The article envisaged the drivers of mental development of the child (and the source of its self-motion) were the internal contradictions that arose in life, activities, relationship with the environment, the contradictions between the new needs, desires of the child and the level of his/her capabilities, between the requirements and the degree of mastering necessary abilities and skills, between new tasks and previously formed habits, ways of thinking and behavior, between the growing internal capabilities of the child, and the objective position in the family and the team. It is noted that, taking into account the specific laws of mental development considers the sequence of stages of intellectual development. It is stated that the logic of theoretical approach to the development of the human psyche suggests that genetic psychological laws are not absolute, they are always socially conditioned and have their own specifics. It is concluded that the task of forming educational activities involves the formation of motivational basis and learning the operating structure. It has been found that the structure of educational activities becomes a form of subjective activity of the child, which is the pupil has the formed attitude to people and reality. It is shown that the necessary condition for pupils’ mastering new words is the formation of special ways to solve language problems. It is established the role of logical aspect of speech component of teacher’s communicative activities increases with the increasing of pupils’ age.
Keywords: development of the psyche, personality, self-development, thinking, educational activities, abilities, skills, formation, activities.
UDC 159.9. 616.092
The article scientifically envisages such terms as: violation, developmental disorders, psychological and physical disorders. It is found that the subject of correctional education, focused by the study, education, training and correction of psycho-pedagogical assistance, is a child with mental and physical development disorders. It is also scientifically grounded the change of the psycho-emotional state and adaptation of parents having a child with disabilities. It is studied that a family having a child with mental and physical disabilities, goes through the following stages: the stage of birth and stage of diagnosis. It is investigated the period of diagnosis can vary from six months to five years. The key aspects of developmental disorders diagnosis of early childhood are analyzed. We identified the basic phasic factors and criteria for diagnosis. Reasonable problems in diagnosis, criteria for formulating a diagnosis are distinguished. A new term of prognosis of the young child is defined. Especially adverse effects stem from the deficit of communication with adults in the first year of life, i.e. in infancy. The most common in correctional education is a child anomalies classification by type of violation. Such knowledge defined the content and methods of work with the child and form of education and training.
Key words: correctional education, psycho-physical development, developmental disorders, early childhood, families with children with developmental disabilities, diagnosis, sensory disorders, disability and prognosis of development.
UDC 159.922.7:15 (075.8)
The article is devoted to the review of the phenomenon of trust as an important resource, which influences on the process of male and female self-actualization in the early adulthood. The summarized review of studies of leading types of trust is analysed: trust to oneself as the unconditional belief, conviction in the own positive inner essence, own competence, significance and value; trust to the romantic partner as confidence in his decency and goodwill, as well as the necessary condition and the result of harmonious, subjectively satisfying romantic relationships; trust to other people, to the groups and to the social institutions as the belief that the existing trust expectations will be justified and that the social / institutional interaction does not bear the risk of being deceived and betrayed. The results of empirical research of connection between mentioned types of trust and the basic parameters determining the level of selfactualization are represented: orientation in time, reliance on oneself, positive values, flexibility of behavior, sensitivity, spontaneity, self-esteem, self-acceptance, view on the human nature, the ability of holistic perceive of the world and other people, acceptance of own aggression, sociability, cognitive needs, creativity and common level of self-actualization. It has been found that trust to the romantic partner has positive correlation with orientation in time, reliance on self, positive values, behaviour flexibility, spontaneity, self-respect, self-acceptance, acceptance of aggression and a general index of self-realization; trust to oneself has positive correlation with such spheres of self-realization as reliance on oneself, self-acceptance, acceptance of aggression. With the help of regression analysis it is proved that trust to the partner has the great positive significance for self-actualization during the early adulthood. Trust to oneself has less influence on self-actualization and social / institutional trust has the opposite meaning for this process.
Key words: trust, types of trust, trust to oneself, interpersonal trust, social trust, self-actualization, gender differences, early adulthood.
The article presents the results of a study of self-reflection of young woman’s bodily potential. Women corporeality in meaningful aspect is presented as a conscious mental education, and various bodily processes recognized by unconscious woman are its objects. It is emphasized that the interaction of women and difficult life situation is related to personal experiences, it includes the processes of experience, understanding, understanding of the situation in the context of a holistic way of life, resulting in a new attitude in the unity of emotional, cognitive and behavioral components, expresses the internal position of the person or stance towards life. It is noted that the integration of body experience in the subjective picture of the way of life of women can wear maladaptive character and leads to the transformation of temporal and semantic aspects of the structure of subjective picture of life. It analyzes the phenomenon of corporeality as a phenomenon of self-consciousness and a source of a young woman’s selfactivity, her self-presentation and conditions of life projection. The absence of constructs in the form of “Me”, which would point to the role and place in the structure of “Me” self-consciousness its physical component is noted. The results of the study of bodily potential self-reflection through the technique “bodily potential self-reflection questionnaire” by A.Y. Rozhdestvenskyi are described. The results of the study of self-reflection are presented. According to the results the greatest number of respondents (46.7%) belongs to the type of personal self-reflection of bodily capacities. The orientation “to oneself” is characteristic for this type. Body potential is directly integrated into the “Me” -structure, becomes its inherent characteristic that under no circumstances can be separated from the “Me”.
Key words: image of “Me”, the self-reflection of bodily capacity, the ratio of women to their physicality, bodily orientation, bodily experience, physicality, the body, the phenomenon of corporeality.
UDC 159.9 (076)
The human’s personal changes which are actualized by the background of his/her experienced life crisis are analyzed in the article. It is characterized the human’s experiencing life crisis situation. The essence of personal development is disclosed in the context of life crisis. The attention is focused on solving individual life crisis. It is noted that the first important moment in the revival of the individual is associated with the actualization of his/her personal autonomy. The self-development is stated to increase the level of human self-respect and expand his/her internal freedom. The relation of the second point with the renewed one after the experienced crisis is emphasized that human experience becomes the impetus for creativity development, new discoveries and views. The third point determines that the experienced crisis leads the human to a deep perception of the realities of living space. He/she begins to perceive the living world and him/herself in it more clearly, truthfully, really. It is emphasized that the level of self-comprehension and cognition of the world demonstrates the achievement of personal maturity. The increasing of human sensitivity to external influences is established after experienced life crises. The basic focus of work of a crisis counselor is explained. The mental re-adaptation of a client as an important mechanism for overcoming the crisis is characterized. It is proved, if the personality shows productive attitude to crisis situations in life and strives to solve them constructively, he/she renews and enriches his own personal space.
Key words: personal growth, life crisis, personal autonomy, subjectivity of the personality, productive life strategy, self-development.
UDC 376 (075.8)
Theoretical and experimental bases of mental and physical development and education of mentally retarded children in the family are analyzed in the article. In particular, the author draws your attention to the characteristics, nature, analysis and content of the issue of family education of this category of children. General didactic principles and methods of education of children with typical development in families that are relied in the basis of family education of children with mental retardation are clearly identified and described in the article. It should be noted that the psycho-physical development of mentally retarded children goes by similar laws that are characteristic for normally developed children, but it is peculiar as that is indicated by clinic, etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder, namely the presence of diffusion abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of mentally retarded children leads to deviations in their cognitive performance and activity, and further to infringements in the development of higher mental functions, emotional and volitional and personal areas that parents need to consider in the process of education. The author has found that the study of this problem requires analysis of the following: clinical and physiological features of the development of mentally retarded children and their parents considering such features in the process of family education; features of physical, intellectual, moral and national education of such category of children in families; development of their speech; adaptation and social problems which arise during the process of development and education; features of the family work on development and formation of leading activities of mentally retarded children; interaction between schools and families in the education of this category of children and training of remedial teachers to work with their parents; specifics of use of innovative technologies for remedial training and education when dealing with mentally retarded children.
Key words: development of mentally retarded children, etiology and pathogenesis of mental retardation, typical development, family education of mentally retarded children, family education parameters, conditions of family education.
The author of the article analyses various attitudes and behavior of children and young people in families that imitate age-mates or social groups, in which they are brought up. Many authors who investigate the problems of education or psychosocial behavior of growing up young people specify on influence and prevailing of age-mates in forming of children’s consciousness, ways of behavior and acceptance of vital decisions. The author, being based on opinions of scientific authorities, shows that public influence is the certain change of positions, behavior or person feelings as a result of that other people think, do and feel. It leads to the basic changes in life, i.e. the changes of level of implementation of tasks by an individual in presence of other people. The author underlines that education is not only based on abilities that are traditionally passed on in family from one generation to another, but also requires permanent improvement of the special literature in the sphere of psychology and pedagogics that will help parents in education of their children. Analyzing the problems of family we should underline that parents are responsible for individual values which their children will obtain. Therefore numerous researches concerning family as a subject matter that were carried out in psychology, sociology or pedagogics show image of diverse hierarchy of values in the family. It is important to emphasize that there are values to be considered as basic that does not depend on person, history and culture of country influence on their formation. Such values consist of: courage, justice, reasonableness, capacity for work, modesty, gratitude, readiness to help, sympathy and responsibility.
Key words: family, education, psychosocial behavior, groups of agemates, hierarchy of values.
In the article the basic approaches to creating educational districts are analyzed. The educational district is determined as a voluntary association of organizations (regardless of subordination and ownership type) in a particular area, which serves an effective mechanism to ensure the most comprehensive educational services to create competitive personality, mobile at market and able to learn throughout life. The strategic goal of educational district is grounded. It is composed of two main areas, the first of which involves the organization to provide quality educational services, taking into account all potential resources, and the second – to create conditions for the expansion of professional opportunities and personal and professional growth of teachers. The basic tasks and activities of the educational district are revealed. A number of psychological and administrative problems regarding the establishment and functioning of educational district, combined into three blocks: block of problems concerning the management of educational district as a whole; block of problems reflecting the specific management of teaching staff in the education district; block of problems associated with the quality of the educational process in the educational district. The features of the head’s managerial activities on the establishment and functioning of the educational district are characterized. It is determined that this administrative direction of the head of supporting school includes the following components: strategic and modeling; organizational and coordination; analytical and corrective; information. The content and main tasks of the components of managerial activities of supporting school concerning the establishment and functioning of the educational district are defined.
Key words: educational district, a strategic goal of the educational district activities, objectives of the educational district, psychological and administrative problems of creation and functioning of the educational district, administrative activities of the head of supporting school, strategically modeling component, organization and coordination component, analytical and corrective component, information component.
UDC 159.942.5 : 616 – 085
The article deals with theoretical and empirical grounding of identification determination of separation experiences of individual in medical rehabilitation conditions. Represented theoretical and methodological analysis of the phenomenon of separation, highlighting its psychological content and manifestation of peculiarities in medical rehabilitation conditions, and also clarifying the conceptual positions of studying the identification determination of human behavior, allowed to state that separation experiences are caused by human identification experience. The carrying out of individually based study in order to examine the identification determination of separation experiences of patients who undergo stationary department’s treatment has been suggested. The developed program of empirical research and the complex of used methods of research results of mathematical processing enables to concretize the identification factors of separation experiences of human in medical rehabilitation conditions. It has been stated that patients with expressed separation anxiety are characterized by heightened experience of loneliness that in general psycho-emotional background is the fact of their comfort condition, and among identification factors of separation anxiety of patients the dominant position occupy the unconstructive forms, blocking their autonomy and responsibility; patients with low separation anxiety inherent more expressed level of mental activation, interest, emotional tone, which are auxiliary aids of loneliness state effective experiencing caused by treatment process conditions, and signs of constructive forms of personality identity ensure the sense of orientation and meaningfulness of life. The question of psychotherapeutic support of separation experiences in medical rehabilitation conditions has been actualized, and it has been stated, that emotional safety climate contributes to actualization of sick person’s internal resources, determining its personal protection and emotional comfort.
Key words: identification, separation, anxiety, identification factors, separation experiences, medical rehabilitation, patients.
Reflex communication is investigated as the mechanism of generation of new meanings in development of dialogical communication in the course of professional education of a future practical psychologist. There is an internal dialogue as the stimulating material of development of reflexive thinking which passes to reflexive consciousness and comes to the end in reflexive communication. Empirical collecting of this material happened according to the analysis of verbalization of internal dialogue in the course of interpretation of psychodrawings during the course «Active Social and Psychological Training». On the basis of analytical sessions it is established that expansion of internal dialogue proceeds successfully on condition of a reflection of what is done by a student for what he does it and what is perspective value of this work for him in further professional activity. It is revealed that reflexive processing of external information is caused by existence of contradictions which are realized by the student, it is a contradiction between an educational task and personal semantic value. Internal dialogue as the mechanism of generation of new meanings, functions in indissoluble unity with a reflection, thanks to updating of conscious and unconscious maintenance of mentality. It is defined that the hidden meanings in contexts of internal dialogue thanks to reflexive communication of students in the course of discussion of psychodrawing have been forced out in unconsciousness. Generations of new reflexive acts in the context of expansion of internal dialogue which on the student’s semantic value was personally problem are monitored. Development of reflexive communication is presented in gradual accumulation of new communicative contexts which arise at first as internal dialogue, and only then as external dialogue. At this stage processes of associations which are gradually comprehended are updated. The main difference between the internal dialogue and reflexive communication is presented: the first one proceeds as realization of interaction according to S-S principle; the second one as intrapsychological process of display of information in communication.
Key words: thinking reflection, reflexive consciousness, reflexive communication, subject and reflexive model, internal dialogue, psychological analysis, psychodrawing, analysis of the text, context.
This article is devoted to the study of genesis of perfectionism. The author analyzed, that for the last time, many foreign and Ukrainian scientists actively study the problem of perfectionism. In the article perfectionism has the meaning of a personality trait, which is characterized by a person’s striving for flawlessness and setting excessively high performance standards, accompanied by overly critical self-evaluations and concerns regarding others’ evaluations. In the article, the perfectionism is characterized by the desire to achieve high personal standards (moral, aesthetic, intellectual). The author, based on existing approaches, developed the model of perfectionism. In the article, factors, that have influence on the development of perfectionism, are divided, conditionally, into three levels: micro-level, meso-level and macro-level. It was investigated, that micro-level is characterized by the personal characteristics and internal conflicts. In the article, author characterized personality traits that have contribute to the development of perfectionism: pedantry, jealousy, accuracy, diligence, perseverance, responsibility, conscientiousness, anxiety, remorse about the mistakes of the past, lack of sense of joy at success achievement, self-criticism, sense of constant dissatisfaction, demands on oneself, difficulties in making decisions, the desire to finish all started things etc. It is investigated, that meso-level is characterized by the relationships in the educational institutions (schools, colleges, higher education institutions etc.), organizations, collectives in which the personality operates and spends most of time. The author described the active influence of school on formation of perfectionism, but the appearance of perfectionism is possible in adult life. In the article, the link between professional experience, its imprint and personality is considered. It is investigated, that macro-level is characterized by the culture, media, cult of perfection, etc.
Key words: perfectionism, genesis, micro-level, meso-level macro-level, personality traits, family, colleagues, society, culture.
The article studies the problem of readiness in the context of professional formation and opportunities of self-realization of future teachers in the process of University and postgraduate training. The impact of mo-dernization of society on the studied phenomenon and its requirements to the teacher as an individual personality is ascertained. The activities of the personality are focused on personality-centered approach and giving the possibility to exchange experiences. The factors which largely influence the formation of the studied process of formation of a future teacher are defined for implementation of the approach in practice. The distinctive features between the traditional system of education and nowadays system are found out. The main tendencies of changes and their impact on the formation and the implementation of a particular approach are established. The levels and the views of scientists on the psychological readiness and its formation of future professionals are presented. The role of training sessions in the process of students training is appreciated. The individual features of the personality of the teacher are defined. The training classes are analyzed and we stated the fact that during training sessions the students should be able to build their own perspective plan for phase-out paths of self-development, to examine the problematic situations under the prism of activity of the teacher, to evaluate themselves and the effectiveness of their self-realization in a higher educational institution, where most of students really should be conscious of their strengths and weaknesses, to cultivate the sustainable desire to develop themselves in the conditions of educational institutions. In addition, the prospect of further studies in the chosen direction and its role in self-realization of the personality is defined.
Key words: readiness, training, personality-centred approach, teacher, activity, self-actualization, humanism.
The article presents the study of creative legacy of G.S. Kostiuk, a founder of modern Ukrainian psychology, namely: for the first time, the analysis of his conceptual approach to personal academic efficiency is performed. The article states that G.S. Kostiuk initiated examination of pupils’ personal efficiency in educational space, he designated it in the semantic field as provision of conditions for personal «growth with help of own efforts». It is indicated that the proposed idea of «progressive mental self-movement» as a vector of «internal, personal» changes proposed by G.S. Kostiuk is a unique anticipation on the way of understanding of the “personal efficiency” concept. It is stressed that G.S. Kostiuk revealed the issue of personal efficiency formation in the context of children’s mental development that included the core idea of personal self-development and self-movement. The scientist outlined the theoretical and methodological provisions that underlie pupils’ personal efficiency formation: the priority status of internal – not external – conditions of mental development; a role of child’s own activities for experience acquisition; formation of own forces of growing personality in the experience acquisition process in the cultural value context; implementation of such educational management of psychic development when external educational influence could be converted to internal stimuli for growing personality development; child’s becoming of an agent of his/her own development. It is shown that G.S. Kostiuk outlined characteristics of pupils’ personal efficiency within the motivational paradigm. The scientist revealed the «efficiency» concept in such aspects: child’s mental development; psychological analysis of educational activities and learning; the educational environment. The conclusion is made that the scientist was the first one who originality initiated, off the beaten path, in the educational and developmental psychology (both national and foreign) the issue of efficiency in the system context.
Key words: personality, development, self-improvement, efficiency, personal efficiency, self-efficiency, self-movement, mental development, internal conditions, motivational paradigm.
The article touches upon the research results of peculiarities of restoration of psychological firmness of border guards after participation in combat actions at the state border. There is analysis of an extreme factors influence on the psychological firmness of border guards. Besides, we have distinguished structural components of psychological firmness of border guards: emotional-volitional, cognitive and individual-professional. According to the results of questioning of border guards who participated in combat actions during anti-terroristic operation we have found that psychological firmness in extreme conditions depends on a number of extreme factors. They can be divided into direct and indirect effects of psychic state of border guards. It is necessary to admit that participation in anti-terroristic operation is considered to be extreme situation when a border guard is in the strongest psycho-emotional stress. Thus, our investigation shows that negative psychic changes of border guards, who participated in anti-terroristic operation, develop when they have returned to their usual life. When the military men finish carrying out their service duties in the zone of anti-terroristic and return to peaceful life, additional psychotraumatization takes place and conditions of normal way of life are the sources of additional stress. As a result of our research we have found the peculiarities of restoration of psychological firmness of border guards. The findings can be used as the basis of complex techniques of restoration of psychological firmness of border guards after participation in combat operations at the state border.
Key words: negative psychic changes, stress, combat operations at the state border, psychological firmness.
The article focuses on the impact of the introduction of the trainings in the professional training system of the leadership of the state border protection bodies with the purpose of psychological readiness formation based on psychological literacy, competence and organizational culture. The essence of the technological approach to training for professional and managerial activity of the leadership of the state border protection bodies has been analyzed. It has been determined the essence of the training program, objectives, criteria and time allocation. The structure of the training “Organizational and psychological training for professional and managerial activity of the leadership of the state border protection bodies” has been proposed. Techniques of options for training modules taking into account specific formation of training groups have been presented. Implementation of the training will help prepare the complex psychological training, use of psychological potential of a leader to overcome the negative effects of managerial influence. The necessity of using interactive techniques that contribute to the formation of needs and abilities of participants in the training sessions to use this knowledge in practice to optimize / increase efficiency of performance of professional and managerial activity has been substantiated. In addition, the analysis of the testing results of the training has been conducted. The positive dynamics of change of leadership training on organizational and psychological grounds has been empirically noted.
Key words: professional managerial activity, training, psychological readiness, leadership of the state border protection bodies.
The problem on mental deviations of the personality as an interdisciplinary task is envisaged in the article. The paper presents an analysis of the conception of mental health in psychology as closely connected with the general concepts of the individual and the mechanisms of his development. It is emphasized that mental illness itself is not a direct cause of crimes: it is a condition against which the validity of a negative impact on the patient, refracted through the consciousness of strain from a mental disorder, is reflected in his public response to this dangerous effects. The risk of committing mentally ill socially dangerous actions is usually a temporary condition in which psychopathological personality changes cause improper behavior situation. This causes deep differential diagnosis of psychopathological conditions with similar clinical symptoms and finds rod personality structure, which play a key role in its mental disadaptation. It is proved that the subject of an expert psychologist and research are particularly violations of the structure and dynamics of mental activity that has legal significance, and certain legal consequences. In most types of judicial psychological examination of the object of attention become such properties of the psyche, that break the ability of the subject to the implementation of the activities provided for criminal or civil law, and formulated in certain legal conditions.
Key words: psychological diagnosis, examination, mental examination, diminished responsibility, disability, patient.
UDC 316.6. 159.923.2: 004.7
The results of empirical research of adolescent’s identity under conditions of cybersocialization are presented in the article. The features of adolescent’s identity formation in cyberspace are studied, allowing us to get the model of teen’s identity in social networks. Two models of modern teen’s identity development on social networks such are discovered such as diffuse identity and achieved identity of a teenager. The main criteria or patterns of adolescent identity development models are defined in terms of cybersocialization, such as social networks. We considered the concept of adolescent identity formation in social networks. The models of adolescent identity developmen in social networks are analyzed, on such indicators as goals in life; process and the results in life; locus of control of «Me» and life in general; the overall rate of awareness of life; the level of reflection; situational and personal anxiety; motivational inductors; time code; the ability to assess and differentiation; picture of the actual «Me» in cyberspace. The comparison of models of teen identity in social networking with the type of behavior in social networks, that is their role behavior, has been made. The qualitative variables between the studied models and main differences are described. The cluster analysis of the results and statistical analysis by Student’s t-test are conducted. The data is shown in the diagram. The empirical importance of the data is shown. It indicates the practical value of the results obtained in the investigation and study of the impact of cyberspace, such as social networks on the identity of the teenager, which in turn reveal the features of the formation of teenager’s identity in terms of cybersocialization. We have made the conclusion concerning the prevalence of the model of diffuse identity among adolescents, causing primarily the excessive use of cyberspace.
Key words: identity, achieved identity, diffuse identity, social network, cyber socialization, reflection.
UDC 925 : 159.923
The article describes the results of empiric researches of the personality’s social intellect. The conclusions about its structure and peculiarities of the development were formulated. It was noted that the results of empiric researches of scientists had shown that for the development of social intellect, for the development of the ability to self-forming and self-regulation the mechanism of motivation plays the leading role. The structure of subject’s social intellect was described. In the structure of social intellect the authors underlined three its based components, such as «social cognition», «social perception» and «social acceptance». The author of the article proposed and described the conception of social intellect of a teacher. It was shown that social intellect of a teacher consisted of three substructures: a cognitive one, a mnemonic substructure and the emphatic one. It was established that a cognitive substructure of social intellect included a set of fairly stable knowledge, ratings, rules of interpretation of events, frames of human behavior, their relationships, etc. based on the existing system of interpretations on micro and macro structural levels. It was shown that a mnemonic component of social intellect of the person described developed ability to interpret events, life events, behavior of other people and their own as the subject of these events. Emphatic component of social intellect is largely dependent on what shape of the behavior the person chooses as a priority that he/she expects his/her business associated with the complex of interpretative value in relation to the world of the person. It was concluded that the emphatic component of social intellect was also dependent on what the person expected from other subjects of interpersonal interaction, what valuable interpretative complex of relations to the surround world was formed inside the person, what possibilities the subject also had when we told about the usage of mechanisms of anticipation in solving various problems of professional and social life.
Key words: intellect, social intellect, intellectual abilities, social cognition, social perception, social acceptance, cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic substructures of social intellect.
The article deals with the problem of the structure of the professional competence of a lawyer. It was noted that in the researchers which had been devoted to the study of the professional competence of lawyers, there were the following forms of the professional competence: a special competence; a social competence; auto-competence; extreme professional competence. The author of the article proposed the definition of the professional competence of a lawyer. It was shown that professional competence was a personal individual substructure, which in turn contained some components that, taken together, defined a psychological category that somehow determined the development of the professional competence of a lawyer. The structure of the professional competence of future lawyers was disclosed. It was indicated that the lawyer’s professional competence consisted of the following components: 1) a motivational target component; 2) a cognitive component; 3) a social component; 4) axiological component; 5) autopsychological component. The author of the article describes the structure of a motivational target component of the professional competence of a specialist of legal scope, which includes: a motivation to perform legal activities; a motivation to succeed; the ability to set goals and to achieve them; professional self-determination, which is the criterion for successful realization of the professional activity; professional orientation as a psychological orientation of students performing professional activities, including contextual and motivational sides; professional readiness of students as a condition characterized by scientific, theoretical, psychological, legal and also by physical readiness. It was determined that a cognitive component of the professional competence of a specialist of legal sphere of the activity involved the development of knowledge, abilities and skills of the person, significant professional experience, and also highlighted the development of the ability to use these knowledge and skills, frames of the professional experience in practice. It was noted that the structure of social component of the professional competence of the lawyer consisted of communicative competence, emotional and expressive peculiarities of the person and the characteristics of motor-volitional sphere of a specialist. In the article it was determined that basic substructural elements of auto-psychological component of the professional competence of the lawyer were: a professional self-determination and self-actualization of a lawyer, which in general could be described as a long process of person’s attitude to his/her profession and to himself/ herself as a (potential or real) subject of the professional activity or professionalism in a whole.
Key words: the professional competence, a motivational target component, a cognitive component, a social component, axiological component, auto-psychological component.
In the article, there is analysis and evaluation of a role of acmeologic personal resources to uncover and increase personal potential of elderly. The different scientists’ points of view on the problems of aging and the realization of the personal experience of relationship with the world are considered. The principles describing this definition are considered according to our pragmatic concept. We consider the acmeologic personal resource as a system of indicators of psychological tests (focus on the future, on positive past, personal maturity, self-concept, the need for achievement, dispositional optimism, internal locus of control) to study the mechanisms of gerontogenesis. There are applied the method of construction of mathematical models, that visualize the definition «acmeologic personal resource» in several study groups. There are compared the data of representatives of elderly, adulthood and adolescence in all the designated indicators. There are blanked different indicators by calculating the correlation between coefficients and their uncertainties. There are defined relationships that were formed between the indices by using multiple linear regression and correlation. Findings are compiled and the results are presented as graphs, and tables. The constructed mathematical models are analyzed that suggest the age increases the dimension of the psyche. This provides an increase of the personal potential. It shows an increase in the number of connections of regression relationship between indicators using polycyclic multigraphs.
Key words: acmeologic personal resource, personal potential, personal maturity, personal development, old age, mathematical modeling, system.
The volunteer movement of psychology students is considered in the article as a form of personal growth. The project “Prevention of negative phenomena among young people” is presented in the study. The most effective way to overcome the stigma with respect to current social problems is identified to be: creativity, personal example, “Peer-to-peer” volunteering. It is noted that the volunteer movement is a voluntary form of association for mobilization on social initiative to achieve the objectives of public interest, the joint solution of common problems, promoting personal growth of the participants and the development of social activity of youth. The volunteering is determined to be characterized by voluntary inclusion of volunteers in various kinds of socially valuable activities, choosing the right means to achieve the goal of the joint problem solving. The volunteering is presented to be characterized by the recognition of the equality of personal and social needs, awareness of social protection of volunteers in readiness to defend the interests of others; a combination of government with the consistent development of democratic principles in governance. Such principles of volunteering as informality, irregularity of contents, purposeful use of training and education as a means of achieving socially significant goals and volunteers’ personal growth are described. Five interrelated stages of personal growth of volunteers are analyzed: choice and self-cognition, self-improvement, selfdetermination, self-realization, creative growth.
Key words: addiction, personal example, volunteering, volunteerism, self-prophylaxis, social activity, social initiative, creativity.
UDC 159.942; 378.14.015.62
The results of research of emotional attitude of students to educational and professional activity at a higher educational institution reflected in the article. The emotional attitude had been considered as a system of integrated and the fractional emotional installations to the learning. The assumption of interrelation of these installations with different types of motivation of success has been checked. Different forms of exteriorizated (objective) and interiorizated (subjective) success which are shown in their educational activities as motives of achievement have been diagnosed at students. Three main motivational profiles have been allocated. It is revealed that the group of «Highly motivated» students significantly surpasses the «motivated by interiorization» ones and especially «Low motivated» groups on quality of structure and level of formation of the positive attitude to educational and professional activities. «Low motivated» students show the most expressed negative emotional attitude to study at a higher education institution. It has been proved that the accentuation of any motive of success, is being followed by strengthening of that or other component of the positive attitude of students to studying and by weakening of any component of the negative attitude. There have been revealed the types of success motives which excessive activation leads to decrease of positive attitude to studying and to strengthening of negative one at students (success as external recognition, success as the power, material success). At low progress students the role of different types of success motives in emergence of the positive attitude to studying is significantly reduced. At such students many motives of success, on the contrary, promote fixing of negative emotional installations for studying at the university. At the group of high progress students the functioning of success motives are characterized by exclusive clearness, and at the low progress ones – by «mixture of roles» in emergence and maintenance of different emotional installations to the studying.
Key words: relation, educational and professional activity of a student, the emotional attitude to studying at a university, emotional installation, achievement motivation, types of success motives, exteriorizated success, interiorizated success.
N.S. Korolchuk, Y.V. Starova
The article discusses that the effectiveness of the professional development of future managers of tourism business depends on the implementation of the techniques of psychological support in higher education establishments. It will provide systematic psycho-diagnostic determination of the level of student’s psychological status and adequate usage of psychological methods in the educational process. The article analyzes psychological content of the components of tourism managers’ training. The article examined information complex of psycho-diagnostic methods and a program of psychological support at various stages of training was designed. It is also established that the comparative analysis of the results of the influence of the program of psychological support on the main components of professional training of future managers of tourism business of experimental group demonstrates the effectiveness of the activities carried out psycho-corrective means. It is also proved that there are significant differences between the performance of the experimental and control group before and after applying the program of psychological support, on the basis of such components of professional training: motivational, cognitive, personal and professional components. On the basis of given results we can state that the presented program has enough high efficiency and can be recommended in the organization of educational process and structure of higher education institutions. This will contribute to cognitive, personal and professional development of future tourism business managers.
Key words: efficiency, program, psychological support, components, professional training, managers, tourism business.
I.O. Kotyk, S.V. Sarychev
In the article the authors regard the concept of personal reliability as a system of individual characteristics that serve as the basis of successful self-regulation in various spheres of life and analyze methodological and methodical problems in the use of the experimental method in research of a small social group’s and individual’s reliability in intense and extreme social conditions. The authors offer a dynamic approach to the study of group behavior and joint activities in various social situations, and so present group reliability as a hypothetical social and psychological construct operated in variables, indicators and empirical referents which are measured directly by means of appropriate psychological methods. Verification of the hypothesis of the study is based on three varieties of social and psychological experiments – laboratory, natural and forming. The results of the experimental method implication to the study of different types of small social groups allow the authors to identify the components, social and psychological mechanisms and ways to improve reliability. Data collected by the authors can accurately specify the parametric group theory and the concept of groups’ organization as regards insufficiently researched conditions and situations of joint life activities. The paper identifies the causal and consequential connections in small social group’s orderliness, reliability and subjectivity. Orientation of an individual in organizational characteristics of the group occurs in the process of applying one’s own individual psychological features to the above-mentioned properties of the group.
Key words: laboratory, natural and forming experiments, group reliability, personal reliability, small group, joint activities, ability at organization, subjectivity, stability, optimal, intense and extreme social conditions.
The results of theoretical studies of the problem of psychological abuse, its forms and criteria are presented in the article. Different points of view of the scientists on the nature of psychological abuse and their theoretical concept of vision are analyzed here. It is confirmed that there are two theoretical approaches to the study of psychological abuse: the first one is based on the study of offensive, brutal behavior of the aggressor and the second one is analyzing the effects of such behavior on a person who came under such behavior. Long-term, sustainable nature of psychological abuse and difficulties in diagnosis of this type of violence unlike other ill-treatment are specified in this article. The focus is put on the control, domination, despotism as a basis of psychological abuse. It is defined that psychological abuse is the intentional impact on another person that has negative, destructive consequences. The importance of clear allocation criteria of psychological abuse both from theoretical and practical points of view is justified that it will help to describe better the concept of psychological abuse. The criteria of psychological abuse in nonfiction are analyzed. The attempt of differentiation of psychological violence into objective and subjective are made and there are described the sphere of personality through which psychological abuse is performed. It is shown that psychological abuse has a great impact on such spheres of personality as emotional, cognitive, behavioral and communicative ane. Also, there are defined forms of psychological abuse that are described in nonfiction. The features of each form of such kind of violence have been analyzed. Some points of view of different authors which call certain types, role models being aggressive and offensive to other people, having negative consequences, are forms of psychological abuse, they are described in the article.
Key words: psychological abuse, offensive behavior, brutal handling, criteria of psychological abuse, forms of psychological abuse.
The paper analyzed the correlation of value orientations of the spouses and family psychological health. The level of marriage satisfaction was researched by the questionnaire of V.V. Stolin. The spouses with a sufficient level of this index were selected. Quality indicators of psychological health of the family, which is characterized by the measure of its welfare, namely, the similarity of family values, the functional-role coordination, social-role adequacy in the family, adaptability in microsocial relationship, focus on marital longevity have been identified, by a battery of psychological health diagnostic techniques of V.S. Torokhtii. The comparative analysis of the features of family interaction of men and women was conducted. It was found that couples with a sufficient level of marriage satisfaction have an average level of functionally-role coordination, focus on marital longevity, role adequacy and adaptability in microsocial relationship, but a low level of similarity of family values. By correlation analysis it was determined the nature of the relationship between the components of psychological health and marital satisfaction of couples. It is shown that marriage satisfaction is determined by such components of psychological health of the family as the focus on marital longevity, functional-role coordination and adaptability in microsocial relationship. With the help of the test of value orientations of Sh. Schwartz the individual features of value orientations of men and women being satisfied with the marriage are studied. It has been shown that men are characterized by such values, as «stimulation», «achievement», «power» to ensure their dominant position in family relations. Women are characterized by the predominance of such values as «universalism», «conformism» and «kindness», which are considered typically feminine. The correlation between indicators of psychological health and family value orientations of couples satisfied with the marriage is established. It is shown that the orientation on marital longevity is correlated with the values of «tradition» and «safety». It was found that the functional-role coordination correlates with the values of «stimulation» and «universalism». These data are summarized and presented in the form of tables and pleiades of correlation. A promising area of further research may be systemic study of the functioning of families with psychological health problems.
Key words: spouses, the psychological health of the family, the similarity of family values, the functional-role coordination, social-role adequacy, adaptability in microsocial relationship, focus on marital longevity, marriage satisfaction, value orientations.
It is found that both in personal development and in the formation of psychopathologic symptoms the features of the processes of social communication, the individual reactivity and personal reactions are significant, i.e., mental illness is always the result of biosocial phenomena with a predominance of organism, individual psychological and social and psychological processes. It is noted that the great importance in the development of mental illness have mental and physical injuries, as well as family history, but in each case it is important to determine not only the cause of the disease, but also the conditions conducive to its emergence. It is proved that it is impossible to underestimate the importance and complexity of relationships and variables underlying potential and actual mechanisms that neglect the etiology of a disease. It is established that personal competence in coping with stress, internal locus of control, all kinds of professional and social skills and especially social support being a protective factor certainly softens the pathogenic influence. It is concluded that the highly complex interaction of pathogenic and protective external and internal conditions are the determinants of a multistage system, constitute the essence of a variety of issues of causation of disease states of the body and personality.
Key words: problem of causation, psychopathologic symptoms, disease, causation, mental disorders, a painful condition of the body
The paper represents some theoretical aspects of psychotherapeutic confrontation of suggestion. It is revealed methodological conformity between psychotherapeutic confrontation suggestion and rational psychotherapy. It is ascertained that the priority of work with dysfunctional thoughts is common for both psychotherapeutic confrontation suggestion and rational psychotherapy. It is shown that the dysfunctional thoughts arise as a result of false or distorted evaluation of life events and situations. Psychological correction of such kind of thinking inevitably results in the change of client’s perception of the surrounding world and, therefore, in changing of his behavior. It is determined that the psychotherapeutic influence has to be directed not only at the certain dysfunctional thoughts, but at the patient personality in whole. In order to modify the dysfunctional thoughts it is necessary to use psychotherapeutic persuasions-suggestions when the client is in a state of wakefulness. There are represented the new data concerning essential differences between psychotherapeutic confrontation suggestion and traditional rational psychotherapy. It is shown that, in accordance with the main principals of psychotherapeutic confrontation suggestion, there are basic and general scientific approaches and ideas which are antagonists to the dysfunctional thoughts. Such ideas and approaches can be inculcated by means of suggestion. It is found that a tangible psychotherapeutic effect is achievable through suggestion of general lifestyle principles: continuous changeability, interdependence, relativity, irreversibility, self-organization and dynamic equilibrium. The conclusions are made that the certain principles of rational psychotherapy can be used for elaboration of the theoretical basics of psychotherapeutic confrontation suggestion.
Key words: suggestion, psychotherapy, psychotherapeutic confrontation suggestion, rational psychotherapy, adaptive intellection, dysfunctional thoughts, principles of confrontation suggestion.
The article reveals the problem of personal self-development in the conceptual field of modern psychology. The scientific approaches of the scientists who examined the phenomenon of self-development and are related to it processes (M.I. Boryshevskyi, I. Kant, L.M. Kulykova, V.M. Rozin, U.V. Sharonin etc.) have been analyzed. The results of the theoretical research, based on the scientific works of the above mentioned scholars, in particular, relating to the structure of the studied process are described. The meaning of the concepts “self-development”, “ self-prognostication”, “self-realization”, “self-actualization”, “self-education” have been compared. The author’s definition of the personal self-development has been substantiated. The essential characteristics of self-devopment as a complex subjective activity have been determined. The author affirms that the self-development is an individual process that takes place in the inner sense of personality. Having analyzed the scientific works of some famous scientists (I.D. Beh, M.I. Boryshevskyi, G.S. Kostiuk, S.D. Maksymenko, D.I. Feldstein etc.) as the foundation it has been stated that all formations in the psyche and personality generally arising under the influence of training and education, characterize a higher level of its organization and functioning; while their value and importance can range from small individual qualitative changes to significant ones and sometimes even to their crisis transformation – that is actually self-development. The results of the theoretical analysis of the process of self-development made it possible, therefore, to identify key relevant concepts and highlight their essential characteristics: personal activity as a source of self-development; maturity of self-development; self-improvement, self-prognostication, self-actualization and self-realization. These essential characteristics of the phenomenon explain, cause, direct the self-development, self-actualized, realized and autonomic process of progressive personality changes, including the areas of human spirituality.
Key words: personality, personal potential, self-awareness, self-development, self-prognostication, self-actualization, self-realization, selfeducation.
The article analyzes the conceptual field of theoretical and methodological foundations of the studies devoted to psychological determinants of education of employees’ self-efficiency. The concept of human psyche ontogeny is revealed; it was developed by G.S. Kostiuk, a founder of the modern national psychology, and is understood as a key to the essence of self-efficiency determination. The article notes that the scientist, defining the «development» concept, showed main lines of self-efficiency formation in the terms of personality. The article discusses G.S. Kostiuk’s approach to the issue of determining and driving forces of personal development and his idea of «self-movement». It is noted that the idea of personal self-realization on the way of personal self-performing is crucial for self-efficiency formation in the educational field, which was substantiated in the geneticmodeling method proposed by S.D. Maksymenko. The conceptual approach to educational field determination proposed by L.M. Karamushka is shown as a fundamental one to theoretical and experimental research in organizational psychology. Emphasizing of determinants of organizational culture development within educational institutions can be performed not only on the base of the level paradigm – determinants of meso- and micro-levels, – but also with the «external-internal» approach which allow scientists to expand systematically the issue of determination of organizational culture development in education. The conceptual approach to self-efficiency of educational top-managers proposed by O.I. Bondarchuk is analyzed also. The trends of actual genesis of self-efficiency as an «internal» psychological determinant of organizational culture development of educational organizations are revealed using the theoretical and experimental approaches. The performed analysis of concepts used for theoretical and experimental investigation of self-efficiency of employees in education, based on the idea of personality as a «system of systems» (G.S. Kostiuk), leads to conclusion about possibility to examine self-efficacy as a systemic personal quality which performance is caused by a constellation of determinants in the paradigm level – meso- and micro-levels, together with the «external-internal» approach.
Key words: determination, psychological determinants, personality, development, efficiency, self-efficiency, external conditions, internal conditions, model, educational organizations, employees of educational organizations.
In the result of the research it is proved that self-consciousness is a dynamic historical formation, which acts at various levels and in various forms. According to the findings of domestic and foreign psychologists we argue that the self-consciousness formation is included in the process of a personality becoming, and therefore it does not adapts to it, and is one of the individual components. It is stated that the central mental process of college age is the development of self-consciousness. It is found that the negative “Me-concept” of future socionomis specialists’ personality is characterized by insularity, insecurity, low self-control, increased anxiety, emotional sensuality, low self-esteem. It is noted that the main determinants of the formation of “Meconcept” of future socionomic specialists’ personality are the communication with family and native people, friends and loved one. It is stated that one of the essential features of students-future socionomic specialists’ mental development of a personality is further formation of self-consciousness, which manifests itself in the differentiation of its internal structure, complication of substantive content. The violations in the regulatory process of the development of selfconsciousness are considered to be an important factor of maladjustment occurrence, which act as personal factors and become obstacles to effective adaptation and development of the personality, give the life to conflict personal meaning and become the basis for the emergence of various forms of deviant behavior in the student’s age. Generalizing the theoretical material we identify the following components of future socionomic specialists’ selfconsciousness: cognitive, emotional evaluation, behavioral and activitybased, the essence of which is determined by the functional components of self-consciousness of future specialists in socionomic professions. It is concluded that the formation of the professional self-consciousness includes future socionomic specialists’ self-cognition of the professional, personal qualities and the analysis of the current requirements of the profession to the expert, the formation of representations about the content of the profession and of oneself as its representative; the awareness of the applied value of vocational and psychological knowledge for future professional activities.
Key words: professional self-consciousness, “Me-concept”, personality, future specialists of socionomic professions, development, self-appraisal, self-control, mental processes, self-determination.
The article exposes the essence and interconnection between the mechanisms of the formation of the destructive forms of personal reaction, their displays in social interaction. The scientific and theoretical survey of native and foreign researches is done, that are devoted to the problem of personal destructions in the system of social relations as determinants of deformed socialization formation in the society. It is discovered the essence and correlation between the motives of destructive forms of personality’s reacting, their expression in the society. An attempt to determine the motives and mechanisms of destruction of the system of values orientation under the conditions of social and economic crisis of the society was accomplished, that guaranteed holding of effective diagnostics and timely purposeful preventive measures of social declinations overcoming. It is studied the psychological peculiarities of personal destructions as one of the motive power of personality’s desocialization. The mechanisms of deformed socialization creation are discovered, and the position of social interaction in the society as a motive force of the formation of destructive forms of reacting is analyzed. The analysis of social deviations of personal behavior, created under the influence of social and psychological changes, is made, and also the analysis of the theory of the declinations rise causes. The analysis of personal destruction phenomenon as a social factor, that is formed under the effect of changes in the society is carried out. The presented analysis gives system idea about the motives and forms of destructive behavior of the personality in social environment and discloses cause and effect analysis of social changes influence on the formation and development of the personality.
Key words: socialization of the personality, social interaction, personal destruction, deformed socialization, destructive behavior.
The article envisages the aspects of social and psychological maladjustment of combatants with remote consequences of stress effects as an actual problem of modern Ukraine. A great attention of theoreticians and practitioners of our time is given to the improvement of methods and ways of social and psychological adaptation and rehabilitation of combatants. It is revealed that there are not enough quantity of studies that would have full range of sociopsychological maladaptation of combatants with remote consequences of stress influences. It is defined that it is important to attract researchers and practitioners to analyze current approaches and find effective combination of them when providing assistance and rehabilitation on overcoming social and psychological maladaptation of combatants with remote consequences of stress influences. The clinical model of PTSD is presented, and it includes: social avoidance, distancing and alienation from others, sleep disorders, alcohol abuse or drug abuse, high levels of alarming tension or psychological instability, changes in behavior, antisocial behavior or illegal acts, depression, suicidal thoughts or attempts suicide, nonspecific somatic complaints. The types of psychic maladaptation of combatants with PTSD are also described, they are allocated depending on their holistic behavioral strategies, namely active-defense type, passive-defensive type, destructive type. Attention is paid to the fact that early prevention and effective diagnosis, using types of psychological assistance will contribute to full processing and neutralization of social and psychological maladaptation and elimination of remote consequences of stress effects on combatants.
Key words: combatant, social and psychological maladjustment, posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic experience, combat trauma.
UDC 159.9: 316.48
Y.М. Potapchuk, O.Н. Rieznik
It was identified the negative features of the head, causing bossing in a military band: pride, selfishness and vanity, envy, cruelty, anger, vindictiveness, rudeness, boasting, cronyism, darkness, stubbornness, bitchiness, arrogance, promiscuity etc. The author of the article justifies certain rules that can help leaders to work on the correction of negative traits of personality that contribute to the manifestation of bossing. It is clarified in the article that the importance of prevention bossing processes in military units consists in individual and organizational preventive measures. The individual preventive measures include: the creation of a favorable socio-psychological conditions for personality changes, development of motivation on the correction of personality traits; promotion of personality changes; correction, taking into account the nature of its manifestations in the process of psychological counseling or self-correction. The organizational prevention of bossing are the follows: creating a favorable socio-psychological atmosphere; objective consideration of issues related to the promotion and punishment of staff members; facilitating the rapid and seamless socialization of new employees in the team; the existence of feedback between managers and subordinates; development of professional qualification and personal-moral qualities of the staff team; the establishment of a transparent mechanism of taking management decisions; a clear formulation of the «vision» of the leadership and its consistent use in the practice of professional activity; the prevention of intimate and family relationships in the relationship of the managersubordinate. It was defined more accurately the notion of «self-correcting negative traits» and «methods of correction» in the context of the research problem. The author proposed a number of recommendations to the heads for the correction of their negative traits.
Key words: bossing, the head, self-correcting, negative features, recom mendations.
The article envisages the features of formation of professionally important qualities during the training of professionals in restaurant business. We found out that in current environment of rapid development of restaurant business in Ukraine there is a contradiction between profession demands, demands of society and the level of formation of professionally important qualities of future specialists that needs scientific and practical solving. We specified that disclosure of the nature, structure and features of professionally important qualities of future specialists in restaurant business have significant connection with psychological conditions of their formation in training dynamics. We found out that the profitability of the restaurant industry largely depends on the professionalism, level of professionally important qualities, education, professional culture, as well as the ability to work in a market economy with increased risks and competition. We analized the specificity of successful restaurant business running and made a conclusion that it was necessarily to consider the important component of future restaurant business specialists’ professionalism – psychological peculiarities of formation and development of professionally important knowledge, skills, abilities in system of professional training in higher education establishments. This approach significantly enhances the process of positive dynamics of formation of professionally important qualities, improves motivation for future professionals and optimizes the socio-psychological and organizational structures of educational and professional environment.
Key words: professional development, professionalism, specialist, restaurant business, professionally important qualities.
The article analyzes a personal phenomenon of «perfectionism» and its multifactorial structure. We have defined three basic types, which are located on a continuum of «Functional – Dysfunctional perfectionism». Functional type is distinguished to be inherent to healthy individual who critically assesses his capabilities, sets realistic goals, observes the ways for its achieving and enjoys received results. We note that dysfunctional one or as it is often called – clinical perfectionism, combines narcissistic and obsessive-compulsive type. Narcissistic type is characterized by motivation to success as a dominant one, obtaining approval and admiration from others, disregarding other motives, transformation achievements and recognition in the main meaning of life. On the other hand we have received obsessivecompulsive type, where idealized image does not displace all other motives and interests of the individual. Such person is interested not only in results but also in the activities focus on achieving, the value is associated with such activities, not just with one obsessive need of bringing joy to others. We have found that obsessive-compulsive perfectionism is peculiar type of people who are primarily seeking to achieve ideal to justify their expectations. The neurotic can get enjoy from the «not well done» task, although can have feelings of guilt. Traditionally, clinical perfectionism is a trait of neurotic personality, which leads often to psychopathology. The study has made a comparative analysis of three groups of respondents, indicating that the clinical groups have dysfunctional perfectionism. The predominant type of obsessive-compulsive patients reveals recurrent affective disorder, when patients with generalized anxiety disorder are diagnosed with narcissistic type of perfectionism. Students who do not suffer from affective disorders are found as narcissistic type, which is a clinical form of perfectionism. We have found that the constant desire to meet other people’s expectations can lead to the appearance of neurotic disorders, increasing internal tensions and developing endogenous intense conflict.
Key words: perfectionism, differential-typological structure of perfectionism, narcissistic type, obsessive-compulsive type, functional type, generalized anxiety disorder, recurrent depression, students.
- S. Rybаk
The article envisages features of methods that study cognitive abilities and their specific usage in cross-cultural psychology. We used monitoring of cross-cultural researches in psychology for the analysis. It was proved how knowledge or ignorance of culture influences the results of intelligence tests. The perspective of further researches lies in selection of adequate adaptive methods in different ethnic groups. The history of appearance of cross-cultural researches is thoroughly shown and also preferred methods of first researches are described. The history of measurement of intelligence is analyzed in details, thus, special attention to the tests of intelligence, their usages in free-cultural methodologies is paid. The discussion about inherited intellectual abilities and intellectual abilities influenced by culture is analyzed. In the article it is described how cultural groups differ after their preferences in parameters of classification, change of parameters of categorization, exactness of sorting and verbalization of parameters which they choose during sorting objects. The importance of methods of creativity researches as one of the most precious cognitive processes is underlined. It is revealed that along with general cognitive processes, the empirical study of intelligence level of different cultures representatives is often attracted. It is found that modern scientific trends are aimed at creating tests that wouldn’t be influenced by culture. The importance of cognitive research methods and their reflected specific use in the field of psychology that deals with the study of ethnic groups is proved.
Key words: cognitive abilities, methods of cognitive abilities, cognitive ability tests, intelligence, intelligence tests, free culture tests, object sorting, spatial cognition.
The article deals with the empirical elaboration of experience concept from the perspective of verification of its purport-activity character. In particular, the features of purport-activity determination of crisis experiencing by the unemployed are studied. The characteristics of the life purport orientations, personal selfactualization and personal attributions are defined as empirical correlates of features of purport-activity determination of crisis experiencing by the unemployed. An association between the level of intensity of crisis experiencing by the unemployed and characteristics of life purport orientations, personal self-actualization and personal attributions is detected. Summarizing of empirical data gives grounds to claim that life purport phenomenology as well as self-actualization determines informative character of crisis experiencing by the unemployed. This may indicate that the conversion of crisis situation of professional exclusion provides actualization of self-determination processes of personal-purport sphere of the unemployed. Analysis of the survey results of the unemployed personal attributions revealed that such personal disposition as internal locus of control plays an important role in the conversion (experience) of crisis situations related to loss of employment. It is concluded that the experience of the crisis by the unemployed has purport-activity character and it is determined by specific configuration of life purport, self-actualization and attribute personal characteristics.
Key words: personality, unemployment, crisis, crisis experience, purport- activity character of experience, life purport orientations, personal self-actualization, personal attribution.
UDC 159. 9: 34 (075.8)
This article continues to reveal the process of performing an experimental study of our proposed program of social adaptation effectiveness study of a homeless person after release from prison (the first 6 months after release from prison) . As a result of the correlation analysis according to the method of calculating the coefficient of Kendall we identified psychological characteristics of the relationship valueregulatory sphere and the dynamic side of a self-willed person after release from prison. Analyzing the relationship of two types of them can be identified: constructive connections, those where high performance components of value-regulatory sphere and will self-regulation of personality form relationships that promote better resocialization of a deviant individual in modern society. These relationships contribute to the improvement of both value-regulatory sphere, legal personality and the manifestation of self-control, the ability to regulate their status, feelings, actions, and generally will self-regulation of deviant personality. Prior to destructive relationships there are those in which the individual components of the highest rates of self-willed personality system serve as a support of the negative aspects of value-regulatory sphere of deviant personality. For example, a high level of formation of such strong-willed qualities as «persistance» on the one hand, can contribute to blocking such negative personality traits as «violent tendencies», and on the other hand, it has the opposite property such subscales as «the desire to subordinate partner for yourself «and» an inability to adapt to the other». Support and creation of constructive relationships between variables may contribute to positive changes in our system-complex to effective resoсialization of deviant individual in modern society.
Key words: systematic approach, the system complex, value-normative sphere of personality, strong-willed self-control personality correlations, psycho program.
UDC 37.013.42 – 051:364 – 784
Тhe article provides a psychological analysis and experimental study of professional and personal qualities of practical psychologists engaged in telephone counseling. Conscious usage of integrated theoretical and practical conception by psychologist is analyzed to be one of the guarantees of professionalism of psychological help which is provided. It is stated that on this basis, it is necessary to consider some theoretical principles of modern psychological approaches, and, also, personal qualities of effective specialist who provides psychological assistance in the course of his or her professional activities. Sensory activity in the various types of activities is noted to differ, first of all, in the load on a given analyzer or complex of analyzers. Auditory analyzer is shown to take the leading role in the work of the employee at Helpline, as in the process of working, the consultant “hears” or in other words, pays attention not only on telephone subscriber’s speech (the tempo, volume, timbre, special lexis, typical expressions and appeals), but also on non-verbal signals (breath, pause, shudder in voice, coughing, laughing, crying, changes in intonation), as well as the background against which the voice of the caller is heard (noise outside, people’s voices, everyday sounds, interfering etc.). Therefore, the consultant receives all information about the caller aurally. That is why, his or her perception is limited because other analyzers are not involved in the work . This limited field of perception, he or she keeps in mind for a long time.
Key words: psychological analysis, professional and personal qualities, social educator, telephone counseling, theoretical and practical conception, psychological help, effective specialist, Helpline.
The article deals with the study of psychological features of senior school pupils’ creative socialization. The analysis of scientific literature which discloses contents of the concept of «creative socialization» is conducted. It is theoretically grounded that contents and structure of senior school pupils’ creative socialization are based on their age features and interconnection of processes of socialization and creative thinking and that they manifest themselves in: social art, social creativity as higher forms of personality or society social activity; creative adaptation as process of alteration, reconstruction of social situations basing on defenseless adaptive mechanisms; creative socialization as the highest level of human socialization in society. Theoretical model is offered as a research tool of psychological features of senior school pupils’ creative socialization through interconnection of their socialization components and creative thinking, if a senior school pupil possesses high level of above described components he/she responds quickly and adequately to different alterations of social environment, proves himself/herself flexibly, offers that creative product exactly which is necessary and valuable for society to which he/ she belongs and thus he/she cooperates with it through prism of own creative self-fulfillment. It is noted that psychological features of senior school pupils’ creative socialization are social recognition, social status, acquired creative characteristics, social adaptation, frustration, verbal creative thinking, imaginative creative thinking, thematical originality. The model-scheme of typology of senior school pupils’ creative socialization is developed. Five types of senior school pupils’ creative socialization are outlined: «social non-creative passive type of socialization»; «social noncreative adaptive type of socialization»; «social creative non-adaptive type of socialization»; «social creative intermediate type of socialization»; «social creative successful type of socialization».
Key words: socialization, creative thinking, social creativity, social aptness, creative adaptation, psychological features, creative socialization, senior school pupils, typology.
The article deals with topical issues of the problem on personality’s moral consciousness formation. The studies of some famous scholars and psychologists about the moral features of personality formation at different age stages of development were analyzed. The analysis of the structure of moral consciousness and its categorical apparatus was made. In particular, to the categories of moral consciousness were assigned the categories of good, evil, duty, responsibility, justice, humanity, happiness and others. It is concluded that moral consciousness is a special construct of the human psyche, complex psychological entity, with its own levels, forms and some structure. It is determined that the practical importance of the study of the moral image of human consists in the fact that the usage of psychosemantic methods makes it possible to detect the hidden, implicit picture of the inner world of the subject, his personal worldview, which includes both conscious and unconscious aspects. As a result, it is concluded that the formation mechanisms of the psychological perception of morality due to the fact what morality means to the human himself, its own “Ego”, what meaning he puts into this concept and how uses it in conjunction with other people. The assessment of the concept of “moral man” is possible through systematic analysis of the human mind, which consists of vital ideas about the world, other people, himself and requires the study of values as a unit of consciousness. It is indicated that this issue requires further experimental study, determining the leading value orientations of the people of different ages in the context of two different identities (“perfect Ego” and “real Ego”) as a necessary basis for subject-oriented analysis of the psychosemantical experiment results.
Key words: personality, moral consciousness, moral norms, principles, motives, value orientations, psychosemantic.
UDC 159.98: 81
The article presents the psycho-technology of formation of foreign language speech through integrative linguistic and psychological training. It is noted that for each class, which takes the form of psychological training, an individual script is developed, and it combines all the exercises/games and psychotechniques, having a double (in psychological language) focus and deep connection, and they are linked by a shared storyline. It is defined that integrative linguistic and psychological training has its own structure and line of development, according to which the complexity of psychological and psycholinguistic tasks is constantly growing. It is shown that the formation of speech as a semiotic system operating in isolation from speech is impossible. The impact of integrative linguistic and psychological training as a means of psychotherapy and psychocorrection on the human psyche, his psychophysiology and activity for the purpose of development and formation of foreign language speech confirmed the hypothesis that language is not only a system of signs used for communication, but also of the higher mental function, mental and psycho-physiological process, activity and activity in the organic unity of all these aspects. It is defined that the formation of speech occurs through integrative comprehensive development of all the mentioned speech of the parties. Moreover, as an activity it involves consciousness but as active, as mental, and it operates psycho-physiological neurophysiological function in the area of the subconscious, which is responsible for the automaticity of speech acts. The hypothesis was confirmed that the formation of speech depends on the development of all other mental processes, both cognitive and emotional. It is investigated that integrative linguistic and psychological training was optimally effective means of formation of speech because, according to each methodological facet with the relevant parties of the speech process, purposefully influenced their internal speech mechanisms. The influence on the formation of speech was both nuanced and comprehensive, in the unity of all language aspects.
Key words: foreign language, semiotic system, integrative linguistic and psychological training, communication, speech process, speech mechanism.
The analysis of studies shows that the expression of volitional qualities depends on many factors such as neural and energetic peculiarities of the person, motivation, semantic sphere of personality, and a current situation. We applied complex methods of survey designed to diagnose volitional qualities (purposefulness, persistence, patience, endurance, self-control, courage, independence and initiative), the forces of the nervous system, formal and dynamic properties and also general and different temperament types in various spheres of activity (psychomotor, communicative, and intellectual). The study has shown that the strength of the nervous system in excitation is the neural basis of both basal and systemic volitional qualities. The indicators of basal qualities that embody the braking function of will (patience, endurance and self-control), also have the highest correlation with the strength of the nervous system in braking. A favorable formal dynamic basis for the development of many human volitional qualities is a harmonious combination of the general activity with low emotional reactivity. All scales of the volitional sphere except courage positively correlate with the indicators of psychomotor reaction ergicity and activity. The analysis has also found strong positive correlations between volitional scales and the indicators of an intellectual temperament type (reaction ergicity, speed, activity and adaptability). There is less correlation with the indicators of activity in the communicative sphere; they are only applied to systemic qualities such as independence and initiative. As the result of the research we have also revealed quite a high negative correlation with all the emotion indicators of such key volitional qualities as endurance and self-control, determination and courage.
Key words: volitional sphere, basal volitional qualities, system volitional qualities, strength of the nervous system, formal and dynamic properties, differential temperament, courage, patience.
The article envisages the problem of formation of motor skills where the physical quality «power» is leading. The influence of the nervous system of senior pupils on the dynamics of formation of motor and power abilities is empirically investigated and disclosed. The strength of the nervous system, balance of excitation and inhibition, inertia – the mobility of these processes are established. The author reveals the successful formation of motor and power skills of «pull» of rod of the young men with the individual typological properties of the nervous system within a single training. The data of technical successfulness of motor and power training fulfillment and achieving sports results of young men with different strength and balance of the nervous system through the four microcycles are presented. The changes in successfulness of motor and strength exercises after eight training sessions are shown. The obtained data are summarized and presented in tables and charts. The comparative empirical research on the formation of motor and power skills of the technique of exercise equipment of «pull» of rod by the senior pupils with different strength of the nervous system before and after the forming experiment is shown. It is revealed that at the stage of formation of representations of motor action higher indicators of the exercise technique were shown by boys with medium and medium-weak strength of the nervous system. At the stage of consolidation of exercises young men with different strength of the nervous system showed similar indicators.
Key words: strength of the nervous system, the processes of excitation and braking, motor and force skills, senior pupils, the dynamics of skill formation.
The problem of uncertainty of psychological mechanisms of actualization of resources was formulated; we also determined what can cause false conclusions about the determinants of resources and hinder their phenomenological consideration. Theoretically, we determined the meta-level of actualization of resources to be the self-realization of an individual; the condition for disclosure of actualization mechanisms proved to be an existential choice, and psychological formation that was caused by the updating mechanisms – resilience. The results of the empirical research showed that the motive of assessment of one’s own potential, the motive of volitional efforts, the intrinsic value, lability, cognition, tolerance to insolvability, openness to experience are the empirical basics of updating the mechanisms of psychological resources. We conducted the classification of updating mechanisms of psychological resources; according to which the mechanisms we mentioned above were described as motivational and reflexive mechanisms, which have a significant number of degrees of freedom and are localized in the self-realization processes, causing a transformation of personal possibilities into the reality. It was determined that the mechanisms of actualization of psychological resources cause both the changes in the levels of ability to operate the resources, and the changes in the level of the main components of psychological resourcefulness. Based on the survey results the author determined the following main mechanisms of actualization of self-realization resource of a person: the mechanism of revaluation of the principles, the mechanism of overcoming the dilemma, the mechanism of enabling a personal viewpoint. The actualization of psychological resources characterizes such a balance between the processes of personification and personalization in which the self-realization as a system that is capable to self-organization can be characterized as being productive.
Key words: psychological resources, psychological mechanisms, actualization of resources, self-fulfillment, lability, motive assess of its own potential, openness to experience, tolerance of undecidability, self-worth.
The article presents theoretical substantiation of psychological mechanisms of personal efficiency formation, one of which is a reflection, at different ontogenetic stages. It is shown that adequate, rea listic self-concept is directly related to reflection formation. The results of the study of ideal Me images for schoolchildren of 3-6 forms depending on their personal efficiency are analyzed. The article determines five group categories with which pupils describe an image of “a successful pupil”: generalized characteristics; characteristics of activities and behaviour; personality traits (this category was divided into two subgroups: 1) traits of a personality as a subject of learning that are important for learning activities; 2) personality traits that characterize a subject as a person); relationships with other people, other characteristics. The performed analysis of a “successful pupil” in relation with ideal Me shows: the image of a pupil with outstanding achievements in learning, with a wide repertoire of pupil skills and behavioural characteristics, having a range of features significant in the “I am a subject of learning” area as well as in the “I am a person” area is important for pupils. It should be noted that quantity and quality of generalized characteristics of a successful pupils varies with increasing of both children age and personal efficiency. The same trend is also stated for behavioural and activity characteristics of ideal Me. The article argues that the most essential, first of all qualitative, changes are presented in descriptions of personality traits of a successful pupils: “typical”, “standard” answers of third-form pupils are replaced by less categorical, but more detailed, psychologically grounded, reflective judgment at descriptions made by sixth-form pupils.
Key words: personal efficiency, image of ideal Me, reflection, generalized characteristics, characteristics of activities and behaviour, personality traits, relationships with others, subject of learning activities.
The article demonstrates that the scientific and theoretical analysis of national and foreign literature with respect to correlation between thinking and speech was carried out. The paper analyzed the specifics of the relationship of speech and intellect in the defect structure in the general underdevelopment of speech. The paper considers the problem of developmental disorders from the standpoint of structural organization dysontogenesis and concepts about the general and specific regularities of mental development. It described the issue of determining the leading defect in the structure of secondary violations and manifestations. It was compared the results of recent research scientists on the subject and made a generalization. There is shown a complex combination of speech disorders and cognitive functions among children with general underdevelopment of speech. It identified the need to separate leading defect and secondary manifestations in cases of infringement of intellectual, language development, disorders of emotional and volitional. The link between impaired speech development and the development of intellectual is fixed. The paper shows the need for differential diagnosis of existing pathologies of the child to determine among them leading disorder that needs urgent restore activities to achieve the proper effect in correctional developmental disorders. The paper identified the need to address the issue of differential deviations of informative sphere of children with the general underdevelopment of speech in order to plan the contents of correction and development work and pedagogically appropriate choice of means and methods, focus on personality characteristics of the individual child’s development. These data are summarized and presented in a descriptive comparison. It is defined the further research of the identified issue.
Key words: general speech underdevelopment, differentiated diagnostics, correlation between speech and intellectual development, primary and secondary defects, disorder’s structure.