characterized by different polar emotional attitude, is supported by commemorative practices, often becomes an object of nostalgic trends. The structure of the frame (it could be named «The Soviet past and its role for modern Ukraine») was defined as a result of empirical research work conducted by the method of in-depth interview. The frame is a triangle of meanings based on the category «The image of the USSR» and category «Soviet person in the system». The top of the triangle (frame structure) is a category named «Modern Ukraine». Sides of the frame-triangle are the categories «The role of the Soviet past in the present of modern Ukrainian society» and «Soviet hangover» of modern Ukrainian man». The vertex of a triangle is disclosed in the category «The future of Ukraine» by the informants’ statements about that, what kind of future, from their point of view, is waiting for Ukraine. There were distinguished 4 typical frames according to the general structure of answers and emotional poles (positive or negative) of meanings, which were given to the Soviet past and future of Ukraine. They are negative-pessimistic frame «Soviet past as brakes in development of modern Ukraine», positive-optimistic frame «The Soviet past as a catalyst for the future of Ukraine», negative-optimistic frame «Soviet past as ballast on the way to the future of Ukraine», positive-pessimistic frame «The Soviet past as a fantasy construct». The peculiarities of each frame are analyzed.
Key words: communicative memory, Soviet Union, the image of Soviet past frame, commemorative practices.
UDC 159.9: 355.5
The article analyzes the factors that determine the development of professional motives of the military specialist’s personality. It is ascertained that the internal factors in a combination of content (interest in the profession, the need for self-fulfillment, etc.) and adaptive (prestige, allowance, etc.) motives of activity take the leading place. They are aimed at the serviceman’s understanding of social significance of his profession and his place in it. Integration of these professional motives based on a certain level of mental, personal, professional components of a serviceman’s personality enables to form a subjective conception of the military professional. This conception is the regulator of his personal development. The development of the subject first of all is the development of his ability to find meanings of this activity independently and look for ways to improve himself in this activity. It is concluded that activation of meanings of professional activity is based on motivational mechanisms of professional realization of serviceman’s personality. Hence, it is shown that the level of military professional motivation means the degree of compliance of the leading professional motive (personal sense) with the objective content of the profession. At a high level of motivation the most significant thing in officers’ activities is the objective purpose of this activity. At a low motivation the leading motive requires different circumstances related to the activity rather than the activity itself. It is determined that the main indicators of motivation are the richness and depth of professional interest to military service, its position in the system of motives is considered. This system forms the professional motivation of a serviceman that contains the idea of professional motives and goals of professional activity which are revealed in the ways and conditions of their achievement and are connected with a serviceman’s personality.
Key words: anti-terrorist operation, professional motivation, leading motive, personal and professional development, serviceman’s personality, professional activity, content of profession, military service.
The article analyzes the current state of the problem of foreign language teaching to university students. The problem of learning a foreign language remains unresolved. It is established that one of the important determinants is the question of the training process and the «practical» use for management to improve the quality of teaching. It is stated that the main factors of internal determination are learning ability, level and the possibility of both individual cognitive processes and mental abilities «as a whole», the level of cognitive interests, learning motivation, communication, emotional and moral qualities, ability to generate adequate style of training activity and self-regulation. It is noted that the peculiarity of subject teaching provides certain originality for the learning process. It is found that foreign language is infinite; it gives knowledge about the symbols of the world around and rules for their use, and the specificity of learning a foreign language lies in the complexity of the transition from one language into another. It is concluded that the process of learning a foreign language consists of two major parts: understanding process and the process of expressing thoughts. It is concluded that the process of learning a foreign language is composed of two major parts: the process of understanding (oral and written text) and the process of language generation (oral and written text). The process is interpreted as a specific mental process that is based on bilingualism. The conclusion is made about the classification levels of comprehension. The first level is a superficial understanding, the second is to establish a basic semantic relationship of the text, the third level is a penetration into the essence of a statement. And the fourth level is characterized by understanding of what was said. The process of understanding is a complex mental activity that has both informative and communicative functions. It is established that the text is created as a kind of message about the objects and phenomena of reality. And this, in turn, reflects the attitudes of the speaker, and the effect on the person who receives the message.
Key words: determinants, abilities, learning motivation, learning activities, thinking, understanding, development, personality.
UDC 159.942; 378.14.015.62
The article envisages the specifics of interrelation between the emotional attitude to learning with types of the academic selfcontrol at students with high and low progress. The emotional attitude to the learning is understood as a system of the emotional installations which were developed at students in different situations of educational activity. Types of the academic self-control (external, introjected, identified and self-inducing) are interpreted according to types of extrinsic motivation by E. Deci and R. Ryan. In correlation research it was succeeded to establish that the emotional relation of students to learning is connected with different types of its motivational (academic) regulation. There are revealed the specifics of interrelation of two integrated indicators («Positive Affect» and «Negative Affect»), and also indicators of separate components of the emotional attitude to learning, with types of learning motivation at the students with high and low level academic progress. The sphere of the academic selfcontrol at the students with low level academic progress is shown in the emotional attitude to learning more considerably, than at the students with the high one. The students with high level academic progress have their selfcontrol generally as a source of formation of the positive emotional attitude to learning. At students who lag behind in study the academic self-control is important also as means for control of negative attitude to learning. The students with high level academic progress have a high value of mature forms of the academic self-control (the identified regulation and self-motivation). At students who lag behind in study in formation of emotional attitude to learning plays an essential role the unripe forms of academic self-control (external and introjected).
Key words: emotional attitude to learning, components of the emotional attitude to learning, causal locus, educational activity of the student, academic self-control, types of extrinsic motivation, level of progress of the student.
Prevention of violence in children’s communities is one of the important problems for Ukrainian society. The purpose of the article is highlighting the age-related aspects of protection, as a special type of prosocial behavior and a unique form of social support that occurs in bullying situations. It is emphasized that bullying in its various forms is a dangerous phenomenon that threatens the emotional well-being of the person, negatively affects the psychological climate of the community in general and the processes of group dynamics. According to many psychological studies of school violence, more than half of the respondents of early-school age and adolescents have had a victim experience. Psychological and social observations indicate the presence of different types of violence in children’s communities (from various forms of psychological and physical abuse to economic, informational and sexual harassments). Traditionally, there are four types of roles distinguished in bullying situation: attackers, outsiders (passive observers), victims and defenders. The author analyzes the study of defense in foreign and domestic psychological literature and indicates its incomplete and fragmentary character. Particular attention is focused on the discussion of age-related aspects of the protection strategy. It is noted that this type of behavior is recorded in all age groups beginning from early childhood. But the most researches deal with children of elementary-school age and adolescents. The author argues the expediency of developing and implementing the bulling prevention programs in school. The next problem discussed in the paper is studying the basic dispositional and situational factors that determine the choice of behavioral strategies in problem situations. Existence of differences in the dispositional characteristics of outsiders (passive observers) and potential defenders are analyzed in the paper. Besides that the author defines the main directions of the next researches such as studying the potential threats and benefits being generated by this type of behavior; age- and gender-related peculiarities of this strategy; style features of prosocial behavior; factors that can inhibit the strategy of defense.
Key words: prosocial behavior, protection, defending, bullying, defender, victimization.
I.O. Kotyk, S.V. Sarychev
The article focuses on the study of social and psychological problems of reliability of the personality and the group. It investigates ontological, phenomenological and activity-based dimensions of the mentioned problem in the light of the subject-reflexive approach. The authors regard the concept of personal reliability as a system of individual characteristics that serve as the basis of successful self-regulation in various spheres of life and analyze methodological, methodical and theoretical aspects of a small social group’s reliability in intense and extreme social conditions. The types of intense and extreme living conditions are highlighted and analyzed. The authors offer a dynamic approach to the study of group behavior and joint activities in various social situations, and so present group reliability as a hypothetical social and psychological construct operated in variables, indicators and empirical referents which are measured directly by means of appropriate psychological methods. The research proves that the combination of subjectivity, organization and reliability secures for the group the status of the subject of joint activities, communication and relationships, as well as the effectiveness of life in various forms. It is proved that in its social and psychological aspect the reliability is a system of group motives and social attitudes aimed to improve the organization of joint group activities in stressful conditions. The paper describes the following psychological mechanisms of reliability in intense and extreme conditions of joint activity: developed orientation part of joint activities, high-quality enrichment and transformation of leadership, active appeal to the group experience in joint activities, maintaining of the organizational order, flexible and reasonable transformation of the group interaction, improvement of the functional structure of the organization. It is shown that the reliability of group subject of joint activities, communication and relationships is embodied in the personality of a leader. The article also reveals social and psychological correlates of group and individual leader’s reliability in the group.
Key words: group reliability, personal reliability, small group, joint activities, ability at organization, subjectivity, stability, optimal, intense and extreme social conditions, leader.
Recently aggravated issues of personal development and behavior of today’s youth require prospective employees of the education system to have not only theoretical knowledge but also practical skills. Unfortunately, the education system still has the same totalitarian system, which does not develop initiative, creativity, and ability to think independently in a human. It affects the formation and existence of the minimum practical orientation of education in high school. The main factors that hinder the solution of this problem are the following: the congestion of educational process with theoretical courses aimed to the developing of general erudition of students, but these factors do not enhance the social significance of the future employee of education system. The article presents the author’s solution to the problem of unspecialized (psychological) departments. The problem is the inculcation of contextual learning system as a process of dynamic movement of activity starting with the academic system through quasi-professional activity, educational activity and professional activity ending with the practice activity with the help of three interrelated training models: semiotic, imitative and social. Increasing the interest to scientific and psychological research of students of unspecialized faculties is the major part of the context education. At this stage the implementation of the semantic model assumes searching for information about the available data, researches and the formation of ability to present the material in a compressed, as much as possible informative way. The simulation model allows you to create a stepwise instruction of leading these studies and to simulate the situation. The social model allows making a research, to submit its findings in the form of articles, course works, abstracts, presentations at various scientific forums, to acquire the skills of self-mastery of practical actions. The author carries out systematic work on the introduction of educational models that in the future should improve the student’s adaptation to a new social role of the teacher.
Key words: unspecialized faculties, dependency, context-education, semiotic model, simulation model, social model, activity levels, practical component of education, reflecting.
The methodology of research on the psychology of self-deprivation of subject’s personal development is presented in the aspect of depth-psychological knowing the nature and mechanisms of self-deprivation functioning. The problem is analyzed with regard to the principles of determinism, activity, consistency and complementarity. The conversion of unconscious content into conscious mental field through «intermediary» between these spheres is considered as the central methodological position of deep knowledge. The variants of reconstruction of the subject’s external reality based on the images, symbols of unconscious character, their multiple relationships are proposed. The attention is paid to figurative representations of the unconscious content that determines psychological researches which include the promotion of the subject’s apperception and the logical ordering of the associative series in the methodological possibilities, thanks to the verbalization of material. The psychology of self-deprivation of personality-based development of the subject is considered as a result of influence of deprivative social parent relationships. The self-deprivation development is proved to be multidimen- sional depth-psychological unconscious processes, structurally related to the system of psychological protection, for understanding that need to be psychoanalytic, humanistic, phenomenological, diagnostic methods, structural and functional modeling. The method of active social-psychological knowledge proposed by T.S. Yatsenko, integrating the above directions, allows not only to diagnose manifestation of self-deprivation of psyche, but also to adjust self-deprivation destructive consequences for human development. Method of active socio-psychological knowledge in the process of indepth analysis of deprivation of personal development of the subject itself can not only fix the self-deprivation as a mental phenomenon, but also to lighten the protagonist causal relationship formation and development of self-deprivation trends, awareness and reflection which provides correctional and therapeutic effect.
Key words: self-deprivation of personal development, internalization of parental deprivation, the appropriateness of mental acts, images, meanings, self-presentation of subject psyche, self-actualization.
The article envisages basic concepts and terminology related to the concept of personal «Me», the basic «Me» concepts, submitted by the authors in the various areas of psychological thought. It is noted that issues on personal psychotherapy in modern medical psychology put relevant, from a scientific point of view, question on the specific model of multidimensional sound «Me» as the foundation of psychotherapeutic work with patients / clients. It is shown that multidimensional personal «Me», cognizing and being cognized, in the scientific approach to the study of the psyche of William James, serves one of the major paradigms of personal psychotherapy in modern medical psychology. The psychotherapy is proved to be the main component in the overall clinical psychology, in terms of the coexistence of the two models, with different methodologies – medical and psychological. The psychotherapy should be based on psychological studies of personality-based «Me» in the implementation of the study and creation of psychological methods of influence on the human psyche with therapeutic and practical purpose. It is concluded that the development of psychoanalysis contributed to the development of various theoretical branches and forms of psychotherapy practice. The author concluded that the methodology and psychotechnique of personal «Me» reconstruction in various clinical diseases spectrum should be based on the understanding of cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of the system of attitudes toward the disease; on knowledge on health psychology and characteristics of personality-based resources of a human suffering from disease; on understanding the correlation between clinical, psychophysiological, psychological mechanisms of personality disorders in selecting appropriate techniques of personality-focused and symptomatic psychotherapy.
Key words: psychotherapeutic researches, development, personality, psychoanalysis, psychological concept of personality-based «Me» concept, medical psychology, psychotherapy, illness, personal psychotherapy.
The scientific and theoretical analysis of the development of the problem on communicative and personality-based development of preschool children is presented in the article. It is established that the development of the child’s personality, the idea of personal «Me», the degree of self-confidence (uncertainty), emotional well-being as a whole are largely determined by a complex system of interaction between the individual subsystems of personal microenvironment. The intercourse in the mental development of a child is crucial, since it enriches the content of children minds, encourages the child’s acquiring new knowledge and skills. The communicative and speech development is noted to be a prerequisite for the development of the child’s personality. The communication skills are analyzed to be the individual and psychological characteristics of the child’s personality that provide conditions for personal development, social adaptation, independent information, perceptual, interactive activities based on subject-subject relationship. It is proved that the possibilities of personality’s self-realization in the intercourse, peculiarities of behavior in different situations of intercourse are defined with the communicative qualities of the personality. It is concluded that the regulation of children communicative activities formation is directly related to the process of assimilation – perception, thinking, memory, etc., which providing is possible only on specially organized educational conditions in a developing communicative training. Targeted mastering forms and methods of communicative interaction between a child and adults or children of the same age during their joint activities and interpersonal contacts should naturally lead to the formation of socially defined communicative new formations in the structure of the child’s personality and personal development as a whole. So, purposeful formation of communicative activities provides the prevention of potential manifestations as well as elimina-tion of existing negative manifestations in the communicative and personal development of a child.
Key words: child, personality, preschool age, parents, intercourse, communicative activities, image «Me», development.
The results of the study of stable individual typological characteristics of the personality, processes of development of professionally determined accentuations, which have prognostic value in respect to professional activities and represents those reference data, which help to predict further development of the personality and the ways of its correction. It is shown that the basis of all types of mental maladjustment of Ukrainian rescuers in extreme conditions of service activities is one or more types of employee’s personality accentuations. Therefore, the individualization of the approach to the process of adaptation of experts of dangerous professions, taking into account the dominant accentuations of personality, is one of the key terms of the optimization of their professional activities. A special program for professional psychological support for professionals in the course of vocational training, has three functional areas: diagnostic, psychoprophylactic and correction. We proposed the system of prolonged diagnostics of success in professional work in the course of professional psychological selection and maintenance of professional activities of fighters at fire-rescue units, taking into account prevailing professionally determined accentuations, which ensures consistency and accumulation of accurate information about the expert’s professional fitness and the success of his activities during the period of service.
Key words: professionally determined accentuations, psychoprophylaxis, extreme conditions of activities.
The article deals with the issues of psychological nature, place and role of intuition in the forming process of the hypothesis of a creative mathematical problem solution. It emphasizes on the intensification of studies of psychological essence of creative thinking in various types of human activity. Two levels of this activity are stated: conscious and unconscious, and it is noted that the interaction of conscious and unconscious, as the interaction of logic and intuition in cognition, is a classic problem in the psychology of thinking. Besides, the article notices the increase of the role of mathematics in various present activities, the author states the creative character of mathematical thinking and, therefore, the presence in it of unconscious thinking acts. A study of creative mathematical thinking is conducted through the analysis of thinking actions in solving creative mathematical problems. This analysis deals with the unconscious thinking actions that occurred during the forming of the hypothesis to solve the problem. This analysis is carried out within the procedural dynamic scheme of planning of a creative mathematical problem solution, in which the author identifies and describes the micro stages: determination of guidelines, emergence of the leading idea of the solution, building of logical connections between the structural elements of the problem, appearance of subjective confidence of correctness of the solution. The article studies the content of thinking guidelines arising unconsciously during the solving of creative mathematical problems, their role in structuring the information and appearance of various hypotheses. It describes the specific character of emergence and functioning the unconscious leading idea in the search process, which determines the direction of conscious thinking actions aimed at building the logical chain of reasoning from condition to solution. It makes the emphasis on the importance of subjective confidence in the quality of the result, which occurs unconsciously.
Key words: creative mathematical thinking, solution planning process, unconscious thinking actions, guidelines of the content of the problem, leading idea.
The article is aimed to reveal the specificity of students-manager’s creativity. The main aspects of contemporary manager’s creativity problem investigation that are not researched by scientists yet and need the intensified research attention are defined by the author. Also, the role of creativity in contemporary manager’s professional activity, implementation of professional functions by him is founded. Besides, it’s defined that creativity is a manager’s important professional quality that gives him the opportunities to make informed decision, to organize the collective practice successfully. The results of future manager’s creativity empirical research are described. It is found that the orientation on creativity manifestation in educational and professional activity is inherent to contemporary managers. The specificity of students-manager’s different divergent thinking components manifestation, like originality, productivity, elaboration and flexibility, are analyzed in the article. Also, the specificity of future manager’s verbal creativity, its originality, productivity and uniqueness is outlined by the author. The correlation of intellectual activity levels in creative tasks solving as stimulus-productive, heuristic and creative are analyzed. It’s defined by the author that contemporary managers have characteristics of the originality, productivity, elaboration of divergent thinking images, stimulus-productive and heuristic intellectual activity levels in creative tasks solving with dominance of low rates of verbal creativity. On the base of outlined data the conclusions and perspectives for further investigations are defined by the author.
Key words: creativity, professional qualities, students-managers, divergent thinking, verbal creativity, intellectual activity, manager’s creative activity productivity.
In the article the author analyzes the phenomena of globalization and mediatization that are one of the greatest challenges for the world and people today. It is shown that we feel much more ambivalence of mediatization, i.e. enormous advantages and possibilities; Ukraine heads for freedom, people mainly due to mass-media and growing sense of national dignity and independence fight for the national identity and autonomy. At the same time wars and conflicts do not cease, because offensive economy, as for example trade in arms, strengthens migration trends; people search the best world and again due to global mobile telephony quickly inform each other, where to direct one’s steps. The author investigates the phenomenon of cultural mix that goes right behind a migratory trend and generates undoubtedly the largest necessity of crosscultural education. It is shown the variety of ideas and suggestions in this question that however does not help to avoid difficulties. The researcher concludes that we need to promote such cross-cultural education which strengthens one’s own identity and simultaneously is open for the others, that is not a simple task in author’s opinion. In personality-based conception of Cz. Bartnik (2000) a man personifies good that wins in a fight against evil and is able to transform itself and other to the higher, better standard of living often through suffering and pain, however this natural kindness is our powerful hope of the better society and the better world.
Key words: globalization, mass-media, media pedagogics, crosscultural education, informative society, transcultural communication.
The article envisages the professional self-determination as a multidimensional and multi-leveled process of correlation between personal life goals, aptitudes, abilities and objective possibilities for their implementation, as well as conditions which provide specific activities for the implementation. In modern psychological literature professional self-determination is seen as a party of its life determination. The professional self-determination is noted not to be limited to the momentary act of choosing a profession and not to be the end of completion of training in the chosen specialty, and continues throughout professional life. It is concluded that the success of professional self-determination depends on the activity of the subject, his position in life, allowing the young man deliberately, consciously, actively, making willpower, exercise choice of professional activities and preparation for them. The professional self-determination is found to be displayed in the hierarchy of motivational sphere of personality, and is found in its targeted actions and behavior experienced on an emotional level in the form of interest, desire, passion, vocation, so a sense of perspective. Self-determination, both professional and personal, is defined to be a central new formation in early youth and new internal position, including awareness of oneself as a member of society. It is showed that the educational and professional self-determination is relevant for senior pupils, i.e. conscious choice of vocational education and professional training.
Key words: professional self-determination of the personality, professional education, development, professional training, motivational sphere of personality, activity of the subject, actions, behavior, professional activities.
The article deals with the motivation of attainment in the process of activities of the heroes-sportsmen. The definitions of «motivation», «motivation of attainment» are determined; the leading directions in the investigation of the motivation of achievement in the contemporary foreign and home psychology are outlined. Life and sporting way of the famous master of pancration and hand-to-hand fights Maxim Benderov who died the death of a hero in the ATO zone is considered in the article. The author specifies the main character traits of the sportsman that played the important role in the training and competitive processes and in his motivation for the higher sporting achievements. The psychological mechanisms in the development of the motivation of attainment are emphasized in the article, namely: positive confirmation, self-confirmation, mediated confirmation, imitational behavior, inter-personal influence and identification. Competitive situations often gave birth to the sense of anxiety in the heart of the fighter. This sense of anxiety gave him the possibility to react to the danger in the adaptive way thanks to the protective mechanism of substitution; in the process of such replacement of the re-addressment from one object to the other took place. The above-mentioned mechanism of psychological defense can be traced in the competitive process of M.Benderov. In the decisive duels the wrestler’s psychological mechanism of the displacement of defense appears; it provides for the initial defense of Ego, that in its turn contributes to the most effective way of avoiding anxiety; it may be defined as «motivated distraction». This process gave the sportsman the chance to avoid the comprehension of the feelings that gave birth to sufferings and made him to forget the traumatizing situations. Thanks to the action of this psychological mechanism M.Benderov was extremely calm, well-balanced and ready for victory. The author pays his attention to the emphatic, altruistic and humanistic direction of the wrestler’s personality in the period of peaceful life and during the warfare; it may be substantiated and explained on the basis of the theory of dialogue and the philosophy of the actionable world by M.M. Bakhtin and the logo-therapy by V. Frankle.
Key words: M. Benderov, pancration, hand-to-hand fight, kyokushinkai karate, motivation of attainment, psychological mechanisms of the development of the motivation of attainment, meaning of life, defense mechanism, activity.
The article deals with the life and creative way of M.M. Bakhtin and the main moral principles of his life activities. The accent is made on the acute life situations and fateful moments in his life on the borderline of his physical existence and the high spiritual uprising of the scientist; special attention is paid to all the above mentioned positions with the aim of mastering the moral-psychological state of his worldoutlook positions, social-political views and psychological peculiarities of the thinker’s actionable world, his relatives, close friends, acquaintances, scientific associates, ideological opponents, enemies. The system of psychological mechanisms is singled out: catharsis, identification, imitation, stereotyping, installing the hope, altruism, interpersonal influence. The key definitions of logo-therapy are used, such as «sense of life», and of the gestalt therapy – «unfinished matter», «prevention» – with the aim of realizing the psychological peculiarities of the difficult life situations. It is stressed that the moral-psychological, ideological, scientific, methodological confrontation occurred not only in the form of a fierce struggle when the scientist and his close encirclement manifested themselves in the best possible way constantly performing the moral and responsible actions, but also secretly in the unusual life cunning interconnections that might well be used as a plot for the adventure story. The light of the high actionable world of M.M. Bakhtin wins a victory over darkness of his epoch: it is pleasant to realize this fact as the victory of good over evil. A common man in the street with his life problems and day-to-day way of life was always in the centre of his scientific investigation and contributed to the humanistic direction of his creative activities. The return from oblivion of the creative work of M.M. Bakhtin was performed by «the men of the sixties» and was represented as a moral and responsible action, the action of humanism, beauty and good, the high social and patriotic act.
Key words: M.M. Bakhtin, life and creative way, action, moral action, actionable circle, dialogical field, psychological mechanism of defense, identification, catharsis, altruism.
- Paluch, K. Piontkovska
The author of the article analyses the street-working method that is used towards children and young people for the purpose of prevention of various threats and dangers. The researcher investigates phenomenon of street children that is one of the most important social problems in Poland. The modern model of prevention and educational work in the street is presented. It is shown that prevention in the local environment requires effective teamwork of people involved in this activity. In addition, the inclusion of different areas of life of the local community, including school, family or extracurricular determines the harmonious cooperation between professionals and people who compensate for their attitude resulting, for example by training deficiencies. Preventive measures must be carried out as a whole. Therefore, it is important to properly diagnose the local environment, taking into account needs and problems of children and adolescents. This leads to the search for more and more effective measures to improve the quality of life, physical and mental health, and emotional integration. It is quite a difficult task, which has been faced by educators seeking ever new, more effective and efficient educational solutions for many years. The phenomenon of street children is one of the most important social problems in our country.
Key words: street-working, prevention, educational work, social pathology, street children, street teachers, local environment.
The study made it possible to analyze values as one of the main determinants of professional realization of the personality. They influence the general attitude of the personality to professional goals, objectives and requirements, the ability of professional self-realization. Values are a component of personality structure that reflects the experience gained in the development of the individual personality and is the core of consciousness, in terms of which many important life questions are solved. It is studied that value orientations appears sustainable, socially conditioned, selective man’s relation to the totality of material and spiritual wealth and social ideals. The important psychological condition for the formation of valuable orientations of a future teacher is analyzed to be the formation of a high level of professional and educational orientation of a future teacher’s personality. After all, if the reasons cause the inclusion of students in certain activities, the value orientations determine the direction of its goals and means of achieving them. It is established that the formation of the future expert in the professional training occurs in continuous of choice of meaningful individual professional values, matching them with the perfect image of a professional in their field. It is determined that during training at university the definite reassessment of values takes place, rethinking and development, which are caused by both personal and professional growth. The level of professional and pedagogical orientation of each student is revealed to influence the content of value orientations and, therefore, an important psychological condition for the formation of appropriate value orientations of the future teacher is the formation of a high level of professional and educational future orientation of future teacher’s personality. It is concluded that mastering values of the teaching profession in the educational process is possible with the identification and establishing the psycho-pedagogical conditions in which these values become significant and systemic in nature and have a regulatory effect on the autonomy of the personality.
Key words: values, value orientations, professional values, professional development, professional and pedagogical orientation, personality structure, activity, self-activity.
The article analyzes aspects of providing psychological assistance to combatants with remote effects of stress impact as actual problems of modern Ukraine. It is determined that the psychological and physical trauma of combatants continues, it occurs as a consequence of fighting in the east of our country, and the processes of their adaptation and rehabilitation are postponed. And it leads to even greater and deeper of psychological trauma. It is emphasized that recently, much attention is paid to practical and theoretical ways of improving physical and psychological rehabilitation of combatants. It is revealed that there are not enough researches which illuminate the full picture of psychotherapeutic approaches concerning providing psychological assistance to combatants. It is very important to focus scientists’ and practitioners’ attention to analysis of the modern psychotherapeutic approaches and effective combination of them in the provision of psychological assistance and rehabilitation actions for combatants who have suffered long-term effects of stress effects. The types of psychological assistance to combatants are described, with remote consequences of stress influences that exist in modern psychotherapy practice, namely: psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, person-centered therapy of K. Rogers, behavioral therapy, speech therapy, positive psychotherapy, gestalt therapy, group therapy, family therapy posttraumatic, body-oriented therapy, autogenous training, neurolinguistic programming, art-therapy, Ericson hypnosis, method of desensitization and processing of eye movements. Attention is paid to the fact that the application of separate kinds of psychological assistance, as well as comprehensive combination of them will promote the full recycling and neutralization of traumatic material and eliminate long-term effects of stress impact on combatants.
Key words: combatants, psychological help, psychotherapy, rehabilitation, stress, traumatic experience, combat trauma.
The article is devoted to studying the problem of influence of the style of management on forming helplessness for the staff of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine. The concept of management style and its main forms have been analyzed. Theoretical and empirical analysis of the given problem has been made. The research of the management style influence on forming helplessness has been carried out. On the basis of the carried research, the conclusion is made that forming personal helplessness is mostly affected by the authoritarian style of personnel management, which results resist to innovations, the professional activities are not seen by an individual as an area of personal achievement. Suppression of creativity does not let individuals reveal their professional capability, outline the prospects of their professional career, which leads to decrease of achievement motivation. Making all decisions by the manager alone leads to decrease the staff initiative and its complete suppression. The threat of punishment increases the chances of erroneous decisions and the motivation for avoiding failures, which, in turn, limits the level of freedom and does not let react to changing circumstances promptly and creates the conditions for avoiding responsibility for the work done. The lack of need for the activity of the employee’s real professional competence level brings to decrease in motivation and disappointment in the activity itself, increases the risk of rise of situational helplessness. The democratic style is the most efficient and favorable for the professional development of an individual and it decreases the risk of acquired helplessness since it provides initiative and activeness of the staff, their satisfaction with the job. On the basis of the carried research, recommendations on preventing the rise of acquired helplessness have been worked out and suggested to the unit management of the Ukraine State Emergency Service. Further prospects for studying determinants of forming helplessness have been defined.
Key words: professional destruction, acquired helplessness, style of management, manager, staff, Ukraine State Emergency Service staff.
The article is devoted to the study of theoretical approaches to understanding the concepts of «indicators of cognitive activity», «criteria of cognitive activity», «levels of cognitive activity». It is indicated, that the relevance of the study is conditioned by the peculiarities of manifestation of cognitive activity of students and creating conditions to enhance the cognitive activity that contribute to the formation of highly professional and popular personality in the relevant professional field. The criteria of cognitive activity evaluation formulated by scientists and psychologists are analyzed; the main characteristics of indicators of cognitive activity are presented. It is noted that the development of criteria system is normally grounded by essence, objectives, contents and conditions of the study. It is found, each criterion has a system of indicators characterizing the quality criteria changes. It is established, that indicators can characterize both quantitative and qualitative changes of each criterion. The following criteria of a future psychologist’s cognitive activity are defined: the presence of educational and cognitive interests, cognitive needs formation, the tendency to cognitive activity, formation of internal motivation of learning; formation of all mental operations (analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematization), cognitive processes related to the mental transformation of knowledge, diversity of substantive work, the depth and breadth of thinking; setting the self-forming preparedness to training activities, the intensity of emotions, the presence of efforts to reduce the possibility of failure in the process of acquiring knowledge, sensitivity to differences between the planned and expected actions, targeted and result in real action will demonstrate the ability, emotional sensitivity in communication sphere; availability of communication skills, interaction activity, awareness of socially relevant personality traits, susceptibility to a variety of communication programs and finished forms of social contact, acceptance of others, creativity in communication. The levels of a future psychologist’s cognitive activity are defined and described.
Key words: cognitive activity, future psychologist, the criteria of cognitive activity, cognitive activity indicators.
The problem on the research of substantial characteristics of frustrating states is analyzed in the article. The choice of the main method of research, the factor analysis, was proved. It gave the opportunity to focus the baseline information and to reduce reasonably the number of variables of psychological parameters of the frustration and personalityadaptive features. The results of the factor analysis are presented. The factor analysis was conducted in accordance with the tasks and aimed separately at each sample of pupils (junior pupils, teenagers (junior and senior), young men). It is shown that each factor has a certain percent of matches on different scales, indicating the relative stability of certain psychological characteristics of pupils at different stages of life. There is specified the fact that all factors in each age group of pupils must include one or several scales by the method of «picture frustration» of S. Rosenzweig, indicating the overall significance and importance of the specified parameter (in this case directions and types of reactions to frustration situations are different for all age categories of pupils). The analysis of the factor loadings presented in student groups gave the opportunity to get a general idea of the determination of frustrating states, which created the preconditions for conducting more detailed regression analysis to identify the main predictors influencing the emergence and the overcoming of frustration. It is shown that crucial important value plays motivational, behavioral, cognitive and emotional-volitional components of the human psyche in the process of the emergence of frustrating conditions. The attention is focused on the fact that in general understanding the phenomenon of frustration can be considered as a complex of structural-systematic formation that is cyclical in nature, which is multilevel and complex process transition from frustration to frustration.
Key words: frustration, frustration reaction, frustration situation, determinants, factor analysis, junior pupils, teenagers.
The article deals with the topical problem of person’s individual attitude to the specific religious values in the terms of methodology of the personal approach. The author analyzes traditional typology of personalities and religious personalities in particular E. Spranger, O. Lazurskyi, G. Allport, Y. Makselon, and that of the latest researches, that are in the context of the «big five» model (V. Saroglow) and others. The author describes and summarizes the results of the empirical research conducted among the Western Ukrainian students with the help of a questionnaire «The Religious Orientation scale» by G. Allport and D. Ross. The largest percentage (about the half of the sample) is represented by young people who somehow tend to internal religiosity; the second subgroup represents a «mixed» type of religiosity, and third and the smallest one is the subgroup possessing external religiosity. The obtained significant differences with the classic proportion of religious personalities proposed by G. Allport can be explained, mainly by such factors: ethnic and cultural specifics of the youth representing the western region of Ukraine, which is known for its strong religious traditions; age characteristics of the respondents who tend to youth «extremism» and «idealism» while searching the intimacy in communication, that is often revealed in the religious sphere. The results of the thorough qualitative analysis of the responses show that most of young people represent not only their own «internal religiosity», but also an «affective» and «modern» religious personality, that accepts and experiences the positive fact of the influence of God or religion on their lives. At the same time this personality does not see in it any real means for own social growth and therefore ignores collective forms of religiosity.
Key words: personality, religiosity, religious personality, religious values, motivation, external and internal religiosity.
The article defines the personality and behavioral aspect as one of the indicators of the senior pupils’ mental health. The author characterizes the personality features of senior pupils which are manifested in their emotional experiences. The author analyzes the concept of mental health, emotional stability, emotional instability, their interpretation by the national and foreign psychologists. The article describes the results of empirical studies that have shown that pupils of the 10-th forms had bigger tendency to uncontrollable aggression, aggressive attitude to the social environment and expressed desire to dominate. It is established that аggressive behavior of these pupils may be caused by low self-esteem, inadequate behavioral reactions manifestations and uncontrollable emotions. The attention is focused on the high level of neuroticism noticed in this category of pupils, which is manifested in emotional instability and is accompanied by increased levels of anxiety and irritability. It is noted that instability of the emotional state of the 10- th forms pupils is manifested in frequent mood swings, irritability and lack of self-regulation of emotional states and inappropriate behaviors. All this adversely affects the attitude to themselves, to others and to self-management of the behavior, and therefore also to the valuable relation to their mental health. It is found that the problem of the valuable relation to the mental health of senior pupils will be solved on condition of adequate behavior formation and a positive attitude to mental health.
Key words: early adolescence, emotional instability, behavior, emotional stability, mood, emotions, mental health.
Modern understanding of neuropsychological mechanisms of suicidal behavior formation is presented in the article. Types of suicidal behavior are described and it is interpreted through axiology. Epidemiology of suicidal behavior with age, gender, professional and social characteristics is presented. The most important extrapersonal and intrapersonal factors of suicidal risk are grouped. The mechanisms of suicidal behavior nascence in mentally ill (schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, delusional disorder) and mentally healthy persons are compared. The connection between depression and nascence of suicide is shown. Reasons of incitement to suicide, including drugs with depressive effect, are presented. Neuropsychological aspect of psychodynamic suicidal behavior is discovered. Neurophysiological basis of suicide brain is shown, which appears through dysfunction of ventral, hyperfunction of dorsolateral and hypofunction of orbitofrontal parts of rontal lobes; neocortex hyperactive of right hemisphere of the brain and reduce of right parahypocampus; change of the vagus nerve activity. Neurochemical changes in suicide brain, related with reduce serotoninergic activity in general and higher serotonin receptors activity in the left orbital cortex, are discovered. We described the psychological characteristics of suicidal brain. There are appeared through alienated attitude to own body, increasing pain threshold, attenuation of cognitive functions (visual and verbal memory, breach of visual-spatial orientation, easing assessment function, breach of attention, weakening of operative memory, inability to recognize dangerous situations and use own life experiences), saving intelligence and determination in behavior, depression, inability to manage with stress.
Key words: suicidal behavior, personality, prefrontal lobes, serotonin, depression.
In the article the theoretical analysis of approaches to disclosing the psychological content of the concept of professional culture of a specialist is made. The interpretation of the place of professional culture is provided in the structure of the General culture of personality. It is established that it is sufficiently narrow to consider professional culture only as a set of special theoretical knowledge and practical skills related to a specific form of labor. It is shown that preliminary theoretical analysis on the subject matter allowed to reduce all the scientific researches on the expression and formation of professional culture of a specialist to the basic directions: acmeological, personality, activity, cultural (ethical) approaches. The main positions of the leading scientists on the psychological bases of professional culture in different directions are structured. The author proved the expediency of introduction in the structure of professional culture not only a certain set of knowledge, abilities and skills. It is established that the most important component of professional culture is the morality of the personality, its ideological values, the adoption and adaptation of modern social changes. The structure of professional culture of a specialist is revealed. It is found that the formation of the professional culture of the specialist is affected by both the features of the profession and other factors, in particular objective and subjective, more and less meaningful, personal and social. It is established that global trends in society, sociophilosophical problems of culture, the state of the education system and the quality of educational services, the prestige of the profession in society have objective impact.
Key words: culture, psychological bases of professional culture, the personality of the expert; acmeological, personality, activity, culturological approaches.
UDC 159.9: 331.108.2:355
The article analyzes the possibility of formation of foreign language speech communication by means of socio-psychological training. It is indicated a variation of this author’s integrative linguistic and psychological training, all psychotherapeutic components which form a single and virtually indivisible combination of ends and means, aiming to help the person actively and for a short time to master a foreign language speech. The emphasis is put on the external aspect of speech development and the social processes required for its formation. It is noted that the main objective of this training is the transformation of a foreign language system for live broadcasts – a particular living organism that is wanted painlessly and almost imperceptibly to cultivate. It is noted that the training of communication is the core integrative linguistic and psychological training. It is stated that the most important in the aspect of creating a climate of trust is the first training session, whose task is, above all, the unification of disparate and disturbing individuals into a single cohesive and free from psychological barriers group. The role-based training is creatively reinterpreted and modified in order to fit for teaching adults foreign languages. In this modified form it, along with other psychic techniques: techniques of perceptual training, assertiveness training, groups of meetings, gestalt therapy and others, was incorporated as a part of integrative linguistic and psychological training. It is proved that all the psychological techniques of integrative linguistic and psychological training have a psychological as well as linguistic orientation, the author’s training includes exercises that are designed, primarily, to form the structure and system of a foreign language. Such exercises are fulfilled interactively in communication. It is noted that psychological and psycholinguistic exercises are integrated together and «work» to teaching adults foreign language.
Key words: foreign speech, social-psychological training, integrative linguistic and psychological training, communication training, role training.
The article deals with influence of hardiness of people with disabilities to vocational rehabilitation and motives influence on career choices and changes in people’s lives after vocational rehabilitation are analyzed. Presented results of research reveal the motives of participation in vocational rehabilitation of the disabled people. The vocational rehabilitation for people with disabilities is multifield and it consists in: vocational rehabilitation, vocational training and retraining, the organization of work of disabled people, adapting to a new life, the ability to master oneself. Life goals of people with disabilities after vocational rehabilitation are determined. It is concluded that people with disabilities who received comprehensive vocational guidance examination and received objective conclusions and recommendations for vocational training they much more successful master profession, easier adapt to the learning process and life stress, and become qualified specialists, able to compete in the modern market of work. The life is analyzed in many aspects and it includes unlimited wide range of functions. Therefore, as we noted, more attention should be given to the development of skills: possession of an orientation, communication, control over behavior, movement, learning ability and work, affecting the viability of the personality. It’s revealed that the hardiness is manifested by the main personal variable that mediates the influence of stressful factors to physical and mental health as well as the success of activities.
Key words: hardiness, vocational rehabilitation, adaptation, training, rehabilitation of people with disabilities.
The article envisages the efficiency of implementation of author’s training program aiming at the prevention of destructive mental states of young heads of departments of social-psychological service at the penal institutions. The main principles of the author’s training program which was tested in 2014-2015 on the basis of the correspondence faculty of the Institute of Criminal-Executive service at National Academy of Internal Affairs. The statistical differences between control and experimental groups using a parametric T-criterion of Student test for independent samples are studied. It is determined that the experimental group unlike the control has decreased isolation, anxiety, tension, timidity, suspicion, rigidity, level of personal anxiety, professional burnout and professional deformation. The level of communication, level of mental and emotional stability, courage, diplomacy, self-control and relaxation has increased. The main specificity of changes in destructive mental states in the experimental group using nonparametric criterion of Wilcoxon test for dependent samples is revealed. The analysis of changes in the destructive mental states and qualities of the control group before and after training is made using the Wilcoxon test. It is concluded that for the prevention of destructive mental states of chiefs of departments of social-psychological services, the author’s training program appears effective in the work with them, aimed at prevention and correction of destructive mental states and qualities of the heads of departments of socio-psychological service that was proved by Wilcoxon test and T-criterion of Student.
Key words: destructive mental states, prevention, training, training program, T-criterion of Student, Wilcoxon test, experimental group, control group.
The purpose of the study is the analysis of the structure of volitional organization of personality as a system of common characteristics of volitional activity, and the definition of its key parameters. The results of the empirical study are provided where we applied the method of direct assessment by objects of the study the properties of their ideal and real «Me». We assessed the properties that characterize a volitional sphere of personality, his activities, energy level, etc. The absolute and relative indicators of self-assessment are analyzed. Statistical data processing was carried out using comparative, correlation, factor and cluster analysis. The comparative analysis revealed some certain differences in the results of the evaluation by gender, as females tend to show slightly higher rates of the level of their development of the system, or secondary volitional qualities and those representing the inhibitory function of volition. Three factors are singled out in the structure of volitional organization of personality. The first factor is formed by the qualities that embody the incentive function of volition such as courage, initiative, energy, purposefulness, and persistence. The second factor combines volitional qualities complying with the inhibitory function of volition such as endurance and self-control, behavior control, and patience. The third factor is made up by complex moral and volitional qualities like organization, discipline, responsibility, and hard work as well. The cluster analysis identified four groups of objects of the study who differ in the structure of volitional organization of personality. The first group, «organized», is characterized by the combination of high organization, middle level of volitional control, and even lower volitional activity. The second group is defined as «patient and restrained». The third group is characterized by the lowest rates on the second factor – «impatient, disorganized, but quite active». The fourth group is distinguished by the highest rates on the first factor, «strong-willed, not organized enough».
Key words: volitional organization of personality, self-esteem, volitional qualities, ideal Me, real Me, volitional control, volitional activity, organization.
N.F. Shevchenko, T.L. Kozhushkina
The article is devoted to the presentation of the results of an empirical research of educational and professional mindset as a component of professional consciousness of future specialists. The specificity and the structural organization of the educational and professional mindset of students have been shown. A review of scientific literature allowed to define educational and professional mindset as a multilevel motivationalsemantic entity that appears as an individual willingness to perceive activity and make it properly; it permeates all aspects of the formation of the professional activity from professional consciousness and self-awareness up to action or deed. We have grounded a place of educational and professional mindset in the structure of professional consciousness. As a component of professional consciousness, educational and vocational mindset is shown in the personal sense. As a kind of semantic mindset, it is updated by the motives of professional activity and appears as a form of personal expression of readiness to professional activity in general. Structural organization of educational and professional mindset includes the following components: professional-cognitive (goal setting, challenges in the future work), emotional (assessment of training for professional activity), subjective (involvement of students in the educational and professional activities), cognitive-personal (students’ representation of professionally significant personal qualities). The results of the empirical research have revealed that psychological characteristics of the content of educational and professional mindset are partially determined by the learning profile (humanitarian, technical), and in part are common. The differences in the structure of components of educational and professional mindset concern to the cognitive-professional component (professional goal setting); emotional component (professional expectations); cognitive and personality component (self-assessment of own negative qualities); subjective component (lack of time, lack of interest in the learning process, a lack of understanding of educational material).
Key words: professional mindset, educational and professional mindset, professional consciousness, semantic motive, personal sense.
Psychological resourcefulness is theoretically positioned as a predictor of an individual’s level of mental health in the coordinates of subjective well-being and the Dark triad of personality. The suppositions about the presence of direct ties between psychological resourcefulness and subjective well-being were made, as well as about an inverse relationship between the level of psychological resourcesfulness and the components of the Dark triad of personality. According to the results of empirical research, which included 77 people aged 20-53, the existence of a direct link between the overall le vel of psychological resourcesfulness and all the components of subjective well-being was identified, as well as a link with narcissism as a component of the Dark triad. Narcissism is also associated with such components of subjective well-being as positive relations with others, personal growth, life goals, self-acceptance. At the same time, according to the criterion of psychological resourcefulness it is appropriate to distinguish three types of people with different ratios of components of the Dark triad, namely: 1) individuals with a level of component of the Dark triad within the normal range, 2) individuals with a lover level of narcissism as compared to normal, 3) individuals with a higher level of narcissism than normal. It was found that according to the criterion of the general level of the features of the Dark triad it is incorrect to characterize individuals with a high level of subjective well-being and a high level of psychological resourcefulness. The comparative analysis showed that the individuals, who possess higher levels of knowledge of their own resources, can be characterized by a higher level of all the components of subjective well-being. It is established that individuals with an increased level of narcissism are well aware of their own psychological resources, but do not know how to maintain and restore them, so they operate their resources inefficiently.
Key words: psychological resoursefullness, individual health, psychological resourse «believe in good», the types of psychological resoursefull, Dark triad, machiavellism, narcissism, psychopathic.
T.D. Scherban, A.V. Ternovai
The problem of forming vitality of teenagers has been concerned in the article. The results of research that studied the influence of parents on formation of resilience in teenagers have been systematized and generalized. The terms «resilience» and «vitality» has been analyzed and underlined, their relationship have been revealed. The family is an important factor in the formation of resilience in teenagers. Teens who are brought up in single-parent families are less adapted to life, they are less mature and purposeful, proactive and less balanced, the ability to empathize is more hardly developed, more difficult to manage their behavior and in future it is much more difficult to perform parental duties. According to obtained empirical results it can be argued that the rate of «Resilience» and «Control» of teenagers from complete families is higher than in teenagers from incomplete families; «Emotional Awareness» is more pronounced in teenagers from single-parent families than from complete ones. For teenagers from both complete and incomplete families are typical: average level of expression according to the scale of «anxiety» with a tendency to high; dominance of scale «Internal» has been determined. As to protection mechanisms for teenagers from single-parent families the most pronounced are scales «Projection»; «Intellectualization»; «Negation». Whereas for teenagers from complete families – «Negation»; «Projection». The study has not revealed the significant differences of resilience of teenagers from complete or incomplete families. The lack of significant differences can be caused that children from single-parent families communicate and maintain relation with both parents. Also, the fact that most teenagers have to actively adapt to social changing conditions regardless of educated families.
Key words: resilience,viability, components of resilience, involvement, control, risk taking, adolescence, single-parent family.
H.V. Scherban, T.D. Scherban
The psychological characteristics of the organization of subject-object-subject relations in teaching as a continuous process of teacher’s solving endless number of educational tasks aimed at achieving a common goal – the formation of the personality of a pupil has been examined in the study. Subject of teachers’ activities is focused to be training activities of pupils. In particular, teacher must organize and adjust it according to the tasks of training and education, inferior to more general purpose of moral and spiritual world of the latter, the formation of value and semantic sphere of personality. The essence of productive and reflexive management is shown to change the position of the pupil, to transform it from the object of external influences in the active subject of its own activities carried out in the general system of social life, the development of the ability of self-management (self-regulation, self-organization and self-control) by own activities. The subject – object – subject relationship in education formed during the educational communication, which is understood as a process of joint work of teacher and pupil, where this form of cooperation is based on an active feedback, which organizes, regulates and enriches each of the participant in this process have been proved in the study. It is concluded that becoming a competent teacher means to acquire the new personality, which not only has comprehensive knowledge and valuable opinion, and reputable, but acquired a set of skills not only to communicate with pupils, but control their activities. Productive training relationships are established to be built in the implementation of educational communication, which should be understood as a process of joint work of teacher and student.
Key words: educational communication, educational task, pedagogical competence, subject-object-subject training relationship, productive training relationships, management training activities.
UDC 159. 923
The author proposes and bases a theoretical model of socialization of personality in the context of contemporary multi-structural society of Ukraine. The author proves the thesis that socialization and development of the integrity of personality in the context of modern society must be considered on the basis that each individual has a dominant orientation to one of the cultures modus. Traditional and modern (industrial) and postmodern (communicative) cultural societies involve excellent ways of understanding of social norms and values, so the same values in the process of their assimilation acquire different understanding and meaning. In accordance with the model the process of socialization of the personality is seen as that having two sides. An external side, or a combination of external factors of the integrity of the personality, appears due to the cultural way of life, which focuses on the individual way of interpreting and understanding of norms, values, forms of practical conduct in every sphere of society. Internal side appears as a process of conceptualization of life perspectives and achieving psychological well-being. Empirical research results were obtained through the use of the model in May-June 2015 by the faculty of psychology of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and introduced into scientific circulation. The presence of six types of integrity which is characteristic for modern students was discovered with the help of the cluster analysis. The author proposes to initiate regular monitoring of processes to develop holistic personality of students based on the empirical generalization types in order to adjust the instruments of social assistance, psychological counseling and pedagogy of higher school of Ukraine.
Key words: socialization, personality, cultural mode, mult i-structure society, types of integrity of personality.