The author analyzes the actual problem at different times of a personality’s leadership. The leadership is noted to be one of the most important functions of professional psychological competence of the personality, leading mediation mechanism of which is a special universal energy-information creation as poverty. Based on current scientific data in the context of genetic approach there have been distinguished five separate substructures (units) that can be considered as the main components of the leader’s personality: biopsychic, individual characteristics of mental processes, experience, direction, abilities. The author investigated that effective leadership is provided by the presence of individual leadership skills, such as individual and personal, social and psychological characteristics of personality that affect the group and lead to the goal. However, according to the results of numerous studies, «universal», in all cases, set of leadership qualities does not exist. Based on the research the following generalized characteristics of the managerleader’s personality are distinguished: the ability to perceive the common needs and problems of the controlled group, to assume that portion of the work to meet those needs and solve the problems that the rest of the team can not take them over; the ability to be the organizer of joint activity; sensitivity and insight, confidence in the people; representative inclinations: the leader is the spokesman of the members’ general positions for the staff; he is able to capture and express the general opinion of the staff of the important issues for them; the emotional and psychological impact; optimism means that leader is confident that most of the problems faced before people are solvable; his optimism brings to people faith in ourselves.
Key words: leadership, leader, manager-leader, function of the professional psychological competence of the personality, genetic approach, components of leader’s personality, leader behavior, authority, group, formation of the individual, leader qualities.
The article considers the results of empirical study aimed to reveal the correlation between humor and Me-concept of students. It was set that students which can understand humor and use it while their vital activity have precise tasks for future life way. It fills their life by meaning, precise orientation, future perspectives. They estimate the process of their own life as interesting, replete with emotions and meanings. On the contrary, the students which hardly understand humor and cannot use it while their vital activity life at the restricted frame of actual moment, have very diffuse tasks for future life way. They are unsatisfied with their actual life and disbelieve in their own power, in possibility to control their life events. The students which can use humor as defensive mechanism for stress overcoming and can create humor products themselves have adequate self-estimation, high level of self-control, positive self-image, can perceive themselves as socially wanted person. Meanwhile the students which hardly understand humor have critical and negative self-attitude; they are unsatisfied with their behavior, successes and feel dependence from external estimations and conditions. The students with high humor level are inclined to take the responsibility for their life events, explain them with their own behavior, character, abilities. These results are similar both for Russian and American students. Therefore national identity doesn’t influence on humor – Me-concept correlations.
Key words: humor, humorous reaction, personality, Me-concept, selfappraisal, life goals, subjective control, students.
UDC 159.922.1-055.2: 613.88-055.2
T.S. Aslanian, L.V. Pohromska
The analysis of modern scientific discourse showed that psychological fundamentals of sexuality and fundamentals of sexual relations aren’t understudied. It was deduced that sexuality exists on all levels of social reality, influences the processes of interaction and correlation processes of primary subjects of social system: personality, group and society (culture). In this regard it seems possible to study the phenomenon of sexuality on all commonly accepted evaluation levels in social psychology: on macrosocial level, on the level of intergroup cooperation, interpersonal interaction, intrapersonal level. There have been analyzed: psychoanalytical concepts of intergrated personality is emphasised and also the role of affective experince acquired in childhood in consequence of interaction with community; theories of social learning where the attention is devoted to certain social groups and expectations of members of certain social groups: family, school, friends; phenomenological concepts focus on subjective interpretation of events and situations. The bank of psychognostic methods is formed. Three groups of women are pointed out (married women; unmarried but in relationships; women who are tomporary single). The married women are revealed to be accustomed to: submission, experimentation, changing of an intimate partner; sexual scripts of this group: romantic, hedonistic, communicative. Unmarried women is peculiar in relationships to have fantasies about idyllic meeting and sexual assault, and also romantic and effective sexual scripts. It has been found out that experimenting, idyllical meeting prebirth and marketing scripts are usually chosen by single women.
Key words: sexuality, sexual script: romantic, prebirth, communicative, hedonistical, acquired, marketing, sexual fantasies: experimenting, submission, changing of a partner, love in, observation, sexual assault, idyllic meeting, sadomasochism.
O.V. Batsylieva, I.V. Puz
The article is devoted to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the social and psychological program of psychological support during pregnancy. The article envisages the features of psychological support for pregnant women as one of the means for psychoprophylaxis of possible deviations during the formation of maternal behavior. The main tasks of psychological work with women during pregnancy are defined. The comprehensive program of social and psychological support during pregnancy is developed and presented; it is aimed at prevention and correction of deviations in the formation of maternal behavior during pregnancy. The course program was offered to pregnant women, which, according to previous studies belonged to the risk group of occurring of possible violations in the formation of maternal behavior. Based on the results of experimental studies it is shown that the suggested social and psychological program allows, firstly, to stabilize the mental and physical condition of the pregnant woman; secondly, to form a strong emotional bond between mother and child at the stage of pregnancy; thirdly, to reduce the risk of potential violations in the formation of maternal behavior; fourthly, to prevent adverse effects on physical and mental development of the fetus and the unborn child; fifthly, to create optimal conditions for the harmonious development of the child from the earliest stages of ontogenesis.
Key words: pregnancy, maternal behavior, violation of maternal behavior during pregnancy, psychological maintenance of pregnancy, psychological and social program, the psychological characteristics of pregnant women at risk.
The article underlines the importance of children’s speech development, which influences strongly on the common psychological and personal development of the child. The deficit of hearing function at early childhood excludes the selfish children’s speech development and put the task of psychological and pedagogical correction. Therefore one of the prominent surdopsychological aim is speech formation of feebly hearing junior pupils. The analyses of actual studies on the problem showed that speech formation of feebly hearing junior pupils have the similar peculiarities with healthy children. This way includes the only mechanism of spoken language movements’ stereotypes formation, which arise on the base of conditioned reflex connections. The consequence of speech skills forming of both feebly hearing and healthy junior pupils consists of such stages as perception, imitation, reproduction, pronunciation. The children’s need of verbal communication and their abilities to imitation play the prominent role at the process of speech formation. The empirical data showed that 7% of feebly hearing junior pupils have the optimal speech development level, 20% – low level, 40% – limited level, 33% – very limited level. The experimental study revealed deep potential abilities of feebly hearing junior pupils to perception of spoken language. These abilities must be formed at the process of longtermed, purpose-oriented training with using of qualitative units to force the noise.
Key words: spoken language, hearing function, surdopsychology, spoken language, communicative and speech formation, perception of spoken language, hearing and visual perception.
There were revealed theoretical analysis of the problem of prostitution among minors. Considered motives entry of minors in the sex business, intrafamily, biomedical and information factors of tolerant attitudes of adolescents and youth to prostitution. Determined the feasibility of using training as a modern, efficient way of psychological working with minors, including deviant adolescents. Causes of deviant behavior of minors to be found in violation of their socialization process. Noted the need of creation of psychoprophylactic programs of prevention of involvement of minors in the sex industry. Psychocorrectional programs should be designed for the possibility of including them in the educational process, but also aimed at correcting inadequate representations of minors for prostitution, through the following objectives: to identify the social representations of the group members about the problem of adolescence and their own ideas about themselves as a personality; representations members of adulthood and the future life path analysis of representations of girls about the world, the formation of adequate ideas about the causes of prostitution, especially prostitution of minors, the definition of problems involving minors in prostitution, identifying the impact of prostitution, own position of participants on countering of prostitution of minors.
Key words: deviant teens, personality, psychological correction, psychoprophylaxis, prostitution of minors, sex industry, social perceptions, training.
The study of correlation between the cognitive style and specifics of learning features allows us to understand better the mechanisms of mental activity. Styles characterize intellectual activity at different stages. Such a cognitive style as fielddepence-fieldindepence is charactarized by selectiveness of attention and belongs to the group of cognitive affective styles. Stable diversity of prevailing perceptual strategies causes a diversity of educational activity. However, the style properties, influenced by specially organized learning, have a resource of mobility. In the process of learning, the purposeful evolvement of the ability to perform spontaneous intellectual control is important. According to the results obtained, we assume that subjectively specified ability of learning at the level of the individual experience or the theoretical foundation of gained experience combines with cognitive style parameters. During the investigation, we have found out that for solving puzzles about physics both verbal (applying conceptual apparatus) and nonverbal (imagination, creative thinking) intellect are required. Therefore, we assume that effectiveness of solving puzzles is caused by fast exchange of information between right and left hemispheres, because they are responsible for different strategies of thinking. Probably intelligence is a cognitive style, which appears to be a grade of complementarity of left hemisphere’s and right hemisphere’s thinking when solving non-standard intellectual tasks. Consequently, the most effective way of processing information for a student to some extent depends on his/her intellectual skills and cognitive style.
Key words: cognitive style, cycles of learning, intellectual ability.
The article envisages and studies the main components of professional stability in the context of professional development of future practical psychologist. The main tool of a psychologist’s influence, with the exception of learned knowledge and skills, is a personality. The analysis of the scientific literature revealed that the quality of psychological and professional stability characterized a mature person has a high level of intellectual and ethical culture, highly professional skills, ability to regulate their own mental states in different conditions. Within the theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of professional stability of a psychologist there have been identified the following main components: cognitive, motivational, behavioral, emotional and volitional. Our study highlighted the ways and methods of the future specialist’s professional stability formation. An introduced training «Optimization of the process of the future specialist’s professional stability formation» includes methods of humanistic and cognitive and behavioral therapy, as well as modern Gestalt technologies. Levels of the training covered the levels of behavior, abilities, capabilities, beliefs. Psychotherapeutic techniques become dominant notions of perfection, self-efficacy, authenticity, on which the concept of optimization of the training process of the professional stability formation is formulated: a person who believes in his success, seeks to more clearly articulate the mission in life and his attitude to life and become a genuine. As a result, the empirical study revealed positive changes in the levels of motivation, self-esteem, personality orientation, willingness to self-development of the future expert.
Key words: professional stability, motivation, personality orientation, humanistic psychotherapy, cognitive and behavioral therapy, Gestalt – therapy, self-esteem, self-development, self-realization.
UDC 316.455.:37.015.3 (075.8)
The paper envisages relevant aspects of psychological student’s personality formation in the educational process of higher educational pedagogical institution in future careers involving personal liability for the content and results of psychological influence, competence of the decisions relating to the health and psychological status of patients. It is emphasized that in the educational process of future psychologists training in order to form personality traits one should keep improving the efficiency of the educational process, the timely detection of problems, challenges and conditions of individual personal development, interpersonal relationships correction of all participants of educational process, preventing deviations in individual development and behavior. This training is a system aimed primarily at individual work with a man in order to maximize detection of creative abilities and the conditions of their development, promoting healthy lifestyles, overcoming crisis situations in life and so on. The transformation of modern education provides the transition from authoritarian disciplinary model of learning to learneroriented, based on the new teaching ethics, which changes the position of the students and teachers to communicate, determine the dominant form of educational communication dialogue, suggests new approaches to personal and professional formation of psychologist shape his professional paradigm of new requirements in the scope of personal values.
Keу words: interpersonal relationships, psychological comfort, moral and psychological climate, the educational process, psychological characteristics.
This paper presents the results of investigation of the correlation between the features of development of constituents of personality’s component of psychological readiness of heads at educational institutions to control teachers and a number of leaders’ social and demographic, organizational and professional characteristics. A diagnostic method «Express assessment of the effectiveness of the head» containing 30 components was used. These components were grouped into two groups that are associated with the attitude of heads of educational institutions to organization of the process of management of teaching staff as a whole and work with educators. Each group of managers’ components of individual and personal characteristics was revealed through certain levels of psychological readiness of heads at management of teaching staff: «basic», «situational-strategic», «personalized.» The results statistically demonstrate that heads’ individual and personal characteristics depend on their positions, general and administrative experience activities, as well as the sex and age of the managers. Most of the leaders of educational organizations stressed the importance of individual and personal characteristics that are associated with the heads’ attitude to the organization of management of teaching staff as a whole.
Key words: management on teachers, heads of educational institutions, personality’s component of psychological readiness of heads of educational institutions for the management on teachers.
In the article the analysis of psychological components of professional reliability is performed; three levels of professional reliability becoming are defined; the tasks of police officers’ psychological training are elucidated. Police officers’ professional reliability is their readiness to act according to the stable system, moral standards in different situations of interaction with minimal health damage. The basis for studying the professional reliability of special units personnel of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine should be classification and analysis of mistakes according to their features in external structure of activity from the point of view of a specific kind of operative-service task, stage and conditions of its fulfilling, regime of activity and deviation in order, sequence and outcome of its accomplishment. Professional reliability evaluation of a specialist should be carried out taking into account both individual peculiarities of a specific person and group characteristics of the specialists of certain activity within special unit of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. The analysis of the problem under investigation indicates the failure of the problem of occupational safety of the individual in becoming future expert system that reflects the system of law enforcement, which is of particular statutory and there is a need to develop a special system of professional development and predicting of the professional reliability of law enforcement.
Key words: professional reliability, functional reliability, psychological providing, fallibility of action, professional and psychological training.
UDC 159.9 : 316.77
The paper presents the methodological outline of psychological analysis of the communicative situation. The purpose of the study is to define the sequence of psychological analysis and procedures of its structural components functioning. In the article the author discloses the sequence analysis of the communicative situation. It begins with the description of the original statement: list of participants, time, place, type, content, and objectives of the communicative situation. The second stage aims at studying the actions of participants in the communicative act; principles of cooperation, nature of communication, and behavior strategies are taken into account. An integral feature of the communicative situation is verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication. Analysis of the verbal speech techniques is the third stage and it provides for a description of language, discourse, verbal influence techniques, and ability to listen. Facial expressions, movements, gestures, tone, distance, position, and psychological atmosphere of communication are analyzed as non-verbal communication means. The next stage of the analysis focuses on the psychological characteristics of communication. It includes analysis of emotional, volitional, communicative, and ethical qualities required during communication. The final stage is the study of communication as a process, namely, the flow of the communicative act, specifics, and dynamics of communication. Destructive behavioral patterns are identified, and ways to correct them are clarified on the basis of the communicative situation analysis.
Key words: communicative situation, psychological analysis, discourse-analysis, conversational analysis, interactive analysis, narrative analysis.
N.Y. Hotsuliak, O.V. Babeliuk
The article is a review of methodological foundations of the problem of self-analysis in general and in particular professional. The problem is based on the theoretical analysis of the literature. The experimental research of the description of different types of self-analysis is conducted, and their content and devices are defined. So, professional self-analysis can be determined as independent self-realization which is reached through the process of self-development. Many different ways were used for description of this aspect; but we have resumed that the problem of the professional self-analysis is very popular now. Grounds for using of application of psychosemantic methods to the research of managers’ consciousness were proved. Research groups with low, medium and high level of development of self-analysis were highlighted. Statutory performance levels of self-analysis were determined by the methods. Based on the descriptive statistics obtained by these methods, the estimation of normality description of data across all scales techniques and the correspondence between test scores and levels of self-analysis were investigated. The article also deals with the analysis of the following approaches to the concept of identity, namely: philosophic and psychological, anthropological, psychoanalytical, behavioural, approach of symbolic interactionalism, constructive, existential-humanistic, philosophic-cultural, social, socialpsychological, acmeological. Also the concepts of identity, identification, identifying are reviewed.
Key words: methodology, determination, self-analysis, professional self-actualization, the psychological factor, individuals, improvement, professionalizm.
The article considers the relevance of staff devotion to the organization of civil servants whose activity has certain characteristics (oversaturation of contacts, a great responsibility, relatively low wages, etc.). The author analysed theoretical literature of foreign, Russian and Ukrainian scientists related to the problem. With the purpose of determining the levels of devotion to the organization of civil servants 25 employees of Kamianets-Podilskyi City Council were investigated. Such methods were used in our research “Questionnaire with open questions”, authored by Ohotnytska K.Y. and method “Organizational Commitment” authored by V.O.Rozanova. The research made it possible to reveal that employees of public service understand the devotion as a good faith performance of professional responsibilities and interesting work, satisfaction from performed work in a particular organization. In our research according to respondents’ answers four groups of conditions which have an influence on the formation of staff devotion to the organization were identified. According to the results of the method of “”Organizational Devotion” authored by V.O.Rozanova we can come to the conclusion that the low level of staff devotion to the organization of civil servants is dominated (72%) and the average level of staff commitment to the organization of civil servants (16%) is also found. The received results testify the need for developing practical recommendations for increasing the level of staff devotion to the organization of civil servants.
Key words: devotion, personnel, staff, organization, levels of devotion, a civil servant, the City Council.
The article offers theoretical and practical analysis of the issue of volitional effort in the regulation of motor activity in adolescents. The urgency of the problem is considered; the feasibility of mastering techniques for the conscious mobilization and deactivation of motor activity in adolescents is given a description. The role of volitional effort in the regulation of motor activity is subjected to investigation based on the perception of activity regulating systemic mechanism. Theoretical sources on the subject of a critical analysis with the views of the scholars associated with the research context taken into account, namely those of І.М. Sechenov, І. Pavlov, А.К.Anokhin, N.А.Bernstein, V.P.Zinchenko, О.А.Konopkin, V.K. Kalina were given. Experimental work available in the reference sources to date was reviewed, as the efficiency of the motor mechanisms was in relation to mental regulation. Assertions that the exercise of volitional effort constantly being the product of conscious regulation aimed at the achievement of the required mental functions most appropriate to the activity objectives are substantiated. The theoretical and practical significance of the paper lies in the research of the age-related volitional effort aimed to improve the mechanism of functionally differently organized motor actions. Findings of the paper regarding the ontogenetic development of the mobilizing and deactivating features of the volitional effort in theoretical terms enable our approach to the perception of the formation mechanisms of mental regulation
Key words: mental regulation, motor activity, action, activity, volitional effort, volitional regulation, adolescent, gender, identity.
V.I. Dokash, L.A. Onufriieva, I.L. Rudzevych
The article envisages the phenomenon of “socialization” as a process of the personality’s acquisition of social experience, standards and behaviors in social space. There have been defined the phases, mechanisms and forms of individual transformation in the social subject. The role of intercourse as a form of transfer of individual culture, social norms and values of society is studied. The socialization is found to be an important mechanism for personality’s entering in the society, its development and implementation of various social roles and gaining status. It is a double-sided process, where the personality, on the one hand, learns the culture of the society, on the other – shares with them its individual culture. The socialization is shown to distinguish two mechanisms of person’s integration in a social system: proper socialization, where the basic parameters of the personality and social control as preventing deviations from existing standards of behavior in society are formed by means of cultural patterns. The socialization is established to be divided into primary (formation of personality structures) and secondary (identification of the individual with the universality) according to stages. The process of socialization is proved to have two forms: social adaptation (adaptation of the individual to the norms and values of society) and interiorization (the process of formation of internal structures of the human psyche, transferring of the elements of the environment in the inner “Me”). It was concluded that one of the main mechanisms of socialization is intercourse, since it is not only the interchange of cultures, but also the control of the level of personality’s mastering the social standards.
Key words: society, socialization, social environment, social experience, social roles, social values, intercourse, social relations, interiorization, resocialization, intercourse.
The article presents a theoretical overview of the current approaches to understanding of the concept «coping» in psychology, coping strategies and their characteristics in adolescence. The results of empirical research of adolescent coping strategies’ features as they are exhibited in relation to their social and psychological status in the classroom, the level of communication, organizational habits and perceptions of class group types (individualistic, collectivist and pragmatic). We found that the studied teens mainly have low indicators of using coping strategies such as self-control, decision accountability and planning to solve the problem. There is an average propensity to use confrontational coping and positive exaggeration as coping strategies. At the same time there were quite high levels of stability to coping strategies such as distancing, finding social support and escape/avoidance. Also we have found that the studied adolescents with high social and psychological status in the class are associated with the highest levels of inclination toward coping strategies such as confrontational coping, self-control, finding social support, and problem solution planning. On the other hand, adolescents with a low social and psychological status in class are characterised by a very pronounced tendency toward the «Escape – avoidance» coping strategy. A number of recommendations for school psychologists working with teenage students were provided based on the results of empirical research.
Key words: coping strategies, adolescence, social psychological status of adolescence in the classroom, organizational and communication inclination, attitude to class types.
The article underlines the importance of characteristic of psychological correction which could differentiate it with pedagogical, sociological etc. correction. The study is urgent for pedagogical psychology. The article presents the results of determination of psychological correction principles of teenager’s asocial behavior and the results of considering the organizational components of this psychological correction. The psychological correction is one of the main directions of the practical psychologist’s activity, a kind of psychological assistance, which includes active, purposeful influence onto personal, behavioral, intellectual level of psychological development. The principles of organization of teenager’s asocial behavior psychological correction were determined. These are the principles of specializing (making allowance for the kind of teenager’s asocial behavior), differentiation and complexity (collaboration between psychologist, pedagogue, medical man etc.), developmental approach (not only elimination of disorders but teenager’s personal development through the satisfaction of his self-affirmation need). It was showed that the organization of psychological correction on teenager’s asocial behavior need the practical psychologist’s resource base which includes the personal and professional, informational and cognitive, diagnostic and analytical, technological components. The future study will be aimed to working out the practical psychologist’s resource base in spite of the kind of teenager’s asocial behavior.
Key words: asocial behavior, teenager, psychological correction, specializing, differentiation and complexity, developmental approach, resource base.
- V. Dutkevych, T.A. Panchyshyna
The article underlines the importance of psychological and pedagogical, communicative and speech competence for modern agrarian sphere manager. The investigation on future agrarian sphere specialist’s communicative and speech preparing is one of the important joint tasks both for the psychology and language methodic. The main criteria of the high level of students communicative and speech preparedness is the dialogue trend of different their functions and psychological content management situations. The technology of students communicative and speech preparing consists of five stages, such as primary diagnosis, planning, implementation, secondary diagnosis, results analyses. The primary diagnosis showed that 19,7% of students have the high communicative and speech preparedness level, 50,0% of students have the average level, 30,3% of students have the low level. The implementation of technology of students communicative and speech preparing consists of the fulfilling by students the system of exercises on management situations modeling by means of foreign language. The secondary diagnosis showed the reducing of number of experimental group students with low level of communicative and speech preparedness (from 33,3% to 15,0%), the increasing of number of students with average and high levels (respectively from 50,0% tо 66,7% and from 16,7% tо 34,8%). Accordingly the conclusion about effectiveness of probed technology of students communicative and speech preparing was made.
Key words: management activity, communicative and speech preparing, agrarian sphere manager, primary diagnosis, planning, implementation, secondary diagnosis, results analyses.
N.I. Zhyhailo, R.I. Karpinska
The article deals with the professional and spiritual manager formation. The article singles out activity professionalism and professionalism of the manager’s personality. Theoretical principles and approaches to the determining of manager’s professionalism are systematized. The psychological mechanisms of professional skills of manager’s personality are proposed, the model of manager’s spiritual becoming is represented, the psychological training of the future manager’s spiritual formation is developed. The dynamics of functional and effective psychological mechanisms of future leaders’ professionalism in the educational process of higher educational institution is studied. The background is determined by the importance of the professionalism in social and individual existence of the subject. The rights are related with professional capacity in the selected case, self-realization of its creative possibilities, the quality of life in general. Without studying the formation and development of content and structural characteristics of psychological mechanisms professionalism cannot develop the methodological and theoretical positions with respect to education and training, it is able to efficiently carry out their professional practice in the rapidly changing socio-cultural situations. The working out of the conceptual model of manager’s professionalization is linked to the nature of the theoretical basis of manager’s professionalism, levels of development, the educational process aimed at transforming the functional mechanisms of psychologist’s professionalism.
Key words: professional, professionalism of activity, professionalism of a personality, professional qualities of a manager, a model of a manager’s spiritual formation, psychological training, thematic plan of a special course.
This article analyzes the influence of semantic tasks of motor actions on the expression of psychomotor qualities of the subject of activity. The sense tasks of motor actions are established to be critical to their implementation. According to the content of the tasks functional authorities are able to provide certain motor achievement. It is proved that actions are similar by individual characteristics with different semantic tasks, at different ways they contribute to the manifestation of psychomotor components of quality power. It is experimentally confirmed that the performance between the various manifestations of human speed there is weak relationship. It is proved that the semantic task with the manifestation of the power and speed endurance have different psychomotor mechanisms. The results of experimental studies give reason to believe that individuals who had higher results when performing a task force – to show the maximum static strength performance in the semantic task – to show the maximum dynamic force results shown below. The semantic content of the task determines what links will be included in a functional body, providing an achievement. It is suggested that the ability to realize one of the semantic task to some extent reduces the possibility of another entity to implement the semantic task. The ability to realize one of the tasks of semantic manifestation of a particular component of psychomotor money is in a difficult opportunity for the subject to show him another component. For example, in some subjects more opportunities show static strength, while others – dynamic.
Key words: sense task, motor acts as a psychomotor functional bodies, psychological mechanisms, strength, speed and endurance, semantic content, psychomotor mechanisms.
The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the content and structure of social representations of the body among adolescence and early adulthood, performed using the prototypical analysis of Vergès. The study showed that in the modern culture the human embodiment is estimated on the basis of aesthetic rather than functional categories. Using this method was able to identify that the modern culture of human embodiment is rated according to its compliance with the standard specified social person’s appearance, rated on a «aesthetic» scale – a fashionable, slim, beautiful, etc. Functionality facilities of embodiment – the power, performance, flexibility, endurance, etc. pale into insignificance by interpreting aesthetic categories, or do not appear at all. Furthermore, in the study we found, that the significance and central element of the core zone of social representations of the body is slim. According to a number of foreign researchers, thin-ideal internalization is factor associated with the deformation of representations of the body and risk of eating disorders. This element in youth group is in the core zone, and in the teenage group – in the area of potential change (peripheral system) with conventional research and in the nuclear area in the study of with instruction substitution. Identified age features of social representations of the body reveal the most optimal period of prevention of deformation of body image and eating disorders, which is just adolescence.
Key words: social representation, structural approach, central core theory.
Beata A. Zięba
The article discusses the importance of the proper value hierarchy in the lives of alumni of foster care institutions on their aspirations in life which are motivation, which gives strength to meeting the needs, which they regard as necessary to feel safe, happily. The satisfaction of these needs gives selfesteem and self-actualization. The formation of determined values system has the primary importance in the upbringing process. Values as the peculiar criterion of choosing human activities determine aims, desires, needs and promote person in the realization of creative human potential. Children and young people brought up in foster care institutions often has had painful life experiences related to disturbed and even pathological parental influence of the generational family environment. This unfavorable modeling (among others resulting from such factors as: educational failure of parents, economic failure, domestic violence, neglect of education, poor personal culture of parents, mental illness or disability, addiction, breaking the law, prostitution, sexual promiscuity, low moral level and others) has a major impact on the decision about placing children in institutions where these children are subject to special care, their individual needs are diagnosed. Some actions should be made, which lead to the proper development of physical, mental and satisfy their needs with simultaneous preparing for the best possible start for adult life. The correct forming of moral basis, hierarchy of the vital values and corresponding imitation models may serve to encourage desirable vital inquiries and needs in the capacity of preparing for the adult life.
Key words: values, aspirations, morality, orphan, pupil, family, upbringing, education, imitation models, pathologies, self-actualization, vital inquiries.
The author presents the issues in focus of legal activity subject formation. The thesis enriches and elaborates theoretical understanding of legal activity psychological structure and social-psychological peculiarities of its subject, conceptual specificity of subjectivity formation in the process of professional training at higher educational institution. The concept of the genesis of the subject was developed for the future lawyer. The formation of law-student’s subjectivity at higher educational institution is considered as the result of introduction of subject-dimensional paradigm of professional training organization which involves the formation of students’ study educational area being culturally appropriate, psychological and pedagogical projection of which displays all levels of public legal awareness and activity. A model of subjectivity of a future lawyer in a higher educational institution was created, on the base of which there has been developed and tested technology of the future lawyers’ subjectivity in the process of acquiring basic psychological knowledge, development of vocational and psychological competencies and learning basic psychological technologies legal activities. The psychological determinants of future lawyer’s subjectivity formation at higher educational institution are: the reproduction of legal activity psychological structure in teaching-professional activity; the educational process construction including qualitative characteristics of the system; the reflection of educational and professional activity in the system of educational tasks of general architectonics; the creation of educational forms and technologies system; the acquisition of basic competencies; the learning of legal activity psychological technologies.
Key words: educational training, organization and activity game, educational field, psychological service, psychological technologies of legal activity, subject, technology, educational and professional activity, educational aim.
O.B. Yehorova, H.S. Kyzym, T.S. Fesenko
The main approaches and definitions of the notion of spirituality, spiritual potential and some negative emotional states existing nowadays in the contemporary science are considered in the article. The analysis of the psychological theories concerning the studies of the above mentioned phenomena was fulfilled. It was defined that the investigation of the peculiarities of manifesting the spiritual potential and its psychological components in the course of the family communication is extremely far from being quite enough. It was cleared up in the course of our research that only 4% of our senior schoolchildren manifest the level of the spiritual potential high enough for their age (graduates of the rural schools prevail over the graduates of the urban schools). The low and middle level of the spiritual potential is inherent for the 18% and 78% of the senior pupils, correspondingly). Young people with «high spirituality level» manifest negative emotional states to the less degree (anxiety, inferiority complex and hostility). For the senior schoolchildren with the low level of the spiritual potential the most typical emotional states in their families are negative ones; they can be witnessed much more often (the inferiority complex and the feeling of hostility in their household situations – to the greater extent). The indices of hostility prevail in all the groups. It may be connected with the hostile picture of the world in the eyes of schoolchildren and requires the additional research. On the whole the following tendency takes place: the lower is the level of the spiritual potential of the young men, the more manifested are their negative emotional states in different family situations. The perspectives of the further investigations are also presented in the article.
Key words: spirituality, components of spirituality, spiritual potential, levels of spiritual potential, spiritual values, negative emotional states, personality, schoolchildren of juvenile age.
UDC 159.947 : 2 – 144.5
In the article a pragmatic assessment of religious ways of overcoming difficulties is given. It was found that the tendency of adult efforts to involve God to solve the problems associated with positive changes only in the emotional sphere – believers experiencing peace and confidence. Despite the dominance of individuals with positive self-image, who cooperate with the highest power, we notice decrease in self-esteem and self-acceptance in them. Strict adherence to religious teachings on how to overcome difficulties, accompanied, however, the appearance of rigidity behavior. It becomes more difficult for a person to adequately respond to the changing situation. Pragmatic evaluation of negative type of religious ways of overcoming difficulties indicates predominately negative consequences for the individual. It was found that the faithful easily gets into depressed mood and desire to respond to changing situations disappears quickly. Persons emphasize negative aspects of self-image, the level of self-esteem and selfacceptance gets lower. The most useful change for the individual will be observed in the cases where believers will effectively combine different ways of overcoming religious behavior – cooperation with God the revaluation of His omnipotence. Adult Christians will be characterized by elation, positive self-perceptions and behavioral flexibility, which provide fast and adequate response to the situation.
Key words: religious coping strategies, pragmatic assessment, mood, self-esteem, self-acceptance and flexibility.
O.Y. Ivanashko, N.K. Vichalkovska
The article deals with peculiarities of future teachers’ psychological readiness to work with children with special educational needs within the inclusion. The diversity of approaches in studying of readiness to pedagogical activity is examined and readiness criteria of future teachers to work with children with special educational needs are pointed out. The effectiveness of professional and psychological training, aimed at optimizing the development process of components of psychological readiness to the students-teachers’ future professional activity is shown. Psychological conditions of increasing students’ level of emotional and psychological activity, interest in future professional activity, declining of tension, sense of discomfort from choosing the future speciality, frustration level lowering, formation of openness, personal psychological barrier lowering, increasing of self-control, self-confidence as a teacher are defined. The theoretical approaches to the study of psychological readiness are displayed. It is mentioned that the successful formation of the personality’s professionalism and future professionals’ activity are based on their readiness to work. The leading component of professional activity readiness is established to be the psychological readiness, which is understood by scholars as a complex psychological formation, as a fusion of functional, operational and personal components. The study outlines the motivational and purpose aspect of psychological readiness, suggesting that the most significant characteristics of psychological readiness for the professional activity are reflected in the motivational area. There have been made an attempt to study the characteristics of motivational, emotional and volitional and operational spheres of students.
Key words: readiness, training, children with special educational needs, professional activity.
In the article there have been analyzing the results obtained in the process of adolescents and youths’ Internet addiction defining through a survey of their parents. There have been defining the differences in obtained indices depending on sex, age, place of residence, level of education, work experience in the Internet, and in any full-parent family brought people who were assessed. There have been determining specific features of Internet addiction manifestation and its impact on the development of a young man in particular adaptation, socialization, communication, success of educational activities, interaction with relatives and friends. The majority of parents were found not to notice in their children’s behavior the symptoms of Internet addiction, but some of them noticed symptoms which can be attributed to the border, and an even smaller fraction indicated signs of severe addiction. The author revealed statistically significant gender differences in the resulting indicators, however, such differences were observed when comparing the figures taking into account the age of children. So, depending on the signs there were largely seen parents of older adolescents, whereas they are less pronounced in boys. The comparison of indicators made possible to establish significant differences. Depending on signs of more isolated parents of children living in regional centers there were noticed signs of less pronounced villagers.
Key words: Internet addiction, addict, addictive behavior, personal strain, disadaptation, conflict, isolation, inferiority complex.
UDC 316.6 : 316.35
The article envisages the system of social and psychological determinants of gender groups’ ingroup favoritism, which consists of personal characteristics of intergroup perception and interaction; the characteristics of groups, which are participating in the interaction; the situation of inter-group interactions. Among the personal characteristics there are psychological sex, gender identity, gender representation of self-concept, gender stereotypes about in-groups and out-groups; the level of identification with gender in-group; measure of «typicality» of a member of gender group. The characteristics of groups, which are participating in the interaction, include social status of gender in-groups and out-groups; gender norms and roles requirements for members of each gender group; the level of in-group and out-group homogeneity; the permeability of in-group borders. It is shown that the favorable position of in-groups and out-groups in the intergroup interaction situation is displayed with the tendency to explain socially undesirable behavior of in-group’s members with the help of external factors and socially desirable behavior – with the internal. The opposite position takes place the interpretation of out-group’s success. In the situation with gender groups the logic interpretation is reflected at gender stereotypes concerning outgroups’ members. Situation of intergroup interaction consists of social norms toward gender equality; the size of gender in-group and out-group, which were directly involved in the interaction; the level of competition between gender groups; distribution of positive resources between gender groups; favorable position of in-group or out-group.
Key words: in-group favoritism, gender groups, masculinity, femininity, gender stereotypes, gender norms and roles.
L.M. Kobylnik, T.A. Katkova
According to the survey results, we found differences in need-motivational sphere of students, indicated the degree of dissatisfaction with the current situation in life, inner conflict, blockade needs of a happy family life, love and health. Specialists’ estimated future relations to themselves occur on the basis of experiences outside the rational aspects of consciousness. Experienced emotional states, feelings affect the various activities of the test as well and training. Mismatch values and their availability are the factors of inhibition rates of students’ self-actualization. According to the results of the procedure E. Fantalova we determined that availability of knowledge is greater than its value for future psychologists and educators. The opportunity to expand their education, philosophy, general culture and intellectual development is not enough challenge for the university students. Analysis of creative works of students showed that, firstly, for the near future mainly for most of them there is the completion of training at the university. Secondly, after graduation respondents are planning to find a decent job, find their place in society, to be realized. Thirdly, they plan to establish a personal life: a family, give birth and raise children. But for this, according to respondents, everything must be done to ensure a normal childhood to a new generation, that is to have some stability (political, economic, social, and material). We see the prospects for further studies in the development and testing of training practical self-knowledge, to energize the process of formation of values, to improve students’ emotional state, identifying promising life and professional goals.
Key words: motivation, personality, self-actualization, self-determination, the meaning of life, social life orientation, student age, values, value orientations.
Іn the paper we described the main aspects of men’s readiness to the birth of the child. The aim of the work is to examine the characteristics of psychological readiness of men for fatherhood. In paper the problem of human’s perception of child’s birth was examined. The main method of this work is a systematic approach in psychology as a means of knowledge organization concerning the stated topic of the article. The basic signs of men’s readiness for the birth of a child were identified. Men’s capability for high level of responsibility and of taking care about women and expected child is main indication of readiness for fatherhood. The conception of pregnant couple as energetic and psychological integrity was examined. Necessary changing of perception expected parents depends on such factors as psychological maturity and correspondence to gender patterns. Period of pregnancy is a «training» in men’s perception, it allows to custom for an idea of the fatherhood and father’s role. The consequences of unpreparedness to the status of fatherhood attainment are revealed. The list of some aspects of the men’s relationship to a pregnant partner/wife is presented. Common attitude to pregnancy is also important. Unwillingness to be a father can cause intense emotional and physiological stresses and can provoke situation of conflict inside family system. Behavioral characteristics of men’s waiting for the child’s birth were revealed. Men’s behavior in pregnant couple changes in dramatic way: they became more responsible, more stable, with less inclination for risk. The materials of this paper may be used by family psychologists for better men’s preparation for fatherhood.
Key words: fatherhood, an idea of fatherhood, a readiness to have a child, unwillingness to be a father, attitudes toward pregnancy.
Some psychological peculiarities of a coronary-prone type of the personality (with behavior of A type), in particular, high emotionality, aggressiveness, hostility, motivation for the achievements, are described. The behavioral pattern of A type is believed to be based on intense ambitions to control external events; this behavior is a coping response for the threat of losing control. Results of the studies of changes in the parameters of the autonomous nervous system and EEG under conditions of resolving of different behavioral tasks in persons of types A and B are described. It is emphasized that subjects of type A demonstrate, in general, higher intensity of arousal responses; this is manifested in significant rises of the heart rate, level of the systolic blood pressure, increases in the LF component of the cardiointervalogram, blood plasma level of adrenaline, and also in desynchronization of EEG frequency components, etc. The manifestations of activation of the sympathoadrenal system in persons of types A and B were found to be affected by psychological peculiarities, situational variables (stimulus type and difficulty of the task, age and gender specificities) and are dependent even on the type of psychodiagnostic instruments. It should be recognized that estimates of the number, direction, and intensity of physiological shifts in «coronary-type» persons are controversial in many cases. Models and theories interpreting the psyhophysiological reactivity of the type-A behavioral pattern are described. The main vulnerability of the publish data on the A/B types is related to the theoretical weakness and imperfectness of this construct and also to the absence of the valid theory interpreting the discrepancies between results.
Key words: Type-A behavior pattern, coronary-prone type of the personality, physiological reactivity, arousal, EEG, heart rate, spectrum of the cardiointervalogram.
UDC 159.9 : 37.047
The analysis of theoretical approaches to the study of the psychomotor of the personality, including its psychomotor skills was made. Psychomotor was reviewed in general and in the context of different spheres of activity. We singled out the psychomotor abilities in different kinds of occupations, such as «man–man», «man–nature», «man–technology», «mansign system», «man-artistic image». We analyzed the psychological study of professional activity in order to identify individual requirements for the person and the requirements for the professionally important qualities (properties, functions, etc.) of a person. The degree of importance of individual peculiarities for effective execution of activity was estimated. We consider the professional activity of workers of different professions that require the usage of a wide range of knowledge, intellectual skills, good imagination, memory, thinking, attention, and for solution of specific tasks with considerable variation of goals and conditions of activity needed psychomotor abilities. Psychograms, in which psychomotor qualities are presented, which are professionally important for this profession are reviewed. Psychomotor of the worker plays an important role in execution of professional activity, because the development of motor skills indicates his professional suitability. Modern scientific and technological progress requires formation for the opportunities of restructuring of psychomotor skills of workers.
Key words: psychomotor, psychomotor qualities, psychomotor acts, psychomotor abilities, psychogram, professiogram, human activity, types of occupations.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the social development essence of a personality in early youth age. The content and structure of the training «Psychological foundations of social development of a personality in early youth age» are presented. The purpose of the training is preparing of senior pupils to future social life on the basis of social norms and values, improvement of socially valuable qualities and patterns of social behavior, enabling the young person to navigate in life situations. Training included six sections. Section 1: The concept of social development and social self-determination of a personality in early youth age. Section 2: Take responsibility for myself. Section 3: Building trust relations. Section 4: The development of tolerance: we learn to understand and appreciate the differences. Section 5: A way to the agreement, effective intercourse in conflict. Section 6: The creation of an effective team, commitment to the norms and values of the team. Informative and developmental components of each of the six sections of the training are described, requirements to the level of general education of personality in early youth age are found. The training was tested in secondary schools. An approbation of the training «Psychological foundations of social development of a personality in early youth age» showed the expediency of its use in secondary schools. In the process of approbation the training succeeded to actualize the need for social self-determination, which indicates the achieving of high level of social development of personality in early youth age.
Key words: training, social development of a personality in early youth age, social valuable qualities.
A.I. Kurytsia, D.I. Kurytsia
The article considers the results of the research, which are aimed at the appointing of types of leader’s qualities development with regard to features of students’ responsibility. The integrative factors of development of the responsibility and other leader’s features of students on base of standardized methodologies were specified for the research. The correlation of the factors, which were got, gave a possibility to differentiate 5 main types of the personality, with dependence on the arrangements of evidence of leader’s features and responsibility: passive and irresponsible leader, individualistic leader, situational leader (quasileader), potential leader and responsible leader. The type of Potential leader is the biggest. Factorization of all factors allowed to prove the function of the responsibility as a systemic feature with regard to the leader’s qualities of students. The study proved that the correlation between groups with features of responsibility’s relationships and other leader’s qualities coincides with the correlation between students’ groups with different levels of responsibility and other leader’s qualities in accordance with the number of respondents. The purpose of the article is to cover the results of research aimed at identifying the types of leader’s qualities development in connection with the peculiarities of students’ responsibility; the aim of the article was achieved. It is concluded that the results of the study suggest that leader’s qualities and the students’ responsibility components are closely interrelated. Based on the data the types of leader’s qualities development in connection with the peculiarities of students’ responsibility are defined.
Key words: leadership, leader’s qualities, responsibility, passive and irresponsible leader, individualistic leader, responsible leader, potential leader, situational leader (quasileader).
This article presents investigation of the problem of marketing specialists’ professional thinking and considers different approaches to the definition of professional thinking in psychology. On the basis of content analysis this research paper defines professional thinking as an essential component of a specialist’s profession skill, which provides successful realization of professional tasks, making of original decisions in a certain area of activity, and which implements a person’s competence under conditions of his/her professional growth. The author reveals the special aspects of marketing activity, as well as a marketing specialist’s qualities of psychological significance: creativity, curiosity, vivid imagination, observation, communication skills, ability to make decisions in unusual situations, developed intuition etc. This article highlights the components of a marketing specialist’s professional thinking: motivational (a person’s perception of his/her choice of profession, readiness to upgrade his/her level of proficiency and willingness for self-improvement); informative (describes the level of professional skills); reflective (a person’s ability to analyze his/her activity); creative (ability to find special and original solutions for professional tasks). The paper reveals the psychological features a marketing specialist’s professional thinking: analyticity, strategic importance, integrity, consistency, ergonomical characteristics, creative insight, inventiveness and creativity.
Key words: professional thinking, marketing activities, marketing specialist, psychological characteristics of professional thinking, creative thinking.
In this article the ratio of the two mechanisms of mental regulation of human behaviour of stress situations is examined: overcoming and psychological protections. Overcoming is defined as the deliberate course of unconscious psychological protection or conscious behavioural efforts to address externally-internal conflicts. The article is devoted to the analysis of the representation of the employees of the State penal service of three basic models of coping behaviour (adaptive, pseudonegative and desadaptive) and expressiveness of the functioning of the mechanisms of psychological protection for clarification features of socio-psychological adaptation of these specialists. The study revealed that specialists with an adaptive model of stress behaviour are inherent with high level of adaptation, selfacceptance, the acceptance of others, emotional comfort, internality. The employees with pseudonegative model of coping behaviour are defined with average level of adaptation, acceptance of others, the desire to dominate and escapism (propensity to avoid solving problems). Specialists with nonadaptable model response to stress are characterized by a medium level of adaptation, acceptance of others, internality and escapism, medium and low level of self-acceptance, the desire to dominate, emotional discomfort. The rule was established according to which, the least likely to use four psychological defense mechanisms, such as exclusion, regression, substitution and compensation of employees of the State penal service with adaptive model of coping behaviour, moderately with pseudonegative model and the most-desadaptation model response in stressful situations.
Key words: coping strategies, mechanisms of psychological protection, adaptation, the employees of the State penal service, stress.
In the article the modern psychological approaches to the concept of «civism» are analysed in the context of personality’s civil development. The peculiarity of Ukrainian psychological discourse of the concept of civism is studied to be the combination of psychological and pedagogical views to this concept. Thus, the pedagogical opinions in a certain measure do the psychological understanding of civism in some way washed out and indefinite. It is concluded that civil development is the difficult process of quality social and psychological and personality changes, and the formation of personality’s integral psychological quality – civism is the result and the criterion. In such context it becomes possible to separate the phenomena, which touch the process of civil development (psychological conformities to law, mechanisms, features and others like that) and those which belong to the results of this development, they are descriptions and internals of civism. In addition, the process of civil development provides that the content of civism will change both on quality and after quantitative indexes on every age-old stage. On condition of structural civil development the indexes of civism will acquire more rich meaning, on condition of destructive development (violations of processes of socialization and personality development) civil internals can not be formed at all, or not enough expressed.
Key words: psychological discourse, personality, civil development, civism, civil consciousness.
- S. Maksymenko
The author analyzes that the issue of personal psychotherapy in modern medical psychology puts from the scientific point of view an actual question about the specifics of the full multi-dimensional model of a healthy «Me» as the foundation of psychotherapeutic work with patients/clients. The researcher emphasizes that the multidimensional personal «Me», is cognizing and being cognized, in the scientific research approach to psyche made W. James, stands one of the most important paradigms of personal psychotherapy in modern medical psychology. Psychotherapy as the main component in the overall structure of clinical psychology, in the coexistence of two models, with different methodologies in the implementation of the study and creation of psychological methods of impact on the human psyche with the medical and practical goal should be based on psychological studies of personal «Me». It is concluded that the methodology and psychotechnics of personal «Me» reconstruction in various clinical diseases spectrum should be based on understanding of peculiarities of the cognitive, emotional, behavioral components of system attitudes toward the disease; on the knowledge of health psychology and features of personality resources of a man with a disease; on understanding the correlation between clinical, psychophysiological, psychological mechanisms of personality disorders in the choice of appropriate techniques of personality oriented and symptomatic psychotherapy.
Key words: methodology, psychotechnics, reconstruction of personal «Me», diseases of various spectrum, psychotherapy, cognitive, emotional, behavioral component, health psychology, personality disorders.
The article focuses on the actual problem of the social and psychological adaptation of students to the conditions of the professional education. The author analyzes different aspects of this multisided personality process. Different kinds of adaptation, their influence on the process of the future acquisition of the social role are examined. In the article, the review of the modern approaches to the study of adaptive abilities of a person and prevention of negative aspects is given. Much attention is drawn to the individuality of the adaptive processes, their strong bonds with a person’s genotype. The influence of the social and psychological adaptation on the formation of the motivations of occupation acquisition and the realization of the tasks of forming the professional qualifications are stated. The possibilities of the removal of deindividuation and disadaptation in the educational process are revealed. The ways of overcoming the difficulties of the professional formation are suggested.
Key words: adaptive process, personality adaptation, communicative adaptation, socio-value adaptation, selective adaptation, deindividuation adaptation, disadaptation.
The research of the problem of subjectness is impossible without study of the formation and discursive features unconscious mechanisms. Psycholinguistics and its methods show how the form of expression distorts and sets specific aspect of meaning. Events like the components of experience in the practice of psychotherapy have the effect of meaning and occur in human being in a problem situation, which is fixed in the speech forms used by the subject. The Singular Event has nature of the Nonsense, therefore is carried out the production of meaning, the formation of identity and subjectness and its expanding the boundaries of personality’s individual life-world. Subjectness as a set of identifications with many aspects of meaning, formed by the significant situation, is a result by more or less successful attempts of expression of the deep inner self, but it is forced every time to reproduce itself and to use the language, which give the subject a shape. Using the language, subject necessarily falls into its power, because the language sets the rules of speaking about something and that forms subject’s experience in accordance with its own structure, rules and principles. This is the language dictate as signifier over the subject as a significant. Being the basis of personality, subjectness as a «potential» of the subject, should be built on a special event and special kind of meaning.
Key words: subjectness, the unconscious sense, singular event, epistemology, postmodern, nonsense, life-world, psycholinguistics, psychotherapy.
An attempt to analyze the original approach of prominent psychologist of Ukrainian Diaspora of XX century A. Kulchytskyi to the problem of formation of Ukrainian people’s psyche was made. Alexander Yulianovych understands the Ukrainian psyche as perfect, that means only in «ideal» the existing type of the «structure», connection of qualities of mind, will and heart, which most real Ukrainian psyche is close to. The main factors that shaped the national psyche, hence the Ukrainian human’s psyche are specified: racial, geographical (geopsycical), historical, social and psychological (public), cultural, deep psychological factor. It was found that the scientist examines the human psyche as a structure consisting of three layers: somatopsychic (feeling), tymopsychic (sense) and poyopsychic (thinking and will). The sun affects the lowest layer of psychic structure – somatopsychic. More or less sunlight causes vitality or depressed mood. The perception of the landscape, that is the perception of all forms of geographic terrain affects the middle layer of psychic structure – tymopsychic. The top layer of psychic structure – poyopsychic is affected by the qualitative and quantitative peculiarity of the geographical environment in its relation to the needs, aptitudes and attitudes of a person influencing on his perception of the world, therefore, his relation to the world. Thus, the many-sided talent of O. Kulchytskyi as outstanding by the concept of Ukrainian people’s psyche requires additional research and study, which is essential for a holistic understanding of the outstanding Ukrainian.
Key words: emotions, psyche, world-view instructions.
T.T. Narytnyk, S.V. Osadchuk, O.Y. Slobodianyk, V.V. Bielaia
In current obstetrics a normal child delivery in a hospital, with the right of the woman to get support from her relatives, if she desires so, is considered optimal. Obstetrics system used in Kiev Perinatal center is approaching Western, but local cultural specifics are kept in mind, alongside with experience and achievements of Russian Federation colleagues. This paper summarizes the experience of using obstetric technology «Partner birth» in Kiev Perinatal center. The role of medical psychologist in the conduct of partnership with delivery system approach is shown. Husband role in the birth process is carefully analyzed, showing positive and negative aspects regarding the process itself and mother’s state. Scientific points of view on «Partner birth», its role and impact in current obstetrics are analyzed alongside with father’s types of behavior during the labor. The use of integrated obstetric surveillance and care of mothers is effective and methodologically sound. Modification of obstetric technology «partner birth» currently used by our perinatal center allows lowering the amount of surgical interventions, leads to decrease in abnormal birth activity (weakness and incoordination of birth activity), provides reduced need in epidural anesthesia, also lowering fetus distress syndrome. Based on the data, we offer activities directed to improve quality of the delivery care and lower the amount of perinatal and maternal complications. Such system of «partner birth» is found to be implemented in obstetric practice and other maternity hospitals in Ukraine, providing maternal and child health, as well as social stability of modern society.
Key words: mothers, obstetric technology, partnership delivery, medical psychologist.
The article considers the possibilities for using of different art-therapy technologies while corrective work with autistic children. It was marked that art-therapy technologies play very especial role for correction of emotional and voluntary sphere disorders at children with healthy limited capabilities. The article underlines the importance of arttherapy work with healthy limited capabilities children for their successful socialization and for their social life participation of full value and for real implementation of inclusive approach to teaching. The experience of using of art-therapy technologies at the activity of Lekotheka, i.e. the service of infantile psychological and pedagogical assistance was approved. Therefore the using of art-therapy technologies is very advisable at the process of Lekotheka activity aimed onto the correction of all children’s psyche spheres and particularly to correction of emotional and voluntary sphere disorders at children with healthy limited capabilities. The Lekotheka belongs to the most actual and important modern form of correctional assistance to children. The Lekotheka classes are led by students under professors’ guide. There are the connection of art-therapy with information and communicative technologies such as interactive method of biological feedback in the arsenal of Lekotheka. The integration of art-therapy with information and communicative technologies is the perspective direction of correctional and developmental work with healthy limited capabilities children.
Key words: healthy limited capabilities children, autistic child, emotional and voluntary sphere disorders, psychological correction, art-therapy technologies, Lekotheka, feedback.
UDC 159.932: 796.853.26.071.2-053.67
The distribution of the levels of sporting qualification of young karatists is considered in the article. It is proved that the dominant level of preparation for karatists is the middle one – dark-blue and yellow belts. Leading specialists on kiokushinkai karate pay considerable attention to psychological preparation of sportsmen. The founder of kiokushinkai karate Masutacu Oyama created concise psychological and pedagogical system of preparation of sportsmen, which enables to maintain the considerable physical and psychological loadings during duels on tatami. This system consists of 1000 trainings for beginners and 10000 trainings for opening of truth. I.A.Voronov studies scantily explored, but actual issue of psychological preparation of single combats on the basis of the traditional systems and conceptions of countries of the Far East. M.A. Misakian developed the system of psychological principles, where leading components are quiet consciousness, clear consciousness, confluence of will with consciousness. Some important psychological peculiarities of the middle level skill in the training process of the young karatists are defined. The psychological peculiarities are connected with the beginning of the formation of the system of will qualities with the sportsmen: purposefulness, courage, determination, self-restrain. The reproductive type of the abilities reveals itself, the direction of a personality towards gaining social appraise – from his parents, persons of the same age, coach. The traditional Japanese characteristics of the dark-blue and yellow belts’ symbolism are represented.
Key words: kiokushinkai karate, training process, Japanese symbolics, dark-blue belt, yellow belt, psychological peculiarities, personality, young karatists.
The main ideas of the Е.Bern’s transaction analysis, the structure of a personality which includes three ego-states of «I» are considered in the article. Three ego-states of «I» include the following ones: Father, Child, Adult and special terminology: game, strokes and blows, transactions, bans and early decisions, life scenario and life directives. The investigations of the home and foreign researchers on the problem of the transaction analysis are represented in the article, namely by Jack Diusei, Klod Stainer, Mary Gulding, Keiler Taibi, A.A.Osipova, B.L.Talanov, I.G.Malkina-Pykh. Jack Diusei developed the intuitional method of discribing the ego-states and named it as egogram. The author offered the hypothesis of constancy: when one ego-state is increased after intensity, the other one must diminish for indemnification. Distributing of psychical energy takes place so that the general amount of energy remains permanent. Claude Stainer offered five forbidden rules, given by parents about stroking. For example, do not give stroking, when they need to be given. He endowed in designing of vital scenario. Mary Gulding discovered that in basis of early negative decisions of people lay there are 12 constantly repeating themes. The cognitive aim of the correction work is defined. The position of a psychologist as a teacher and an expert is given as well as the active position of a client in the correction process. The technique of the family modeling and the structural analysis, the analysis of the transactions, life scenario and psychological games are also revealed.
Key words: transaction analysis, game, life scenario, ego-state, contamination, communication, youthful age, student.
The article is devoted to the problem of the process of mastering the values of the teacher’s profession in teaching and educational process. This process is possible for finding and creation of such psychological and pedagogical terms, such values as complete, meaningful, system character and regulator influence on independence of personality have been managed. The effective means of realization of these terms is the instruction of the active group that provides such system of inpersonal connections, when actions and judgements of every student get under the control of teacher. The participants on the expansion of the valued orientations and internal ideal observer as an introspection, self-control, self-appraisal have been got under the control too. The climate of psychological closeness, mutual help, self-acting and franknesses of students during the studies of all the principles and training signs has been established and maintained. The effective forms of work are psychological exercises and analysis and untiing of vital and pedagogical situations. These forms of work have been used in making of positive motivation on future professional activity, increasing of altruism orientation of teacher’s activity, expansion of cognitive interest in a capture a select profession, displacement of accents from professional values on personality orientated. Specially organized system of training work of the future teachers to realize the vital and professional reference-points and real facilities of their achievement has been devised. As a result the meaningful aims and values of the students have been integrated in the integral system of the professional development.
Key words: values, personal values, professional values, personal selfidentification, professional structure of the personolity, professional and pedagogical orientation, professional way.
The aim of this article was to examine how the strength of an employee’s identification with work-related groups (profession, organization, work team) and leader group prototypicality depends on different aspects of organizational climate in context of traditional organizations, such as number of employees, workplace (high-comfort and lowcomfort workplace) and organization success: high-status and low-status organizations. The results suggest that an employee’s identification with organization depends on two quadrants of organizational climate: open systems and rational goal. Conversely, an employee’s professional identification associated with internal processes of organizational climate, in particular, formalization and tradition. Leader group prototypicality was positively correlated with such quadrants of organizational climate as human relations that include organizational processes relating to employee’s autonomy, integration, involvement, supervisory support, training and welfare. The significant differences of the strength of an employee’s identification with work-related groups (profession, organization, work team) between groups with different organization success support social attraction hypothesis (social identity theory) that individuals identify with groups that are prestigious or distinctive and enhance self-esteem. Future research could build on these results by testing theoretical mechanisms and empirical evidence that may explain how various aspects of the organizational climate affect the organizational identity and leader group prototypicality.
Key words: organizational climate, identification with work-related groups (profession, organization, work team), leader group prototypicality, organization success.
- Radochońskі, L. Perents, A. Radochońska
During the last two decades in the professional literature there has been increasing interest in research on «psychopathic traits» in children and adolescents and their association with other kinds of behavioural disorders, for example, aggression and antisocial behaviour. What is more, a growing number of mental health professionals believe that an early confirmation of the presence or absence of these features may help to identify unique etiological factors involved in the development of antisocial behaviour. This belief is based on a notion that the psychopathic traits are associated with the development and persistence of conduct disorders and antisocial behaviour both in adolescents and adults. Adult psychopaths commit a disproportionate amount of violent crime and are at a heightened risk for recidivism. The research suggests that youth with psychopathic traits present with deficits similar to their adult counterparts on measures of passive avoidance learning and emotional processing. There is also evidence to suggest that these youth engage in differential forms of aggression. In addition, research suggests that adult psychopathy develops early in life. In this context, an early diagnosis may be very useful in predicting these kinds of problems in later life. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the cognitive, emotional and behavioural characteristics in children and youth with psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour and conduct disorders. The special emphasis was on the correlation between basic dimensions of psychopathic traits in children (e.g. the callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity, and narcissism) and two forms of aggression, i.e. reactive and proactive aggression. The findings of recent research provide support for the developmental theory of psychopathy and help to explain the potential role of psychopathic traits in development of aggressive behaviours. Recommendations for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are also discussed.
Key words: psychopathic traits, children, adolescents, emotional processing, cognitive processing, antisocial behaviour, reactive aggression, proactive aggression.
V.M. Sych, V.O. Sych
The results of the research of configuration features of structural constituents of student young people’s economic self-determination are analysed in the article. In particular, as a result of realization of factor analysis of variables that touched semantic descriptions of structural components of student young people’s economic self-determination, six factors that defined maintenance of economic self-determination with certain configuration of structural constituents are distinguished. Intercommunication of structural components of economic self-determination is found out on this basis as a result of cluster analysis 4 classes (types) of student young people are distinguished on the semantic indexes of structural components of economic self-determination: economic and active, economic and interested, economic and perspective, economic and passive. It is set that economic and active type although embraces the least amount of student young people, but it has most of positive variables that characterize it as most economic effective. Economic and passive, opposite, embraces most of economic subjects, but it has the least amount of variables that characterize it as the least apt to economic activity. It is worth to underline that the development of economic self-determination of this category of student young people can be carried out only by means of the special economic and psychological studies.
Key words: economic self-determination, configuration of structural constituents, factor analysis, cluster analysis, economic and active type, economic and interested type, economic and perspective type, economic and passive type.
N.S. Slavina, S.A. Mykhalska
Bringing a child to school is the turning point of life, it is a meeting with the new world – mysterious, desirable and at the same time very difficult. A child of elementary school firstly becomes a subject of social activity when it is necessary not only to carry out what I want and what you need, as it is required by adult teachers. Most children want to go to school and this is very important because the need for «open» semantic scope of the individual make it flexible and responsive to new influences and changes. However, in psychology there is a known fact that the first desire is very superficial and unfounded: a child wants to have a new social role of «student», which draws its external attributes. But it turns out very quickly that it is not like that. And then when a child faces with these problems of school life he begins to experience psychological discomfort to the scene and desperately important factor for school readiness. This important level of psychological structures, which were combined with the motivation and form, has been called child’s readiness for school in psychology. It is established that child’s readiness to school is a multicomponent formation, which requires complex psychological research. The structure of psychological readiness is established to provide the following components: emotionalvolitional , motivational and mental readiness. The school focuses on the development of students’ cognitive activity, creativity, willingness and ability to work independently, to produce new knowledge, it is impossible to master the system knowledge required for a modern man.
Key words: child of preschool age, emotional sphere, volitional qualities, psychological readiness, development, behavior, skills.
According to the results of the theoretical analysis, we identified development mechanisms of spiritual self-consciousness. Since the spiritual self-consciousness has been a complex systematic and structural formation of the psyche, the mechanisms of its development, in our opinion, are beyond the scope of classical self-consciousness mechanisms and include broader functional procession of psychical formations. Mechanisms of spiritual self-consciousness create content deployment of other mechanisms; determine the character of teaching and educational influences that are designed to achieve social, psychological and educational purposes and processes of self-development. Mechanisms of the basic components of youth’s spiritual self-consciousness include dynamic conversion process of self-awareness from self-centeredness to decent ration from self-knowledge to self-understanding (basic dynamics of cognitive component), self-conscious expressions of empathic from empathy to compassion, from self-acceptance to self-treatment (basic for the development of emotional and sensory components), from identification through self-identification and obtaining feedback to self-actualization and self-realization (determining the dynamics of behavioral activity component) reflexive orientation to self-control, self-management, conscious volitional efforts and conscience (basic for the development of the motivational and volitional component). Transcendence mechanism potentially sets the direction of obtaining the transpersonal experiences, setting the stage for the perspective transition of the individual to the subject-transcendent development level. Of course, not everything reaches that level, but we believe that everyone has the chance to reach it, including through appropriate organization of the formal education system and religious education.
Key words: self-consciousness, development mechanisms of spiritual self-consciousness, young age, self-understanding, self-attitude, selfidentification, self-realization, self-control, self-management, conscience, transcendence.
The article envisages the theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of interpersonal interaction in children aged from 3 to 7 years. The need of professional observation of the normal course of the socialization process of children of preschool age is proved. There has been investigated the development of national psychologists’ views at the determinants of group behavior of preschool children, in particular, it was found that the main object of study in 60-70 years was a group of children, but not the identity of the individual child. The structure of the concept of «interpersonal interaction» in the works of national scholars was considered to form: motivation, behavior, emotions and feelings, cognition, self-regulation. The approaches of domestic and foreign scholars were considered to explain the stages of personal development and younger preschoolers, including its socialization in a group of peers. The characteristics of stages of preschool children’s interpersonal interaction were examined through the forms of communication with peers: the emotional and practical, situation-business, nonsituation-business. It was found that the decisive factor in the development of the productive relationship of the child with peers is his success in joint activity: a game or a labor. The author describes the game as the environment of interpersonal interaction skills formation. Game can also be viewed as a form of communication with senior children, in which adults are both organizers and participants of the game. Results of the study allowed to identify the main determinants of preschool children’s personality.
Key words: age psychology, psychology of preschool age, cognitive activity, identity, socialization, communication, interpersonal interaction, child development.
In article there are determinants of professional deformation’s formation in different periods of professional formation. There are indexes of professional deformation’s manifestation in interpersonal sphere of coach-instructors of physical education according to age period of professional activity, in which they are. Features of professional activity of coach-instructors were revealed. This activity is considered as integral system of interrelated factors of effect on personality of coach-instructor, that is changing whole himself by disharmony of integrity and processes right up to anomalies on social-psychological level of individuality formation. The professional way of coach-instructor of physical education as factor of stress-producing influence on personality and communicative features was examined. The percentage ratio of professional deformation’s manifestation in definite period of professional way was determined. Age-specific stages of professional formation of coach-instructor of physical education were determined as determinants of professional deformations in interpersonal sphere. Age-specific features of professional deformation’s manifestation were revealed. Educators mostly are inclined to the deformation named «absence of leadership and dominance» in the age of 31 – 45 years, that are on «growth» stage; respondents mostly are inclined to the deformation named «overestimated aggressiveness» in the age of 46 – 60 years; Sports educators mostly are inclined to deformation named «high subordination and dependence» on «preservation» stage in the age 46 -60 years; professional deformation named «absence of cooperation and emotional support» reveals itself in two age periods of sports educators: «preservation» stage in the age of 46 – 60 years and «growth» stage in the age of 31 – 45 years. On the «prior» stage before 20 years old and on «formation» stage in the age of 25 – 30 years any communicative professional deformations are absent. It says that deformational influence of professional activity nevertheless reveals itself through the certain period of time.
Key words: interpersonal behavior, professional deformation, professional activity, coach-instructor, formation stages.
The article underlines the necessity of proper education of healthy limited capabilities children for their successful socialization and for their social life participation of full value. Good socialization perspectives for children with infantile cerebral paralysis depend on the intelligence state, the organic damage level – on one side, and on their successful school education and their interaction with peers. The children with infantile cerebral paralysis hardly learn the writing and reading skills. The writing language disorders such as dyslexia and dysgraphia as a rule coordinate with weak spoken language development and different forms of dysarthria. The article considers the experimental study results on the peculiarities of writing language at junior pupils with infantile cerebral paralysis which reveal as ratio between the dysgraphic and dysorthographic mistakes. The experimental study showed that junior pupils with infantile cerebral paralysis make the equal number both the dysgraphic and dysorthographic mistakes. The dysorthographic mistakes dominate on the initial stage of teaching of literacy. The logopaedic work must be aimed to the correction of all children’s psyche spheres and particularly to correction of writing language. There are the causes to consider that we need the system of inclusive education. In the conditions when the system of inclusive education is not completely formed there is the necessity to save special correctional school where junior pupils with infantile cerebral paralysis receive the assistance of full value.
Key words: education, disorders, writing language, dysgraphic and dysorthographic mistakes, junior pupils, infantile cerebral paralysis, inclusive education.
The article examined the concept of social and psychological training, and its impact on the development of women managers’ managerial skills. Researches, that discover the factors affecting manager’s activity, are described there, including professional qualities structure, self-activity of the personality and his/her professional identity, professional culture, professional position design, etc. The aim of developed social and psychological training program is to study leadership skills of women managers and to activate their leadership potential. The purpose of the training, its main objectives and conclusions of the work done are described there. The number of exercises performed are key components of the training with the aim to open leadership potential, creativity, to analyse own emotional state, to build leadership goal and to enhance participants’ social and communicative competences. As a result the leadership potential of each participant has been identified, resources and constraints for strength the leadership capacity in the future have been analysed. Moreover, the article includes analysis results of qualitative and quantitative indicators at all leadership skills levels; defined dominant level of leadership skills in the group; comparison results of leadership skills indicators before and after the training.
Key words: training, woman style of guidance, case frame, leading position, woman-leader.
In the article the author presents the results of an empirical study of psychosemantic features of future teachers’ professional consciousness in higher educational establishments. The current state of the teachers’ professional consciousness problem research and perspectives for its solution are shown. The choice of psychosemantic methods as the research methods of future teacher’s professional consciousness is grounded. The dynamics of the individual meaning of professional space concepts in students’ consciousness is presented. The results show that individual meanings of professional space in students’ consciousness are determined by the assessment factor domination. This can indicate evaluative thinking of the respondents, their uncertainty (lack of strength and activity) to successfull objectification of the obtained knowledge, abilities and skills in their future careers. Semantic professional orientation of students of I – V courses is studied. It is concluded that the most part of students admits the teaching profession as their own. The conclusion is proved by respondents’ choice of social facilities and interpersonal relationships reality as a distinctive replacing reality. Perspactives in solution of the noted scientific problems concern the experimental study of the psychological conditions of future teachers’ professional consciousness development; inventing and approving the program of psychological and pedagogical support of future teachers’ professional consciousness development.
Key words: professional consciousness, teacher professional consciousness, subjective semantics, subjective experience, semantic differential method, individual meaning, professional space, profession assigning.
The different approaches in the empiric study of volitional personality sphere are examined in the article. There have been specified questions of the will phenomenon accessible to the empiric research, of the selection of adequate measuring methods and of empiric indexes. The diagnostic features of some laboratory methods of conation are analyzed. The necessity of the differential and psychological approach is grounded in the experimental research of will on all levels of volitional organization of a personality. T here have been analyzed the diagnostic possibilities of reflection methods in research of volitional sphere on example of the conducted questioning. Three methods are used: direct self-evaluation of willpower, the method of self-regulation of laziness display, the methodology of volitional personality organization study. Statistical processing of empirical data was made using methods of descriptive statistics, correlation analysis. The results got after these methods little accord between itself. Statistically important correlation between the scale of self-composure and index of self-regulation of laziness is selected. However many strong correlations have been traced between the scales of questionnaire of volitional personality organization. Further work with the purpose of increase of diagnostic test sensitivity must be done towards clarification and differentiation of the specific signs of every volitional quality.
Key words: volitional sphere, conation, will-power, volitional organization of personality, volitional quality, laboratory experiment, natural experiment, reflection methods, empiric indexes.
In the article the author pursues to provide with the theoretical digression to change «human relations to food» and of «eating behavior» strategies change in the cultural and historical development. It is shown, that the development of society in the cultural and historical, informational and technological aspects contributed to modifying eating behavior strategies. The strategy of eating behavior is noted to be the foundation of stratification that had an ethnic, the gender and social (the class) character. The development of civilization is revealed to help the change of the eating behavior strategies. «Strategy of ingestion» passed retransformation from opposition «own-others» (including oppositions of classes) in space of «biologic rationing». It is shown that the current situation is characterized by the development and expansion of individualization borders not only «taste preferences», but the «norms» of eating behavior. There have been analyzed, that modern medicalization is determined by the influence of three main factors: the cult of the human body and health, the achievements of science and technology, the commercialization of life in the aspect of nutrition and visual appeal, which causes new trends in the market of goods and services, that are the foundation of modern «industry health and beauty». The author stresses that the medicalization contributes to the position of transferring the responsibility for their own health at «consumers-clientspatients» on doctors, that much determines the absence of reflection of own physicality and alienation from his own body.
Key words: food, eating behavior of human physicality, everyday reality, medicalizations.
UDC 159.923: 378.125:001.8
The article is devoted to the research of features of personality sense transformation of young specialists’ professional activity. The short analysis of categories «sense» and «personality sense» is given. The semantic sphere of personality is considered as a definitely organized aggregate of semantic formations (structures) and connections between them, which provide the semantic regulation of integral vital functions of subject in all of its aspects. Personality sense is studied as the core basis of professional activity, as one of the major factors of its success. On the basis of grading values after the test of M. Rokich respondents were parted on three groups: young specialists who remained in the profession during 1-3 years of work and motivated it on a subsequent mastery in full; specialists who remained in a profession during the same period but changed their attitude to it; specialists who changed profession on more acceptable at different reasons. On the basis of empiric data received during pilot research, there have been exposed and analyzed the combinations of personality features which determine the transformation changes in the semantic sphere of young specialists and indirectly influence on semantic choices within the framework of professional activity. The complex of psychodiagnostic methods which will allow to explore the individual features of semantic sphere of young specialists was neat, in particular such its parameters, as personality values; sense creative motives; character and orientation of sense creative orientations which set the co-ordinates of development of professional activity; content features of notions about sense of «Me».
Key words: sense, personality sense, semantic sphere of personality, young specialists, professional activity, semantic structures, determinants of transformation, research of features of personality reality.
The theoretical analysis of the problem of psychological factors and mechanisms of professional «Me-concept» formation is carried out in the article. The process of future fire fighters’ professional «Me-concept» formation is considered in the psychological providing of educational process in educational space. The becoming of professional «Me-concept» is noted to be conditioned by the list of factors, such as social environment, process of personality’s socialization, and social cooperation during professional studies. It is analysed, that most authors consider the professional development of personality as integration of two processes: the development of personality in ontogenesis and professionalization of personality from the period of the beginning of professional self-determination till the completion of active labour activity. The model of personality’s professional development is considered. The conditions of future fire fighter’s professional «Me-concept» formation are established. One of the important conditions of the professional consciousness formation is the future specialists’ understanding of psychological sense of personality’s professionally meaningful properties. Professionalization as a process of bringing a personality to professional activity and perfection in one of directions of this activity, foresees the presence of requirements to trade education and level of qualification, presence of the proper personal necessity of a specialist in the professional development, which stipulates aims, reasons, satisfaction and forms of professional position, mastering of professional culture labour.
Key words: future fire fighter, student, formation, becoming, selfdetermination, professional «Me-concept», socialization, professional development, professionalization.
UDC 159.923.5 : 37.047
Self-actualization in terms of professional activity is seen primarily as a result of professional self-determination; as a part of professional development and also as an important indicator of professional identity. The paper presents the theoretical analysis of approaches to the study of self-actualization in the profession field. The first approach represents the study of professional activity of a person, which is regarded as the central and most effective sphere of selfactualization. Personal and developmental approach interprets professional self-actualization as a permanent change in the underlying personal and professional characteristics. In acmeological approach self-actualization is a process, the main goal of which is to achieve the highest degree of personal and professional maturity. In the paper the concept of professional self-actualization is also generalized and its features are clarified. Professional self-actualization is a complex, multi-directional process of progressive professional development of mature personality, which is characterized by the realization of personal and professional potential, which gives a person the opportunity to achieve the highest level – professional «acme». The process of professional selfactualization consists of four stages: self-determination in professional activities; self-expression in professional activities, personal selfactualization, achieving professional «acme».
Key words: self-actualization, professional self-actualization, professional development, professional «acme».