The article envisages the connection between the detailed analysis and solution of educational problems. It is noted that the imagined transition from individual features to regular addictions, carried out during the analysis by means of transition of the situation by certain mental activities, has not only a particular importance for developing children’s intellectual abilities, but also for overall mental development, and, in general, mental and aesthetic education. It is established that a full analysis of the learning process is possible only through appropriate principles of general psychological theory of activities. In the works of the scientists the principles on training at the level of integrated personality and the requirements to the motivational sphere of personality providing gaining personality-based content during the mastering knowledge and skills are formulated based on the integrated explaining of mind, consciousness and personality. In gaining personality-based content it is a real unity of education and training. It is shown that activity-based explaining of psyche enables successful study of age patterns of the origin and formation of the types of activities which provide the development of mind and personality. The scientific study of the problem on developing training is directly related to the question on the concrete historical approach to the assessment of the nature of primary education. As a result we got an answer to many important questions on the formation of methods of theoretical analysis, on reflection, forms of actions, and, on the other hand, we were faced new questions for further study of ways to optimize the educational process. It is noted that only through existing educational activities the pupils can be introduced into the basic forms of scientific and theoretical thinking or consciousness.
Key words: theory, educational activities, V.V. Davydov, theoretical analysis, experimental study, thinking, development, reflection, consciousness, educational process.
The article presents the research scientists’ views on the structure of the phenomenon of faith. The presented structural models of faith of the personality in adolecence show that faith is seen by the scientists as an integrated psychic formation which contains certain components and constituents. Theoretical study of structural models of faith showed that they reflected different configurations of the mental phenomena. Author’s model of faith in youth is presented. It is noted that the study of faith in adolescence is based on the methodological principles of multilevel and hierarchical arrangements of psychic processes. The structural components of faith in adolethence (cognitive emotional – evaluative, conotative and backbone) are singled out. The cognitive component includes the fidogenic, scientogenic, questiogenic and beliefs of the individual. Fidogenic beliefs are the views of the personality, based on faith. Scientogenic beliefs are based on the information obtained as a result of the cognitive activity. Qquestiogenic conviction is based on the doubts. The emotionally-valuable component of faith in youth reflects the hierarchy of values and contains a wide range of feelings that accompany the faith (doubt, belief, love, hope, trust, uncertainty, the complex of experiences of the self-attitude), reflecting the approval or rejection of the object of faith, depending on the degree of recognition its importance and actuality to the personality. It is noted that the objects of faith in the mind of the individual appear as mental values in the form of concepts (finished views contained in the public consciousness) and / or constructs (the results of personal interpretations, ideas and beliefs). Conative (motivational-behavioral) component of faith in adolescence includes the motivational and volitional components of personality, which are expressed in the pursuit of actions on the basis of the decision. The backbone component of faith in adolescence is the process of searching for and recognition of the meaning of the values with which the person faces in his life. It is concluded that the phenomenon of faith in adolescence is based on the specific combination of its structure and functions.
Key words: belief, faith structure, cognitive component of faith, emotional – valuable component of faith, conotative component of faith, backbone component of faith, values, needs, beliefs, sense.
I.V. Ananova, I.V. Vashchenko
The article presents the results of empirical research of personal characteristics of feeling guilt. The analysis shows that the tendency to experience guilt is a destructive characteristic, which together with its associated features creates a coherent set of personal expressions that determines feeling of guilt in unconstructive way. Research strategies of specific characteristics that differentiate individuals with varying degrees of propensity to experience guilt were defined, found differences in their ability to self-incrimination in relation to itself, in reaction on situations of frustration, in use of psychological defense mechanisms and coping strategies, as well as in the severity of emotional stability. The results of correlation analysis revealed that the degree of inclination feeling of guilt predetermined by a configuration of personality characteristics that determine the functional specificity of experiencing guilt: the increase severity of experiences and function of psychological defense. Specific personality traits, that determine the tendency to experience guilt, were determined: a high level of emotional instability; negative emotional-valuable attitude to themselves; protective package that includes regression replacement jet formation, projection, rationalization, protective attitude towards themselves and the inability to displacement; expression of such characteristics like feeling of guilt as the tendency to expect punishment, focus on regulatory, interest in others, demanding of themselves; expressed self-blame, focus on frustrative circumstances, the desire to control emotions in a situation of feeling guilt; protective role of self-incrimination – preservation of relationships with others, creating an image «I am morally perfect», liberation from the need to act.
Key words: the feeling of guilt, tendency to experience the feeling of guilt, unconstructive feeling of guilt, emotional instability, attitude to itself, reaction in situations of frustration, psychological defense mechanisms, coping strategies.
In the article the analysis of scientific researches of the phenomenon of endowments is carried out, the description of popular models of endowments is presented, criteria and the most frequent kinds of endowments are designated. In the article the results of diagnostics of features of the personality of schoolchildren with different kinds of endowments are stated. As a diagnostic toolkit the multifactorial questionnaire of personality by R.B. Cattell allowed to fix emotional, communicative, intellectual properties of the personality, and also the properties of self-control which generalize the information of the person about himself. On the basis of the conducted research the psychological characteristic of the personality of children with technical, graphic, general intellectual, scenic endowments is presented. Knowledge of the teacher concerning psychological features of the personality of gifted schoolchildren will allow to optimize and make effective his pedagogical interaction with children with different kinds of endowments. Accordingly there is a necessity of psychological and pedagogical education which purpose should consist in expansion of an outlook in the field of psychological knowledge and acquaintance of teachers with the scientific information on the phenomenon of children’s endowments, its kinds, display forms, about problems of interaction with pupils with endowments and on formation of teachers’ motivation to self-development, self-education and requirement to use psychological knowledge in real student teaching. The results of the research can be used in educational process on preparation and improvement of professional skills of teachers of various scientific fields and psychologists of educational establishments.
Key words: pedagogical interaction, endowments, endowments kinds, personality of the pupil, ability, creativity, intelligence, thinking, endowments models.
The article is devoted to the problem of cooperation of the teacher of an inclusive class with pupils’ families. The article substantiates the topicality of the selected theme, the role of teachers of an inclusive class in the successful adaptation of pupils with violations of psychophysical development in conditions of secondary school is accentuated. There is presented the description of the results of the survey of parents aimed at studying their relationship to collaborative training of children with typical development and with violations of psychophysical development. It is noted that the majority of parents support this idea, but they note that this process is complex and has many challenges and obstacles. The marked difficulties, according to parents, may arise in the process of adaptation of children with violations of psychophysical development in conditions of inclusive education. The suggestions for cooperation between teachers of inclusive institutions with families of pupils with violations of psychophysical development are analyzed. The article defines the role of a teacher and a psychologist in promoting a positive, impartial attitude of parents to children with typical development of pupils with violations of psychophysical development. It is noted that the effectiveness of cooperation of the teacher of an inclusive class with pupils’ families depends on the teacher’s psychological readiness for inclusive education. The main directions of work of the teacher of an inclusive class with pupils’ families are described. The attention is focused on the areas of work with parents of children with typical development. There are proposed the forms of a teacher’s work with parents in terms of inclusive education. It is concluded that close cooperation between the teachers and families of pupils with violations of psychophysical development will provide a safe learning environment, education, child development and social adaptation in secondary schools.
Key words: teacher of an inclusive class, family, pupils with disorders of mental and physical development, ways of working with families, inclusive education, adaptation, psychological readiness.
The article is devoted to the empirical justification of the structure of motivational and meaning features of the personality as a precondition for tolerant behavior of personality. The empiric research of study of tolerant behavior and motivational-semantic features of personality is done. The program of empirical research and complex of used methods of mathematical processing of results of research has been developed. This allows us to specify which motivational and semantic features of personality influence the formation of tolerant behavior of the personality. For this task we used factor analysis method, as a procedure of factorization helps to decrease the dimension of output area of correlating with each other signs, more economical their representation with minimal loss of the initial information is ensured. The result of factor analysis was the change from the set output variables to a smaller number of new variables that form the so-called factors, however, interpreted as a prerequisite for a common variability of array output variables. Using factor analysis in our research, the dimension of measured motivational determinants of individual tolerance was reduced to a smaller number of independent factors which made it easy and more clearly interpret psychological variables significantly correlated with each other. As a result, we got the factor structure of motivational and characterological characteristics that determine the specifics of the formation and manifestation of a certain level of tolerance in the teaching of the respondents, which included the following factors: «Full life motivation of the individual», «Meaningful life», «Real work motivation», «Volatility emotional states», «Locus of life control», «Focusing on egoism», «Focus on success».
Key words: motivation, tolerance, professional activities, motivation to succeed, factor analysis, personality.
UDC 159.923.2 : 373.2.018.1
The psychological and pedagogical literature that reveals the problem of the impact of family education on the formation of creativity of preschool children has been analyzed in the article. Comparative analysis of the level of creativity of children has been done. Children are brought up in families with different styles of education (authoritative, liberal, authoritarian, indifferent and mixed). It has been shown that the most favorable conditions for the formation of the creativity of children at this age had been created in families with authoritative style of education. It is noted that parents in these families pay a significant role to opportunity of emotional expression of the child; to content of the creative needs and desires; to development of internal motivation of performing creative tasks. Children from families with an authoritarian style of education have also shown high results, but tight control and demands on the part of parents when performing creative tasks by children has been led to increased anxiety, self-selection of method for solving creative problems has been lost. It is established that low level of intrinsic motivation is presented in children from families with a liberal style of education. Preschoolers of this category are prone to quickly switch from one activity to another. Slight difficulties in performing a specific task have induced to it. The adult’s reaction and receiving praise after successfully completed task are the guide during performing creative tasks for them. Under the influence of external motivation performance of levels of children’s creativity significantly increases. The lowest level of creativity is in families with mixed and indifferent style of education. In these families parents do not pay enough attention to the development of creativity. In result enough experience to express themselves in creative activities in children is missing.
Key words: creativity, styles of family education, authoritative style, liberal style, authoritarian, indifferent style, mixed style, pre-school age.
T.V. Hura, O.S. Ponomariov
The article envisages the importance of accordance of leader’s personality with new social requirements. The underlined relevance of higher school’s task is to determine potential leaders, to form and develop their professional, management and moral and volitional qualities, growth of spiritual and cultural development and also leader’s social and psychological competencies. Different styles of leadership and a lot of theories of this phenomenon are defined. Values of a modern leader such as inner freedom of personality, tolerance and high level of management culture, based on professionalism of leading chiefs, innovative character of thinking and creativity are researched. The article states that social and psychological demands on a leader provide for democracy character and style of his business interpersonal communication. It is noted that a leader has to be able to attract people to optimism and confidence in success of business, has to be a real head of his team and a head of its innovative strategy. The article reasonably highlights that people’s confidence in successful business directly depends on leader’s optimism, based on high professionalism, belief in himself and his group, confidence and responsibility. The underlined leader’s qualities are necessary in the context of general social, political and economical instability, people’s uncertainty in tomorrow and their disappointment with power, which are topping today in social consciousness of citizens of our country. That is why a real leader should clearly define the aims of activity, choose effective ways and methods to reach them and create system of stimulus for people which would cause their wish for achieving goals. It is proved that system of future leaders’ training in high school has to be different from traditional. That is why psychological trainings, problematic situations analysis close to real conditions of future leader’s professional activity have to play important role. It will help to raise his professional and psychological readiness for successful leader’s role.
Key words: leader, personality, leadership, professionalism, management culture, theory of leadership, style of leadership, social and psychological competence, innovative character of thinking.
UDC 159.923.2: 922
O.V. Drobot, A.A. Vozovych
This article presents results of empirical study of the structure of leading universalities in legal consciousness of the youth studying in Ukrainian colleges. Experimental principles of psycho-semantic study of legal consciousness in early adolescent age were generalized. The character of semantic evaluation of a number of legal notions was determined by distinguishing a categorical system of representing stimuli using legal semantic differential. Results of psycho-semantic reconstruction of central notional elements of college students’ legal consciousness, including the notions of «justice», «dignity», «law», «victim», «punishment», «crime» and «emotional violence», were presented. Statistical probability of semantic universalities during evaluation was 75-95%. It was established that, in certain discontent of the student youth with legal situation, the notion of «law» was perceived as friendly; «victim» and «punishment» had negative connotation; «crime» and «emotional violence» had the aspect of alienation; «justice» and «dignity» appeared to be pure and desirable for the youth. At the same time, there is insufficient legal awareness, which makes the notion of «emotional violence» unclear. The notions of «justice», «dignity» and «law» had the highest subjective significance for students, which allowed to draw a conclusion regarding the obedience to law by the latter. Insufficient legal awareness of college students is accompanied by the difficulty in semantic sphere of law.
Key words: college students, legal consciousness, psycho-semantic reconstruction, semantic universality.
UDC 925 : 159.923
This paper describes the psychological aspects of translation. It was noted that the translator had done speech mediation, with the help of which and because of a great role of the target language it was created a text which by its communicative characteristics could be perceived as the equivalent of the original. With the help of this communicative equivalence it was manifested the identification of the translation and the original in the functional, semantic and structural plans. In the paper the problem of translation activity was outlined. It was emphasized that the most important task of translation was to show linguistic and extra-linguistic factors that were enable the identification of the content of messages transmitted in different languages. The translation strategies were described. These strategies are taking place regarding the translation of literature, namely the inclusion of additional elements (author’s inclusions into translation); the omission of elements of excess in terms of foreign readers; converting the semantic structure of words and phrases; translation by finding out compromise solutions; usage of adequate replacements (interpretation, antonymous translation, compensation, etc.); translation by finding out functional analog; the author’s translation. The peculiarities of the author’s translation were characterized. It was noted that the author’s translation had been achieved by a sufficiently important goal of a professional activity, such as displaying explicit and implicit meanings of the original in order to preserve maximum freedom of the interpretation. The author of the article showed the examples of the translation of the novel «The Catcher in the Rye» (the author of it J.D.Salinger is) by O.Lohvynenko using the strategy «the author’s translation». There were outlined the cases of indirect translation which had the meaning of the introduction of the author’s meaning, offered by the translator’s interpretation. A strategy of amplification according to the translation of novels was proposed.
Key words: translation activity, linguistic factors, extra-linguistic factors, translation strategies, the author’s translation, strategy of amplification.
UDC 925 : 159.923
The article deals with the descriptions of the results of different researches of social intellect of a person done by scientists; these researches proposed their own conclusion concerning the structure of social intellect of a person and its functioning features. It was noted that the results of empirical researches done by scientists had identified seven basic components of social intellect; these components have been combined into two large groups: 1) a cognitive component: assessment of the prospects of interpersonal interaction; understanding other people; knowledge of social rules of subject-subject interaction; openness in relations to others; 2) a behavioral component: the ability to interact with people; social adaptability; a high level of empathy in interpersonal relationships. The author of the article proposed and described the conception of social intellect of a teacher. It was shown that social intellect of a teacher consisted of three substructures: a cognitive one, a mnemonic substructure and the emphatic one. It was established that a cognitive substructure of social intellect included a set of fairly stable knowledge, ratings, rules of interpretation of events, frames of human behavior, their relationships, etc. based on the existing system of interpretations on micro- and macrostructural levels. It was shown that a mnemonic component of social intellect of the person described developed ability to interpret events, life events, behavior of other people and their own as the subject of these events. Emphatic component of social intellect is largely dependent on what shape of the behavior the person chooses as a priority that he/she expects his/her business associated with the complex of interpretative value in relation to the world of the person. It was concluded that the emphatic component of social intellect was also dependent on what the person expected from other subjects of interpersonal interaction, what valuable interpretative complex of relations to the surround world was formed inside the person, what possibilities the subject also had when we told about the usage of mechanisms of anticipation in solving various problems of professional and social life.
Key words: intellect, social intellect, intellectual abilities, interpersonal interaction, social adaptability, empathy, cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic substructures of social intellect.
R.I. Каrpinska, R.I. Bilobryvka
The paper presents the features of psychoremedial activities of a clinical psychologist for the prevention of somatic deseases. A program of psychoremedial activities with somatic patients and ways of its practical implementation into medical psychology are proposed. The psychological training is established to be the method of medical psychology realized in a small psychoremedial group. It turned out to be effective and therefore acquired the status of one of the most popular. Psychological correction is defined to be a directed psychological action at one or another psychological structure in order to ensure the full development and functioning of personality. A psychological training is a combination of active methods in medical psychology used within clinical therapy in the treatment of neuroses and a number of somatic diseases. The study envisaged that the emotional state of patients with somatic diseases at medical institutions is characterized by a certain level of high anxiety, due to their specific disease. Psycho-correction is a system of measures aimed at correcting deficiencies of psychological development or of human behavior with special measures of psychological impact. Today, psychological correction is widely used in the system of psychological assistance to children and adolescents. The development of psychological science in our country and abroad is accompanied by a significant increase in interest in psychotherapy. Psycho-correction is a special kind of psychological help. Its task is to carry out a targeted impact on personal, behavioral, and intellectual levels of human functioning. Psychological correction is a tactful intervention in the processes of psychic and personal development with the aim of correcting deviations in these processes and often influenced by not only the person but also on its environment, the organization of life.
Key words: psychological correction, psychodiagnostic, medical psycho logist, somatic patients, psychological training.
The article analyzes the phenomenon of emotional competence in personal life creation. Emotional competence has been found to be linked to axiological and motivational spheres and determine the true value of needs at all identity levels: situational, characterological and basic. In this manner emotional competence tends to link external circumstances to internal ones while facilitating the establishment of contacts between oneself and the environment. It has been proved that emotional competence is aimed at understanding which encompasses empathy and the organismic sense and is to be followed by correct interpretation. Empathy, which is realized in the plane of Activities and Contacts, has been identified as facilitating the interaction with Others that leads to adaptation, socialization and development of personal potential in respect of social relationships (the external vector). It has been stated that the organismic sense functions in the spheres of Body and Senses and is aimed at deepening self-understanding and perception of own identity (the internal vector). In view of the foregoing, we believe that empathy plays the dominant role in the narrative means of self-construction and life creation while the organismic sense is central to the mentative one. It has been established that basic emotional attitudes in two spheres, «You» and «We», are the sources of empathy whereas the organismic sense is based on the attitudes of «I» and «Proto-We». Potential emotional competence components correlation with different levels of integral subjectivity has been outlined. The organismic sense has been found to be realized at the level of the circumstantial and absolute subject while empathy at that of the mono- and polysubject levels. The metasubject in this process has an integral function of consolidating the narrative and mentative life creation into a single system.
Key words: emotional competence, need, identity, life creation, understanding, interpretation, narrative, mentative, empathy, organismic sense.
In the article, there is an analysis of the main factors that influence on personality’s psychological well-being. The difficulty of research on the topic of psychological well-being is caused by the fact that the mechanisms of its forming consist in both social environment and person’s inner world. The attempt to enclose their meanings was made according to the world and Ukrainian scientific researches. The analysis of objective and subjective predictors of subjective well-being has been done. Mainly, the studies regarding to the topic of psychological well-being are focused on its levels of functioning, conditions of forming and spheres of experiencing that enclose a big area for studying the factors. In particular, it was proposed to classify the psychological well-being factors into socio-economic, socio-cultural, biological and psychological, and their peculiarities were considered. It is proved that socio-economic and socio-cultural factors have rather a mediate role in determination of subjective well-being, influencing usually on its separate components. The interrelation of the level of psychological well-being with the subjective factor – psychological was revealed. Psychological factor is found to include structural and functional components. Structural components are emotional, cognitive and behavioural, whereas autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life and self-acceptance belong to functional components. Psychological well-being is considered as an integral indicator of degree of personality’s realization of self-direction that is subjectively displaying as experiencing of happiness, satisfaction with life and self-satisfaction. It is concluded that this phenomenon is related to every sphere of person’s life which means that the personality is able to self-actualization, self-development, life satisfaction and personal choice making.
Key words: psychological well-being, components of psychological well-being, satisfaction with life, personality, experience, psychological factors, self-actualization, personal growth.
The article analyses the motivating state to study of students of higher medical establishment with different degree of neurotization. The conducted study embraces communicative motives, avoidance motives, prestige motives, professional motives, motives of creational self-fulfilment, educative-cognitive motives, social motives. Along with that, it was studied the stand of medics and psychologists as to the notion of «neurotization» and it was established the neurotization degree of the students under study. The attention is paid to the causes of neurotization origin related to modern tension of living conditions and the supplementary causes of neurotization origin among the studying youth. The initial examination of medical students allowed us to sort out a group with high degree of neurotization and to establish the connection between low measures of academic motivation and high degree of neurotization. We have conducted the psycho-correction work with such students. Depending on individual-psychological temperamental attributes of personalities, there were applied variable methods: group and individual psychotherapy, psychodrama, art-therapy, client-centred therapy, trainings. There are presented changes of the neurotization degree after provision of qualified psychological aid. It was evaluated the effectiveness of the influence of the neurotization degree change on positive changes in students’ academic motivation. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the examined persons before and after the psycho-correction work with the use of standard methods. The received data is generalized, the results are provided in tables, graphically illustrated in the form of diagrams and statistically analyzed. It is demonstrated the comparative picture of the medical students’ neurotization condition by the gender criteria. Empirically it was fixed the dynamics of changes in the mental health status of future medics, in particular neurotization reduction and academic motivation increase.
Key words: academic motivation, communicative motives, avoidance motives, prestige motives, professional motives, motives of creational selffulfilment, educative-cognitive motives, social motives, neurotization, psycho-correction.
It the article it was made an attempt of theoretical and empirical analysis of the problem on the relationship of social maturity and direction of professional maturity of a psychologist’s personality. It is studied the features of interrelation of individual social maturity and direction of professional maturity of a psychologist in the process of formation. The research positions on the structure of social maturity are overviewed, we identified the following components: 1) cognitive-motivational component presupposes knowledge of social ideas and values of the personality; social intelligence, divergent thinking, creativity, planning their own life scenario, life crises knowledge, understanding social reality, the choice of profession; 2) reflective component provides mental self-control feelings, psychosexual literacy, independence, understanding of social roles, the ability to feel the nuances of social situations, solve problem situations, responsibility; 3) operational and technological components are characterized by a certain social experience, skills of effective interaction with society, the ability to operate adequately, a variety of techniques behavior, performance of social roles, the ability to leave the conflict. The level of development and the formation of social intelligence as well as its structural components; dominant communication styles and leading communication skills; the priority of personal orientation are defined. The levels of social intelligence and competent communication style together constitute an adequate level of social competence that is correlated with the dominant orientation of the personality – focus on interaction and communication, and business orientation. It should be noted that the detected result corresponds to features and specifics of the training of future psychologists, humanistic orientation of their professional activities.
Key words: social maturity, professional development, expert’s professional maturity, levels of social intelligence, social determinants of maturity.
UDC 159.955: 316.612
The article deals with the issues of development of prosociality in childhood. The main purpose is extending the findings by examining children’s understanding the essence and importance of help at the preschool age. The author notes that help-giving is one of the main types of prosocial behavior. It is suggested that the process of ontogenetic development of prosociality includes three main stages: genetically determined intuitive forms of behavior, socially stimulated and dispositional-based ones. Preschool age is a unique period in this developmental process, because at this time there is a transition from intuitive forms of help and support to the socially constructed ones, which are based on the children’s primary representations of the features of people’s social interaction in society. The development of the internal view of the world in this period has a major impact on the behavior in subsequent periods. It is noted that the study of prosocial attitudes of preschool children is carried out within the concept of personality moral development. The recent researches have indicated the discrepancies in the normative awareness and personality self-consciousness of preschooler: they know about altruistic strategy and understand its usefulness but they neglect it in their own behavior. The next issues, highlighted in the article, are the features of children’s awareness of their own positions regarding the help-giving or standing by in potentially prosocial situation, and their understanding the evaluative processes in adults’ and peers’ interactions. The author considers the children’s representations of the emotional states of the person in situations of the help receiving or neglecting it by the others. In addition the results showed the increasing the children’s awareness of the role of verbal support at the end of preschool age. The author distinguishes the basic forms of such support: using the emotional calming techniques, referring to their own participation in solving the problem, pointing out the alternative ways of resource sharing.
Key words: prosociality, prosocial behavior, helping behavior, cognitive basis, awareness, representation.
I.O. Kotyk, S.V. Sarychev
In the article the authors regard the concept of personal reliability as a system of individual characteristics that serve as the basis of successful self-regulation in various spheres of life. They prove that the group reliability in intense and extreme conditions of joint activities in general can be described with the following parameters: effectiveness, group members’ interaction, coherence of actions. Reliability of the group entity of joint activities, communication and relationships embodies in the person of a leader, who is capable of social cognition and prognosis, of effective organization of social actions in groups and between groups in intense and extreme conditions. The authors discuss the the ways to improve personal and group reliability: joint activities groups education in a variety of conditions aimed at improving their readiness for joint activities and training of leaders; updating of conditions of interactions between groups, when the image of the other, «more successful» group, the very fact of its presence on the common field of activity makes a significant impact on the group state and main parameters of joint activities; updating of internal group resources: establishment of an optimal psychological distance between individuals in the system of interpersonal relationships; pronounced leadership; rather high level of group development as a team and high level of group organization; motivation to succeed; optimization of emotional settings for joint activities; rapid and complete involvement of every individual into joint work. The article offers the program of personal and group reliability increase, presents specially developed methods and social techniques of education, which actualize the situations of interactions between groups and group internal resources. The authors experimentally confirm the effectiveness of the proposed methods for updating and improving individual and group reliability.
Key words: group reliability, personal reliability, activation and increase of reliability, small group, joint activities, ability at organization, subjectivity, leadership, optimal, intense and extreme conditions of life.
The results of theoretical studies on the nature of violence including psychological abuse are presented in the article. Different points of view of the scientists on the nature of psychological abuse and their interpretation of the causes of violence are analyzed here. It is alleged that there is a possibility of grouping author’s views on the nature of violence in the group of biological, psychopathological, systemic, social and feminist factors. The violence is underlined to have biological, genetic, sociological determinants. The social, interpersonal and intrapersonal factors of violence are analyzed from different points of view. It is shown that the causes of violence in the family may exist in various areas, such as the scope of individual to individual, interpersonal relations sphere, the social sphere. The stable, long-term nature of psychological violence is accentuated. Long-term, sustainable nature of psychological abuse and difficulties in diagnosis of this type of violence unlike other ill-treatment are specified in this article. It is emphasized on the control, domination, despotism as basis of psychological abuse. It is defined that psychological abuse is the intentional impact on another person that has negative, destructive consequences. The violence in the family is determined to be often carried by men on their wives. The importance of understanding the factors of violence, its characteristics, forms of expression to develop the most effective strategies to provide psychosocial support to people experiencing domestic violence, as well as those who are prone to brutal offensive behavior on others are proved.
Key words: psychological violence, insulting behavior, abuse, biological approach, psychopathological approach, system approach, social approach, feminist approach.
The article presents the results of scientific research, in which the military personnel, participants of Anti-Terrorist Operation had been involved. The correlation analysis of a combat stress and specific features of the military personnel has been conducted; therefore we have received direct correlation dependence between certain indicators. It gives us an opportunity to claim that individually psychological features of the military personnel are a determinant of developing a combat stress. We have determined reliably the difference between the group of servicemen with existence of a combat stress and group of servicemen at which the combat stress isn’t observed. Certain dynamics of manifestations of each indicator of individual and psychological features of the military personnel which is connected with involving in fighting has been investigated: behavioural manifestations of the military personnel who have hypochondria will grow appreciably and have significantly more expressed character throughout staying in a zone of Anti-Terrorist Operation. The strong manifestations of schizoid type are noted to be observed at a preparation stage which are invariable up to developing of a fighting stress of high intensity, further we have sharp jump in increase in manifestations of schizoid character; the indicator of a hypomania has no manifestations at a preparation stage, however then its rapid growth is observed. Individually psychological features of the military personnel have been defined. Military personnel of psychoticism and paranoid type are more subject to developing of a combat stress of high intensity. In addition, individual and psychological features of the military personnel, which are less inclined to developing of a combat stress of high intensity, have been defined. They are the military personnel of psychopathy type.
Key words: combat stress, individual and psychological features, the military personnel are participants of Anti-Terrorist Operation.
The article is devoted to theoretical and empirical substantiation of machiavellianism’s coordinates of political competence of personality with regard to its belonging to the political sphere as a professional activity. The theoretical and methodological analysis of political competence is presented; the basic characteristics of its manifestation are defined, usual and professional levels of political competence are found. Leadership characteristics of experts at political sphere are indicated, the contiguity with signs of authoritarianism and personality with level of Machiavellianism are clarified. The research of characteristics of Machiavellianism of the political competence of personality is done. The program of empirical research is developed and used complex of mathematical methods processing results of research enables to precise the Machiavellianism characteristics of political competence of representatives of social and professional level of political competence. The high rates of display of Machiavellianism of experts in the political sphere are fixed and their personal characteristics of sociability, aggressiveness and dominance, the expressed desire for achievement and approval are singled out. Low rates of Machiavellianism manifestation of surveyed people with social level of political competence are accompanied with pronounced indicators as sympathy, social autonomy and willingness to help other people. The necessity of constant fixation of trends of Machiavellianism tendencies in behavior of experts at political sphere is underlined because of the avoidance of professional strains.
Key words: political competence, Machiavellianism, characteristics of Machiavellianism, personality.
L.F. Krupelnutska, O.M. Shportun
The article presents the regulatory-level model of humor, which contains a description of the goals, levels, process and results of personal regulation. Personality regulation using humor is a regulation with complex inter-level connections. In developing the model we found that the «control center» is the highest level of regulation – personality-based. At the relative autonomy of each level they nevertheless fundamentally cannot be fully autonomous. In normal typical for humor functioning is the predominance of personal control and level regulation. The option of combination of lower level strengthening and temporary weakening of higher level during normal functioning is temporary and situational. Systematic isolated strengthening of lower levels of regulation at constant weakening of the higher level indicates the abnormal development of humor functioning. In this case, a lower level of regulation by means of humor begins to perform a key role without sufficient connection with higher levels; lower levels of regulation subordinate higher ones.
Key words: humor, regulatory-level model, levels of regulation, psychological mechanisms of humor.
In the article the theoretical and empirical grounding of psychoprotective determinants of professional self-preservation of stressogenic professions specialists on the example of health workers has been suggested. The theoretical grounding of the problem concerns the necessity of studying questions on the psychoprotective aspect of professional activity of health workers due to the actualization of psychological content of their professional safety. It is emphasized that powerful internal factor that determines the limit of professional safety of a specialist is a psychological defense. Concretization of the notion of psychological defense in the context of obligatory consideration of stressogenic conditions of professional activity of health workers allows to examine the use of psychological defenses as a self-regulatory form of preservation of professional and personality resources. The developed program of empirical study, as well as a complex of used methods of mathematical data processing of research results, enables to concretize the theoretical principles in the form of real psychological facts: the content of professional self-preservation of health professionals who work in stressogenic conditions is predetermined by psychodefense strategies, which provide a psyche protection from negative and destructive acts of internal and external impulses; stressogenic conditions of professional activity of health workers determine the formation of different psychological defense strategies depending on the time parameter of professional realization.
Key words: psyсhoprotective determination, professional self-preservation, stressogenic professions, psychological defenses, defense strategies, professional safety, health workers.
It is stated in the article that it is impossible to underestimate the importance and complexity of relations and variables being the basis of potential and actual mechanisms that trigger the aetiology of any disease. It is proved that the causation of mental disorders is complex; the necessary point is addressing a differentiated understanding of the specific causes. It is concluded that psychological research should be aimed at understanding the specifics multicausality, namely, which psychological factors act in the same plane, and others are in different planes. All these processes are noted to be complicated by the individual and psychological, personal factors, that is especially important in account and predicting somatic and mental disorders. It is established that personal competence in coping with stress, internal locus of control, all kinds of professional and social abilities and characteristics of social support – being a protective factor all this certainly softens pathogenic influence. It is proved that the essence of causation issues of a variety of organism’s disease states is to examine the features of the complex interactions between pathogenic and protective internal and external factors. It is shown that such protective factors include a stable relationship in childhood or adulthood, positive reinforcement of appropriate behavior, social models, letting adequately meet the demands of life, etc. It is proved that the highly complex interaction between pathogenic and protective external and internal conditions are the determinants of a multi-stage system, constituting the essence of a variety of issues of causation of disease states of the body and personality.
Key words: the problem on causation, disease states of the body and personality, causality, psychological determinants, mental disorders, affection of organism, multicausality, social and psychological factors, peculiarities, individual psychological factors.
The essence of readiness of students to self-education is analyzed in the article. In the process of theoretical analysis of scientific papers on the problem highlighted in the study are significant characteristics of this personal education: background, structure, criteria and symptoms, levels of development. A prerequisite of readiness of the individual to self-educational activity is defined to be the interaction of internal and external characteristics of the individual effects, manifested through various forms of self-education. It is found that the structure of the readiness of the individual to self-educational activity forms personality (associated with the psychological characteristics of the individual as a subject of activity), cognitive (related to the implementation of educational activities in general) and activity (associated with the actual implementation of selfeducational activity) components. The criteria of readiness for self-educational activity of students are the following: awareness of the importance of self-education, sustained interest in a particular field of knowledge, independence in the search for answers to topical issues, creativity in acquiring knowledge and skills, perseverance in overcoming obstacles in the way of learning a new experience, the emotional satisfaction of the self-training activities, the effectiveness of self-education acts. It is noted that the levels of readiness to self-education activity are advisable to allocate depending on individual, each of the levels may be determined by varying the degree of severity of each of the components of mentioned formation metrics. The conclusion is that the willingness of the individual to self-educational activity is sustained psychological education, integrating personal qualities, abilities, motivation, knowledge, skills, necessary for the implementation of this activity, which manifests itself as a mood of self-education and ensuring its effectiveness (resulting in a qualitatively new state identity: new knowledge, skills, personal qualities, new attitudes and beliefs).
Key words: readiness for self-educational activity, self-educational activity, college students, psychological formation, characteristic of selfeducational activity, preconditions of readiness for self-educational activity, the structure of readiness for self-educational activity, criteria of readiness for self-educational activity, manifestations of readiness for selfeducational activity, level of development of readiness for self-educational activity, characteristics of self-educational activity.
The article presents the psychological features of the implementation of innovations in higher educational establishment, basic conditions and stages. Innovative process management requires high professional competence, deep expertise, creative thinking, a lot of practical management experience and the use of psychological support systems. Analysis of the survey results and the scientific literature suggests that the success of innovation at the university contributes to the formation of psychological readiness and phased implementation that includes information, diagnostic, stimulating and supporting components. The features of the introduction of innovations is proved to be the fact that in each of the components of the underlying, driving element of acceptance of innovations there is defined to be the subjective perception of each member of the organization through motivational sphere of personality, moral and material incentives, as well as the levels of development of individual psychological qualities as purposefulness, activity, creativity, flexibility, thinking, adaptability, stress resistance. We proved that a significant positive impact on innovations adoption have such indicators as orientation on process, result, work and power; high level of social status features, social activity, sociability, optimism. Simultaneously we found inverse correlation with scales of emotional exhaustion, anxiety, irritability, depression, aggression and neurosality that negatively affect innovations adoption. It is concluded that the main organizational and psychological conditions change management at higher educational establishment which contribute to the success of their introduction are: provision of psychological readiness, cohesion participants’ innovations; creation of the necessary organizational and methodological conditions; development and implementation of incentive scheme participants to make changes; focus on the specific positive result and specific time parameters.
Key words: psychological features, implementation, innovation, innovative process, the adoption of innovations, research and teaching staff, change management, higher education institution.
The article is devoted to the actual and important interagency problem in psychological science. The main approaches to the intersubjectness problem analysis are described. The article states that interagency concept can get solid interpretation using the terminological basis and conceptual approaches from cultural-historical psychology, agency approach and existential school. The interagency is defined as the internal and external interpersonal connections system, which explicates the actual human agency level, forming the subjectness towards his/her own life situation and creativity products. Interagency also influences on the responsibility and reflectiveness of a personality. It is shown that interagency facilitates the personal self-expression. In the meantime it is important that the personal trait keeps forming in the process of expression. The article proves that the interagency is human subjectified intention to interact, to realize personal senses and motives. The interagency is analyzed to have human communicational intentions with self-development and self-improvement tendencies. The impact of interagency upon the human development and productive activity is discussed. The conclusion is driven that the interagency helps to mould new formations and intrapsychological intersystem connections. The latter have new structure and functions. The empirical approaches to interagency problems investigations are analysed. The author’s experimental works in this field are briefly summarized. Among other results it is stated that in the experimental situation the participants were asked to take care about each other, if they wanted to (they could share sweets with each other). The participants answered the T.Leary’s questionnaire before and after the three stages of the experiment (n=38). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant difference in the results before and after the experiment, which can prove the tendency of microdevelopment caused by interagency. The perspectives of interagency problem explorations in modern psychological science are underlined.
Key words: psychology, interagency, activity, subjectness, responsibility, creativity, evocation, communication, interaction.
Some key problems on studying the ideas of children of junior school age of the future are covered in the article. It is emphasized that the personal and time perspective is actively developed in modern psychology. The researches of temporary prospect, as a rule, are revealed to take place in teenage and older psychological ages. It is defined that the problem on studying temporary aspect of Self-image at junior school age is the least studied in respect of specifics of predictive «Me-image», ideas of future family and profession. Based on the empirical research the content of ideas of children of junior school age of the future is studied. The children are shown to have rather clear ideas concerning the image in the future, professional and family preferences. In groups of boys and girls in verbal and graphic images of the family and professional future a number of similarities and a number of significant distinctions is recorded. Identity of ideas of boys and girls concerning means of achievement of the desirable purposes, possible vital problems and failures is revealed. It is proved that for designation of ideas of themselves in the future children use mainly external characteristics that correspond to age features and are connected with insufficiently exact knowledge of oneself; graphic and verbal symbols of children, on the one hand, reflect the main spheres of self-realization (family, professional and personal selfdetermination), on the other hand – they are primitive and situational. In this regard the need of creation of special work with junior school children on specification and creation of a substantial image of the future is stated.
Key words: junior school age, image of the future, ideas of the future, family future, personal future, professional future.
UDC 925 : 159.923
The article deals with the analysis of the characteristics of understanding poetic texts by the person from the point of view of philosophy, logic, hermeneutics, psychology and others. The peculiarities of understanding of poetic texts by the person in a psychological paradigm were shown. Thus, we described the problem of understanding of poetic texts from the standpoint of different conceptual paradigms and approaches, in particular in terms of psycholinguistic, cognitive, cultural and historical approaches. The article clarified the concept of «dialogical interaction of the reader with the text» and «the understanding of a poetic text by a person». Additional mechanisms of further understanding poetic texts by the students of philological faculties were formulated. These are such mechanisms, as: the mechanism of updating «emotions’ shape», mechanism of harmonizing the meaning of poetic texts, the mechanism of amplification of poetic texts, a mechanism for obtaining so called aesthetic experience. It was indicated that the mechanism of updating «emotions’ shape» actualized the experiences of the person, arising in the process of artistic perception of the poetic text as a whole. Such experience is a reaction to the content that it is a result of integration of thoughts, organizing content in a certain artistic structure. It was noted that the mechanism of harmonizing the meaning was expressed in a harmonious system of coordinate of text’s organization. It was stressed that the mechanism of amplification of a poetic text helped to restore the whole complex system of semantic connections between individual images, mediated by the organization of content of a poetic text. Also the author of the article formulated a mechanism for obtaining an aesthetic experience, which allowed the reader to consider creative process of a philologist as the process of co-creation because it actualized the ability to see the product as a whole one, in its ideological and artistic sense, and holistically assessed and understood the details.
Key words: a poetic text, the process of understanding a poetic text, a mechanism of actualization «emotions’ shape», the mechanism of harmonizing the meaning, the mechanism of amplification of a poetic text, a mechanism for obtaining an aesthetic experience.
A strong interest of researchers to the phenomena of professional stress and emotional burnout syndrome is stated. Stress is defined as an intense state of the organism, i.e. nonspecific response to the proposed claim (stressful situation). Symptoms of the emotional burnout syndrome are divided into three groups: psychological and physical, social and psychological and behavioral. The emotional burnout syndrome in the dynamics has the following phases: phase of emotional stress, phase of resistance and exhaustion. It is shown that emotional burnout syndrome genesis has an individual character and is determined by differences in emotional and motivational sphere as well as conditions of the human professional activities. In the result of the study of factors that give rise to emotional burnout syndrome there have been allocated the following reasons: individual and organizational. It is established that personal characteristics of socionomic specialists define different measure of manifestation of the emotional burnout syndrome. They are the basic prerequisites of the syndrome occurring. The highest determinants of burnout expression are stated to be diagnosed in individuals who show a predisposition to anxiety, sensitivity and introvert character; the lowest rates are characteristic to individuals disposed to spontaneity and rigidity. It is shown that risk group mainly comprises young professionals regardless of gender. It is established that the cause of the prevalence of the young socionomic specialists’ emotional burnout syndrome is primarily lack of professionalism, because adult specialists discover ways to adapt to the profession, define professional goals and interests, made adequate mechanisms of professional self-preservation.
Key words: emotional burnout syndrome, specialists of socionomic professions, professionalism, mechanisms of professional self-preservation, sex, disposition, anxiety.
We analyzed scientific resources and found out that the problem of unemployment is the result of objective and subjective determinants that should be solved on the national level with the implementation of economic, social, organizational measures and the system of psychological support. Unemployment leads to negative changes in the human resources. This causes deterioration of qualitative characteristics of the labor force, employees lose their professional skills and qualification, work motivation becomes lower, productivity reduces. Unemployment is also responsible for brain drain. We determined three main types of unemployment: frictional, structural, cyclical and its derivatives such as hidden, chronic, stagnant and youth. The last two are considered to be the most dangerous. We found out that the growth in unemployment is a particular manifestation of unfavorable state of economy in many countries and in different times, which is the result of macroeconomic equilibrium and a consequence of labor market processes. If we compare the factors of supply and demand in the labor market explaining the determinants of unemployment, we come to the conclusion that every explanation is based on only one factor, but everything depends on the specific situation of unemployment, and the final version is connected with an imbalance of job supply and job offer, economic, social and intellectual potential that allows unemployed to have a high level of social support, training, retraining, mastering a new profession. We came to the conclusion that researchers left unstudied the questions of personality subjective perception of a new status, the previous status identification and identification with others, displays of inner experience of failure to provide decent living for own family. Dominant negativity leads to asthenic mental states, neuropsychiatric disorders, and even the emergence or exacerbation of physical illness. However, for some people who find themselves in such a crisis situation unemployment means increased activity, mobilization of their intellectual, emotional and social potential contributing to positive changes, rethinking their «Me» that determines the success of overcoming crises in life and opens a new level of professional growth.
Key words: psychological analysis, socio-economic, unemployment, objective and subjective determinants, negative effects.
This article is devoted to the important psychological problem – how the characteristics of life, education, mentality, rules and inherent in rural and urban areas influence for the value-semantic and temporal perspective of senior pupils. That’s why it was chosen for the study the residence place influence like a factor in the value-semantic sphere and temporal perspectives of senior pupils. As a result, it was determined that senior pupils who live in rural areas prefer existential and communicative values, but the hedonistic and cognitive leave unattended. In contrast, high school pupils from the cities prefer status and existential values. Also it was defined how the high school pupils make different values ranging. Both groups put the same values at the first two places: «health» and «good and reliable friends», and the least important is called «creation». It is determined that other values take different places in different groups. In this article there are also presented differences in temporal perspectives of those groups. Senior pupils from rural areas have a higher level of compliance with the perception of the outside world, adequate assessment of their capabilities and their goals. It is found that the tendency to consider the personal past experience as traumatic and negative and fatalistic attitude to present is inherent for high school students from rural areas. Such a tendency blocks the formation of personal potential of these high school students. Instead, focus on the future perspective, which includes the presence of the objectives, plans and focus on the behavior of their implementation, promotes personal development, can be their direction of development. The prospects for further research could be the study of gender differences in the residence place influence.
Key words: high school pupils, senior pupils, rural and urban residence, values, terminal and instrumental values, basic semantic formation, temporal perspective.
The article represents the results of the theoretical analysis of the art-therapy influence on the development of socionomic sphere specialists’ reflection. The science researches concerning art-therapy and reflection are analyzed in the article. The received data is generalized and compared. The definition of the term «reflection» is given in the article. Different types are described: 1) by O. Karpov (situational reflection, retrospective reflection, perspective reflection); 2) by D. Leontiev (introspection, system reflection, quasireflection). The definition of the term «art-therapy» is given in the article. The peculiarities of the art-therapy as a means for development of reflection and self-knowledge are described. It is showed that the creative product exchanging the dyad of «psychologist – client» into the triad «psychologist – creative product – client» becomes the reflection of person’s inner word. In this way creative product gives the possibilities for person’s reflection. Such art-therapy mechanisms are described like: symbolic reconstruction, removal, emotional decentration, catharsis, appropriation of socialnormative personal senses. Their influence on different types of reflection is analyzed by O. Karpov and by D. Leontiev. It is found that art-therapy is used not for therapy only but for education. Particularly art-therapy is used for professional education of socionomic sphere specialists. There is the short review of possibilities of introduction of art-therapy technologies into professional training of socionomic sphere specialists for the purpose of their general development and development of their reflection particularly.
Key words: reflection, art-therapy, self-knowledge, specialist, socionomic sphere, personality, development, mechanism, creative product.
The article presents results of the study of the prevalence of different types of risky behavior among adolescents in Ukraine. The data is presented and compared concerning distinctions of psychological constructs of each kind of risky behavior that are viewed in the article – self-harming behavior, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, violence, unreasonable life and health risk, eating disorders. The age and sex differences between data obtained are being statistically determined and presented. The connection between adolescent risky behavior and intensity of their suicidal activity are examined. It is analyzed in the article which psychological peculiarities of risky behavior can be viewed as predictors of possible suicidal activity. It is additionally evaluated how clustering of different types of risky behavior intensifies suicidal processes during adolescence. The features of family relationships of risky and suicidal teenagers are analyzed. The characteristic features of emotional, affective, cognitive and social functioning of adolescents involved into different types of risky behavior are presented and interpreted. The data involves data on depression and anxiety levels for each group studied. Traits in stress-resistance of adolescent risk-taking are described, as well as character reactions to stressful events and prevailing coping-strategies. Self-evaluation constructs are compared among risky adolescents. The most dangerous groups of risky behavior from a possible suicide perspective are distinguished.
Key words: adolescent risk-taking, risky behavior in adolescence, risky behavior in Ukraine, suicide, suicidal behavior, suicidal activity, correlation between risky and suicidal behavior.
In the article the attention is focused on the main components of the process of formation of professional «Me» image of the personality, including self-determination of the future professional way. It is stated that the professional «Me» image is the result of processes of professional self-determination, personalization and selforganization manifested in the realizing of oneself as a representative of a certain profession and the professional community, appearing in cognitive, emotional and behavioral self-description of «Me». It is found that one of the sources of formation is vocational education. It is established that the main terms of professional «Me» image becoming are the educational and professional community of fate and professional competency. It is shown that the subjective expectations and social prospects and opportunities, as well as recognition of professionalism by the surroundings promoting the professional «Me» image becoming play an important role in the professional «Me» image development. Professional self-presentation has an essential meaning. The level of professional «Me» image formation influences the process of formation of a professional, rate, success of mastering professional activities, joining the professional community. A high professional training and mastering professional skills are found to be impossible without the formation of professional self-consciousness and, in particular, professional «Me».
Key words: professional «Me» image, personality, professional edu cation, professional self-presentation, formation of a professional, mastering professional skills.
The current state of the success phenomenon research is analyzed in the article. There is estimated its importance for the personality and society as a whole. The views of foreign and domestic scientists on the phenomenon of success and successfulness are analyzed as well. Some aspects of the success concept are examined in domestic literature. The basic forms of success are described. There is presented a difference between success and progress by L.I. Dementiy. A sense of personality success understanding regardless its external social manifestations of life activity success are uncovered. There are presented external and internal indicators of success as well as their characteristics. The start of popularization of the emotional intelligence phenomenon is defined and there is given its definition as a person’s ability to interpret their own emotions and the emotions of others in order to use this information to realize his/her own goals. There are considered the views of domestic scientists on the emotional intelligence structure, stress-protective and adaptive features that can determine the life success depending on the person’s emotional attitude to the world, to humans and to himself/herself. There is also described the four-component structure of the emotional intelligence by Goleman D. We analyzed the existing foreign and domestic researches on the emotional intelligence relationship with the students’ academic achievements, professional activity effectiveness, successful implementation of the major life goals. We also analyzed own flight research on the emotional intelligence relationship and success feeling. We fixed empirically the intrapersonal emotional intelligence relationship with a success feeling of today’s youth.
Key words: success, successfulness, success feeling, forms of success, success indicators, emotional intelligence, emotions understanding, emotions managing, intrapersonal emotional intelligence, expression control.
The article is devoted to the concept of modern methods of researching ethnic tolerance on the formation and development of inter-ethnic communication, their application in practice of the study of inter-ethnic relations. According to the article the object of study of foreign and domestic scientists are psychological mechanisms that underlie ethnic tolerance of influence on the formation and development of inter-ethnic communication. The author considers that modern society need additional social psychological research to study the unexplored ethnic tolerance that remain in this field of psychology, leaving tremendous opportunity for scientists searching creative discovery. In the article it is considered the perspective and the actual directions of the study of ethnic tolerance. The author writes that the structure of ethnic tolerance reflects the psychological aspects of inter-ethnic identity associated with different types of social relations in society. Much attention is given to characteristic discontinuity between the theoretical description of ethnic tolerance and their practical solutions applied in the study of ethnic relations as a field of scientific knowledge. Further the author established that inter-ethnic communication in Ukrainian society has potentially dangerous elements of relationships between different ethnic communities. The author comes to the conclusion that there is a need in the development of system of early prediction conflicts situations and a model of the emergence and spread of conflicts. This system will effectively prevent the crisis state of interethnic relations with dangerous consequences.
Key words: ethnic relations, ethnic tension, ethnic tolerance.
UDC 159. 943
The article deals with the possibility of using exercise as a universal means of motor activity to improve psychomotor development of disorders of mentally retarded preschool children. It is done the theoretical analysis of researches concerning the problem of psychomotor development and motor activity of children with disabilities in the intellectual sphere. It is established that physical development and motor fitness of a child with mental disabilities largely determine his/her overall capacity in education and work, constitute compensation body reserves to overcome deviations in development. Studies revealing the importance of solid muscle in the establishment and formation of autonomic functions, mechanisms of interaction between motor skills and vegetative system are important to understand the mechanisms of interrelation of motor activity and functional capacity of the organism. The influence of motor activity on psychomotor development of mentally retarded preschool children and especially its usage in carrying out remedial work are defined. However, psychomotor is not only integral age picture of motor structure that reflects the innate physical characteristics, acquired habits, skills, but also a set of anatomical and physiological and psychological mechanisms that ensure implementation of simple and complex motor responses and actions. It is proved that lack of physical activity of mentally retarded children negatively affects their bodies, but be aware that excessive physical activity leads to negative functional changes in the cardiovascular system of preschooler, so you must take into account the individual characteristics of motor capabilities of each child.
Key words: physical activity, psychomotor development, mentally retarded children, exercise.
The problems of psychomotor training of patrol police officers and its impact on their personality traits are revealed are in the article. It is stated that the performance of their duties in the special conditions requires fast and precise actions. It is established that there is a correlation between the expression of personality traits of subjects of extreme activities and their level of psychomotor training. It is noted that to explore their physical (psychomotor) activities it is necessary by establishing the level of such qualities as speed, strength, endurance, agility. An indicator of the subject’s speed in the study was defined to be the result in 100 meters running. The strength of policemen under research was measured by the result of pulling on a high crossbeam, the endurance – by the scale of running at 1000 meters, agility was studied by the level of mastering techniques of fighting. We revealed that a significant reduction in the level of personal anxiety is caused by the increasing of the psychomotor preparedness level and patrol police officers with high personal anxiety in extreme conditions cannot fully reveal their psychomotor capabilities. The level of psychomotor readiness is found out to influence on three classical factors like valuation, strength, activity. It is proved that psychomotor training of patrol police officers is a process of development of their physical (psychomotor) skills. The element of psychological structure in psychomotor training of patrol police officers is the concept of psychomotor qualities that affect their personality traits.
Key words: personality traits, psychomotor, patrol police, psychomotor training.
UDC 159.94: 159.947
The article envisages the problem of negative consequences of the professional activity of specialists on State Emergency Service of Ukraine. The theoretical analysis of the origin, development and impact of the psychosomatic disorders on a personality in the works of foreign and domestic scientists is made. The features of the correlation between the continuum «health-disease» of Ukrainian State Emergency Service workers and changes occurring under the influence of the conditions of professional activities, as well as the individual characteristics of perception of the impact have been analysed. The specificity of the tasks as directed activity of extreme рrofile specialists, determining the high level of stress level of the rescuer profession is described. The results of the study on individual psychological properties of State Emergency Service workers are presented and according the results the individual and typological profile of the rescuer personality is built. The effect of a high-level risk of professional activities and individual and typological features of the profile of the rescuer on the origin they have psychosomatic diseases is studied. The basic groups of psychosomatic disorders are described. The typical psychosomatic «risk-zones» of the cardiovascular and digestive systems of State Emergency Service workers are focused. Based on the results it is described the profile of the patient suffering from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. It is proved that the psychosomatic status of an employee has purposed character, so it should be the object of attention of not only doctors, but also professional psychologists. The expediency of neurophysiological direction application in a comprehensive study and the prevention of pathogenesis of psychosomatic disorders of rescuers based on stress is proved.
Key words: stressful profession, individual and typological profile of the personality, psychosomatic illnesses, employees of the State Service of Ukraine for Emergency Situations, neurophysiological direction.
The article deals with an analysis of various psychological schools’ activities under conceptualisation of terms «social intelligence» and «anxiety» and it was investigated that social intelligence is a systematically determined quality, and as if it possess integrity, it can act as a cognitive phenomenon that is connected with other systemic qualities as self-organizing psychological system. The article gives suggestion, that social intelligence is one of the most important components of human life, which makes it possible to realize itself, providing right understanding of the behaviour of people, their verbal and nonverbal reactions, and is an important component in the structure of cognitive communicative abilities of an individual. This article emphasizes the fact, that the phenomenon of anxiety should be considered not only in terms of destructive influence, but also as an integral factor in the development of an individual. The systematization of scientific views on the nature of study an anxiety gives the reason to believe that anxiety as individual property of personality is complex, polydetermined mental form, which is revealed on the emotional, cognitive and behavioural levels. According to the theoretical and empirical material, the author makes an attempt to investigate the effect of anxiety on the development of the social intelligence of students and define the conformity, which reflects not only destructive, but also the constructive influence of the anxiety on the development of social intelligence of students. It was also given the attempt to justify and clarify terms «anxiety» and «social intelligence» with the help of analysis of major theoretical and methodological approaches in psychological science.
Key words: social intelligence, anxiety, influence, development, relationship, students, humanitarian course of learning, natural course of learning, physical and mathematical course of learning, professional development of the individual.
The paper is devoted to define the dynamic changes of individual psychological traits of psychologists of penitentiary institutions that affect the efficiency of the professional activity significantly. The stages of research on the formation of the necessary individual psychological traits of psychologists concerning the optimization of the performance of the tasks, required of their professional activity, are determined. The description of actions at every stage of the research is outlined. Four groups of criteria, which have been discussed during the research on the professional activity of these experts and their individual psychological traits that have significant influence on the effectiveness of their professional activity, have been considered. The study on dynamic changes of individual psychological traits of psychologists of penitentiary institutions was carried out on the basis of ascertaining experiment with fixing quantitative performance criteria, which were determined through analysis of scientific sources, views on this issues of most respondents and experts. Having defined ascertaining indicators of groups of respondents that we examined, a training course on self-confidence development of the psychologists was held. A comparison of the performance after forming the control and experimental research was made after the training course. The shifts were tested by the Student’s 0,05.³t-test at the level of statistical significance p It is concluded that results of the comparison give us opportunity to define the authenticity of positive changes of the values that we have estimated.
Key words: professional activity, dynamics of changes, individual psychological personality traits, the effectiveness of professional functions, functional actions.
UDC 159.923.2: 37.015.3.
The article investigates the issue of personal development of adolescents in the context of the subject’s genesis. A theoretical generalization of trends of coming-into-being of adolescents’ gender-role identity as a necessary prerequisite of a person’s self-identification and self-fulfilment during his/her coming of age has been made. Gender-role identity is interpreted as an internal dynamic structure that conditions a person’s understanding and experiencing as being part of a particular gender. It has been recognized that mastering gender-role behaviour models is carried out in accordance with gender-role standards accepted in a particular culture. Those standards are regarded as typical examples (models) of emotionally charged ideas about feminine and masculine behaviour scenarios and personality traits. Important aspects of gender socialization of adolescents under the conditions of radical socio-cultural transformations of the modern society of pre-figurative type, which complicate self-identification of school children, have been analyzed. Under those conditions, the situation of uncertainty has been identified as the determinant of adolescents’ mental development. The sociocultural conditionality of gender-role differences in the behaviour of adolescents has been founded. Based on the analysis of empirical evidence, the specifics of variability of a person’s gender-role behaviour during the controversial adolescent period of his/her development have been outlined. The availability of special features of personal constructs’ development in teenagers of different genders as a dimension of integrative profile of a person during his/her coming of age has been stated. The generalized statistically average results of empirical measurements of personal constructs of teenage school children have been presented. Trends of psychological and pedagogical support of the constructive development of adolescent personality constructs by means of communicative modelling tools have been identified.
Key words: adolescence, subject’s genesis, pre-figurative type society, gender socialization, gender-role standards, gender-role identity, personality construct, humanization of education, modelling.
This article is devoted to the analysis of theories of domestic violence. The tendencies of explanation of the nature of violence are considered. The biological approach, which examines the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on the occurrence of domestic violence, is studied. The ecological explanation of the nature of violence is analyzed. In the article it is studied and described the attempts to systematize the theories of violence. The attention is paid to gender theories of domestic violence. In this regard, the violence is considered as a practice that is used in marriage to monitor and maintain the relations of power and subordination. The picture of violent behavioral practices in the family as the basic institution of patriarchy is described. The mechanisms of violent behavior pictures through learning and risk factors for their manifestation are characterized. The methods of forming violent thinking and violent activities, as well as the formation of attitude towards domestic violence through positive reinforcement are distinguished. The microsocial and macrosocial theories of domestic violence are analyzed, the level and multilevel approaches in the theories of domestic violence are considered. The personality-based characteristics and psychological properties that contribute to domestic violence are described. The theory of cognitive scripts is analyzed. The attention is paid to the influence of the environment on the occurrence of domestic violence.
Key words: domestic violence, the theory of violence, violent behavior, violent thinking, domination strategy, attitude to violence, risk factors, cognitive scripts, desensibilization.
The features of children with disabilities and the conditions necessary for their socialization are investigated. The features, current state and prospects of further development of inclusive education are studied. The analysis of psychological-pedagogical and medico-psychological literature on characteristics of children with development disabilities is made. The issue on inclusive education, its main goals, tasks and principles are processed. The regulatory requirements of the legal rights of children with disabilities are examined in details. The study revealed how the educational community at different age stages of mastering the knowledge of children with disabilities should be formed. The way how educational space should be formed, taking into account the special needs of children is established. The main problems that can encounter during the integration of children with disabilities in regular classes are investigated. We discuss the main groups of conditions that should be involved in the shaping of an inclusive environment. We have made the following conclusions: how education of children with disabilities should be modernized to organize a comfortable learning, development and socialization, what innovations must be entered into the education system of children with special needs, how to prepare the methodological framework and how to retrain and improve the expertise of specialists educational process – to the harmonious development of children with disabilities to health.
Key words: features, formation, inclusive education, children, limited, special needs, development, education system, harmonious development.
The article analyzes the direction of value orientations of the deported Lemkos in the context of their impact on ethnic self-awareness. According to the results of empirical research there was determined that in group of the deported Lemkos, hierarchy of values is represented by an equal number of positively significant and negatively significant values. Top five of positively significant values comprise: Universalism, Benevolence, Security, Conformity and Tradition. Top five of negatively significant values for Lemkos who were relocated from the territory of Lemkivshchyna in 1945-1946, consist of: Self-Direction, Achievement, Hedonism, Power and Stimulation. It is determined that, the negative weight of values Power and Stimulation significantly exceeds index of weight of positive values, which may indicate a suppression of value dispositions or conflict of values in group of the deported Lemkos. The mechanisms of functioning of values which provide transformation of ethnic norms and behavior patterns in individualized experience of ethnic group, and form features of Lemkos ethnic self-awareness were discovered. In particular, it was determined that the values Universalism, Benevolence and Tradition were included in the largest number of correlative relations, which gave a reason to consider them as instrumental values in group of the deported Lemkos. It was found a multilevel conflict between motivational directivity of anxiety free value and anxiety-based values; and between values of personal focus and social focus. It was found, that since values of social focus, were adaptive to the new socio-political conditions, they underwent consolidation in the structure of ethnic self-awareness of the deported Lemkos. The conducted research reveals the impact of deportation on the system of value orientations of Lemkos ethnic group.
Key words: attitudes, ethnic group, ethnic self-awareness, ethnicity, Lemkos, traditions, value orientations, values.
The article analyzes the features of adjustment disorders influence on cognitive and psycho-emotional sphere of military persons. The stress effect on cognitive and emotional sphere on persons understudy is surveyed. The study was carried out by means of comparative analysis of the results of the control group using primary and secondary methods of mathematical statistics. It is defined the quality indicators of the dynamics of memory loss and violation of attention, reducing the overall mental tone in the conditions of stressful events during military service. The changes at the cognitive component level, which was conducted through interviews and through the test of 10 words, tables of Schulte and Luscher test were studied. The data of cognitive and psycho-emotional areas of military personnel is compared with adjustment disorders and posttraumatic stressful disorders, with servicemen who had not these disorders, as well as contract servicemen. The changes in cognitive sphere and emotional sphere of servicemen with adjustment disorders and posttraumatic stressful disorders are presented. The changes in terms of the average level of memory, attention, emotional background and state of mental fatigue are described. The indicators of cognitive and psycho-emotional sphere level in the professional activities of military persons are discovered and presented. The dynamics of changes in cognitive and psycho-emotional spheres of military personnel is analyzed. The data is summarized and the results are presented in a diagram. The comparative model of the disorders of memory, attention, emotional background and autonomic balance is shown. The dynamic of changes in cognitive and psycho-emotional sphere of military personnel, including memory, attention, and emotional activity is empirically observed.
Key words: serviceman, adaptation disorders, memory, attention, emotional background, vegetative balance, cognitive sphere, psycho-emotional sphere.
The article defines the topicality of the chosen subject, which is related to the importance of studying and optimization of the process of professional self-realization of both sexes in terms of social progress. The latest studies of the chosen topic are analyzed according to the national and foreign researchers. The purpose of the article consists in the investigation of the psychological characteristics of professional men’s and women’s self-realization. The article analyzes such notions as «self-actualization», «professional self-realization», «gender», «masculinity», «femininity», etc. Two basic approaches to drawing a comparison between men and women, namely the biological and the socio-cultural approaches are distinguished. The main theories of the scientists are noted basing upon the aforementioned approaches. The hypothesis that career choices for men and women are connected with the domination of psychological sex – masculinity or femininity has been proved experimentally. Personal qualities that are included in the constructs of «femininity» and «masculinity» are systematized. To ascertain the gender peculiarities of professional self-realization, the level of motivation for success, job satisfaction, and integral index of job satisfaction are compared. Mathematical and statistical methods using SPSS are applied. A psychological conclusion that there are no gender differences in the level of job satisfaction and motivation for success was made. However, the researcher assumes the existence of gender differences in the level of men’s and women’s subjective well-being. The index values of the arithmetic mean of professional self-realization and psychological sex of men and women are correlated. Masculine men show a higher level of motivation for success than feminine women, while the androgynous men and women have the same index value of the arithmetic mean of motivation for success. Androgynous men and women also had higher indices compared to masculine men and feminine women.
Key words: personality, professional self-realization, profession, gender, gender peculiarities, masculinity, femininity, androgyny, motivation for success, subjective well-being, job satisfaction.
Personality is interpreted from the perspective of psychological hermeneutics as a «discursive personality», which is the carrier of a real life experience and the subject of social interactions, it is characterized by a «discursive subjectivity», i.e. the ability to express itself in a text and as a text or narrative. Based on the literature data concerning the complication of reconstruction of Self-discourse of a personality under the present stagnant experience, we made an assumption that the consequence of the problematic flow of the Self-discourse is the loss of a person’s (co-)author’s position in his own life story and it threatens the constructiveness of a person’s identity. We assumed that there is a possibility of extrapolating the principle of journalism of increasing a reader’s interest in some information by presenting it in a form of an interview on the application of psychological «actualizing interview» aiming at reviving a personality’s Self-text. The actualization is considered in line with the metaanthropology as the orientation of a personality on the creative development and as a relationship with Other as with a unique person. The purpose of the psychological «actualizing interview» we stated to be the organization of process of self-analysis for creation the reasons of realization themselves reflection experience. The main principles of psychological «actualizing interview» were defined to be the following: the support of a human’s confidence in its own uniqueness, the transformation of the relationship to the internal barriers as to a possible support, the resolution of conflicts in a peaceful way, namely: the wording of the task of self-development, determination of significance for the other in modus of service. The result of actualizing, which is aimed at the psychological resources of the personality, is the author’s position of a person relative to truth.
Key words: psychological «actualizing interview», Self-discourse of a personality, balancing the aspects of an experience, the position of a personality toward truth, uniqueness, relation to the internal barriers, the balance of the responsibility and the freedom, conflicts of a person’s life story.
The article considers the methodological perspectives of use of post-non-classical paradigm of psychological research as applied to the study of the processes of socialization and formation of personality’s integrity in the context of modernity. Post-non-classical approach, which was developed in humanistic psychology, is considered from the point of view of its possibilities for generating knowledge, specifically close to the universal level of the socialization process. The problem is considered both at the theoretical and applied levels. The author has illustrated the effectiveness of post-non-classical methodology for the example of results of the empirical study of processes of socialization of students of Ukraine, which was conducted by the research group of the faculty of psychology at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev in 2014-2016. The author makes a conclusion that post-non-classical strategy of development of theoretical and empirical components of the research program of the process of socialization and achievement of status of integrity in the modern society has a considerable heuristic potential. According to this, in the framework of post-non-classical approach it is possible to create theoretical models that provide the ability to formulate hypotheses and generate empirical tools that are sensitive to processes of socialization on the more specific (special) level. On the basis of the post-non-classical approach a perspective to be closer to the universal level of knowledge about the formation of personality integrity opens in the empirical research. This is significant from the point of view of the need for the formation of practically oriented knowledge about the processes of personality socialization in the modern society with its multi-dimensionality and a high level of risk socialization, due to the institutional crisis. Further development of psychological knowledge concerning the formation of the integrity of the personality in post-nonclassical methodology of scientific knowledge will make it more effective and purposeful processes of social work and psychological support in modern society.
Key words: modern society, institutional crisis, post-non-classical psychology, post-non-classical methodology, socialization of the personality, integrity of personality.
This article envisages the sanogenic thinking and sanogenic reflection as a way of developing the effectiveness of coping behavior. It is analyzed the influence of sanogenic reflection on personality. The concept of the sanogenic reflection has recently appeared in psychology. Y.M. Orlov was one of the first who started studying sanogenic thinking. The huge contribution was made by S.N. Moroziuk with her researches and developments. The sanogenic thinking can provide health and well-being of the personality. The sanogenic reflection is a mechanism to achieve the sanogenic thinking. Data is given about the results which person can achieve in the process of mastering the practice of sanogenic reflection. The purpose of the sanogenic reflection in the emotional situations is to reduce the suffering of the experience of these emotions. In the article a lot of experimental researches that are proving the positive influence of the sanogenic reflection on the personality and on the effectiveness of his activity are analyzed. It is described in short the practice of sanogenic reflection. It is introduced the results of the formative experiment, which was conducted in the experimental and control groups. We present the changes that have occurred in the experimental group after training in practice of sanogenic thinking. It is drawn a comparison between coping behavior of the experimental group before and after the experiment. It is spoken in detail about coping of experimental group before and after the experiment. It is analyzed the dynamics of changes in adaptive coping behavior in the experimental group. Further the author describes the indicators of the protective and sanogenic reflection of the control group. It is drawn a comparison between coping behavior of the control group before and after the experiment. Conclusions are drawn about the dynamic of changes of coping behavior of personality through studying the theory and practice of sanogenic thinking (Y.M. Orlov).
Key words: sanogenic thinking, pathogenic thinking, sanogenic reflection, meditative graphics, coping behavior, coping strategies, formative experiment.