The specific characteristic of ontogenetic development of man is stated to consist in that it is subjected to the biological laws and actions (as well as the development of animals), and to the social and historical laws. It is shown that the object of genetic psychology is a personality, spiritual and corporeal individual, generated by personal object-practical activities, which is then transformed into some aspects of his own activities. The genetic and psychological view on a personality is proved to understand him as unique integrity, being self-developed, selfregulated and being the bearer of universal life spirit. It is noted that the purpose of genetic psychology of the personality consists in the search of laws of genesis from the original content of undifferentiated human sensitivity to the mechanisms of creativity. The genetic research method is mentioned to involve the analysis of some initial state of an object or phenomenon and making next formations using this knowledge. The attention is paid to the genetic method used in the actual conceptual content in a particular field of psychology, it is a way to study the subject, based on an analysis of its formation and functioning. We came to the conclusion that the realization of the genetic principle in psychological researches offered substantial prospects for further, deeper understanding of one of the central problems of educational psychology – the problem of correlation between mental development and training, having very deep historical roots, and in addition it belonged to those that made up the impression of quite obvious. It is established that the genotype side of maturation determines higher limit of age opportunities, as the impact of education on the development is mediated by age and individual characteristics of children.
Key words: genetic psychology of personality, mental development, training, age-related opportunities, individual peculiarities, genotype side of maturation, children, research, analysis, genetic method.
The article is devoted to an urgent problem of practical education of graduate students of the specialty «Social work». It’s justified the important role of supervision, which is a well-established method of learning, a prerequisite for the independent professional activity. This article discusses included and not-included methods of supervision in applying in strategic and short-term systemic approaches in providing social services. It was determined not to include in the supervision the situation where, based on their record, the trainee discusses with the supervisor for the specific case and/or gives the supervisor video or audio recordings of the session. Included supervision involves studying the consultations with the client in a room with a video camera under the supervision of the supervisor, who directs the course of psychological counseling by phone or using the inserted in the ear microphone or calls the student to discuss specific points. The experience of implementing strategic and short-term approach to counseling clients in the social sphere is analyzed, which are used in the Department of psychology of the Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, where along with leading method – supervision – are also actively conducted mock counseling session during any implemented facilitation and supervision. It is proved that the social workers-beginners trained by the method of supervision, show much higher levels of readiness for independent professional activities, compared with experts who have received only traditional training; the most challenging aspect of the teaching-learning is art of innovation, which is necessary because clients and their problems are changing and require the creation of new approaches.
Key words: supervision, included supervision, not included supervision, imitating consulting sessions, education of graduate students, psychological counseling, a short-term approach in advising, strategic family counseling, a systematic approach in counseling.
UDC 37.134 : 372.4
The article deals with important social and psychological contexts of future teacher’s training to social and pedagogical activities. The author submitted methodological principles of future teacher’s training (system, complexity, scientific strategy, social and cultural determination, education fundamentalization, etc.). The functions of social and pedagogical activities and the essence of psychological readiness of a specialist to their realization in modern school practice are grounded. In the context of social and psychological readiness of future pedagogue the typical phenomena which are psychological barriers on the way to professional education are characterized. The reasons of the rise of inner discomfort, high emotional tense at student’s age are defined. The author submits the results of experimental study of the level of personal anxiety in Ukrainian pedagogical establishments. High level of situational (reactive) and personal anxiety of future teachers are explained by unstable political as well as social and economic situation, hostilities on the east of the country, financial difficulties of the majority of citizens, absence of perspective of job placement, social exposure, terrorist actions, difficulties in communication with colleagues, etc. The author comes to the conclusion about the reasonability of directing pedagogical process in high school towards the formation of psychological readiness of future teachers to solving a number of social and pedagogical tasks that take place in modern school practice. The training in this aspect presupposes first of all the development of personal and professional qualities of future specialists with the certain filling of education content, orientation on the principles of purposefulness, system, humanism, privacy, tolerance, differentiation and individualization of social and pedagogical activity.
Key words: professional education, future pedagogues, social and pedagogical readiness of a specialist, principles of professional training, psychological and pedagogical activity.
The paper analyses theoretical characteristics of biochemical specificity of brain systems that have a nature of prevalent tendency; the study also shows how emotions that a person experiences influence their physical, social and the morale. If a person acknowledges that any sickness is a result of an emotional distress, this may turn into a good result for exploring the etiology and how to manage a disease. The majority of theorists place great focus on fundamental significance of emotional life on all psychical processes and, especially, those regarding life and effective performance. Since a person not only perceives the world around, but declares a state of mind towards it. Each person learns to distinguish emotions since childhood and continues to do this during the whole life. At this time the ability to read own emotions and emotions of other people is quite different, and this depends on various factors. It has been investigated that emotional and sensual area coheres with other processes and provide with the functions of self-understanding and self development, and has an influence on health preservation. It determines person’s moral and ethical insights which are connected with the way people meet basic needs. That is the sense of strong feelings, revealing the person as an individual. A person as a social being has an emotional and sensual area of a specific orientation state that is expressed in the need of bilateral emotional contact when a person feels that he or she is subject of interest and the other person’s feelings match their own ones. It has been concluded that most of childhood dysfunctions are connected to their social environment and the failure to share emotions and impressions with those who they trust.
Key words: dopamine, specificity of brain system, excitatory system, emotions, serotonergic brain system, mental and physical health, emotional health, childhood (infancy).
The paper presents the development of interactive components of a comprehensive program of psychological selfdetermination regulation for future experts of trade business. We made an attempt to combine the development of psychological components of professional self-determination of future professionals in trade business and the formation of linguistic competence while applying corrective program. The program is based on our model of professional self-determination and using the psychological and organizational technology. Development of language competence is due to the intensification of studing activity through intellectual, emotional and speaking activity. Communication models of real situations keep the most essential features of all objects that are modeled, which promotes motivated character of speaking activity. Application of psychological self-development program in the vocational training provides separate training sessions for first-year students and graduates for maximum focus on relevant components of professional self-determination of each group. The program is presented in the form of blocks that combine several interactive and projective techniques aimed at the development of individual structural components of professional self-determination of future specialists in trade business (motivation, professional orientation, individual psychological, emotional and volitional) with corresponding functions: integrating, motivating, developing and stabilizing.
Key words: professional self-determination, psychological program, correction, integration, language competence, communicative model, language activities, interactive technologies.
- Zieba, A. Pitynskyi
The article envisages the problem of violence in a family, in particular different kinds and forms of domestic violence, its influence on functioning of the family and negative consequences for the emotional and social sphere of life of all family members. Modeling of negative types of behavior may have a great number of unpleasant consequences for the health of the members of the family. The possible forms of prevention and counteraction to violence are presented, as well as activities of different bodies, establishments and centers, aimed at the exposure and removal of socially-public pathologies. It is shown that the acts of violence of parents or other family members conduce to violation of family microclimate and atmosphere in domestic surroundings. Likewise it is probable pathologies adaptation and adoption of them by young generation in the capacity of standard and correct behavior that may result in inheritance by children of such a kind of behavior in their grown-up life and spreading of violence. The authors underline the need of all the possible methods of operational interference application and prevention of aggravation of such a problem for the sake of its limitation, elimination and giving the family normal and calm existence in society. Violence problem in the family appears the starting point in the sphere of social politics of the state, the purpose of which, inter alia, is protection of family welfare and application of preventive measures for maintenance of its availability, proper functioning in society and implementation of the functions, including proper upbringing of the future young generation.
Key words: family, upbringing, violence, prevention, social pathology
UDC 925 : 159.923
The article deals with the problem of concept of «intellect». It is outlined as a peculiar system of mental mechanisms which determine the possibility of constructing a subjective model of the world by the individual. We describe the content of basic categorical approaches to the intellect, such as procedural and regulatory approaches. The author’s conception of social intellect shows us that this intellect includes cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic structures. It was established that cognitive substructure of social intellect involved a set of fairly stable knowledge, assessment, rules of interpretation of events, human behavior, their relationships, etc. Social intellect is based on the existing system of interpretation on micro-structural and macro-structural levels. It was shown that mnemonic component of social intellect of the person described the presence of the ability to interpret events, life events, behavior of others and their own as the subject of these events. It was proved that mnemonic substructure was based on the personal experience of the subject, where subjective statistics constituted personal interpretive complex. Polymodality in this case means that a person has different interpretative systems according to various aspects of life of a man/woman. So, they may conflict with each other, but psychologically they consist of internal structures, providing based unity of mnemonic component and a social intellect. It was concluded that emphatic component of social intellect was largely dependent on what shape of the behavior the person had chosen as a priority that he / she expected his / her business had been associated with the complex of interpretative value in relation to the world of the person. It was shown that in a space of the relations of the person there was a need to evaluate constantly other people, their behavior and actions, gradually produced different strategies estimated the criterion of compatibility of people’s perception of the world and their perceptions by others. In turn, these strategies form the appropriate assessments and personal interpretive complex in the interpersonal sphere, which presents the dominant level of mnemonic component of social intellect.
Key words: intellect, social intellect, procedural approach, regulatory approach, cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic substructures of social intellect.
The article deals with the main approaches which studied the professional competence of a lawyer: a systematic approach and personally-integrative approach. These approaches were analyzed. We described the phenomenon of «competence» as a combination of its six components: a conceptual (scientific) component, instrumental one, integrative component, a contextual one, an adaptive and communicative components. The features of formation of professional competence of a specialist were determined. The elements of pedagogical competence were shown. It was analyzed the theory of B.I. Dodonov, in which the main characteristics of the personality (social status, important social physical characteristics, psychological status) had been characterized. These characteristics increasingly influence the formation of professional competence of lawyers. We also described the conception of B.V. Ovchynnykov (in which four main sub-structures of the person had been identified: 1) instinctive (motor-sensory); 2) affective-impulsive; 3) intellectual and volitional; 4) intellectual and intuitive), which are important for building the structure of professional competence of lawyers. The areas to determine the professional competence of the lawyer within the personal-integrative approach were proposed. These areas are: integral and reflexive-creative. It was shown that the professional competence of lawyers had been characterized by the formation of a comprehensive set of knowledge and skills, psychological qualities, professional opportunities and acmeological invariants. All other components of the person are considered to be the individual subject characteristics, they indicate the real attitude of the lawyer to the professional activity and to his personality. The professional competence of the lawyer involves a combination of skills to make creative solutions of different problems and the presence of professional skills of the lawyer. Manifestation of creativity and individuality characterizes the high level of professional competence, it is accompanied with intellectual and creative initiative, reflexivity, sense of novelty, the desire to deepen their knowledge, self-expression of the personality in the profession and the actualization of creative possibilities of the person.
Key words: professional competence, systematic approach, personal and integrative approach, integral direction, reflexive and creative direction, psychological qualities, professional opportunities, acmeological invariants.
We revealed psychological characteristics, structure and specific phenomenon on the basis of theoretical analysis of the problem of the formation of professional maturity of a future specialist. We defined professional maturity of a person as an integrative system that reflects content-marked unity of personal, academic and social qualities which provide specialists, graduates with successful self-realization in professional activity, socialization and harmonization with environment. We examined the basic essential functional characteristics of professional activity as: person’s integrative quality, system-forming core of which is personal, academic and social maturity, integrative value that allows stable motivational-value professional orientation and social readiness to multiaspect activity, integral index of personal, academic and social readiness to professional activity on higher levels. We proposed psychological and acmeological determinants of professional maturity: conditions: situation of professional and personal development, professional cooperation with colleagues, professional reflection; factors: education, relationships, creativity, criticality and management, choice of strategies, formation of co-operation with colleagues and students, creative restoration professional traditions, critical evaluation of themselves and others, goal-setting process control; acmeological environment: professional environment specialist with the principles, norms, traditions, values, experience and relationships, specialist professional development of the individual through active interpersonal cooperation, intensive information exchange and continuous training. By the criteria of level of professional maturity of a specialist in educational sphere there have been distinguished: humane stance professional educational sector, successfully used technologies in professional work experience overcoming obstacles in achieving the goal of education, innovation to improve teaching activities, self-improvement, positive professional «self-concept», the impact of a specialist. The methodological, psychological, communicational, organizational and acmeological competences are the basic professional competences of the teacher.
Key words: professional maturity, professional competence, criteria of professional maturity, the determinants of professional maturity.
The author of the article expands main concepts concerning the problem of counseling and vocational guidance throughout the stage of development of the pupil from the elementary school, junior high school to the higher educational establishments. The various types of psychological, psychometric and motivational tests are presented, which are used at the European labour market in the process of personnel selection and provide data acquisition about people’s predisposition and competence, their potential. The questions discussed in the article are analyzed taking into account knowledge of students about activities of vocational guidance and counseling organizations by means of the researches conducted in 2013-2014 among the students of Transcarpathia. It is shown that a vocational guidance promotes a successful transition from student role on the labour market and helps with any change in work. The presence of a professional Counsellor in each school and each level of education today becomes the unquestionable necessity. The necessity and importance of all schools contacting is proved, including higher vocational schools, psychology and educational institutions, health service, labour authorities and advisory agencies including information centers and career planning. In conclusions the author asserts that instability of labour market, its liquidity and continuous change, the conditions of the European Economic Area require the introduction of a compulsory system of counseling and vocational guidance; the right student’s choice of profession and his professional activity will favour the decrease in unemployment and pathologies rate among young people.
Keys word: counseling, professional orientation, vocational guidance, education.
Altruistic attitude of the doctor towards the patient is considered as a guarantee of successful treatment. The author has studied altruistic upbringing of medical students during their Medical School training, the article defines the necessity of combining teaching deontological courses, educational activities of the Dean’s offices and intersubject integration of students’ upbringing. The article describes the proprietary author’s course of deontological training at Foreign Language classes, which was being conducted from 2009 to 2015 at O. Bogomolets National Medical university with the students of the 1st and 2nd courses. The article contains basic aims and tasks of the course, and means of their achievement as well. The article discloses main stages of the altruistic attitude key components: cognitive, motivation and organizational one. The author describes main exercises and drills of the training, the main principles of organizing the students’ activities. The article contains the description of some basic case study exercises. Upon completing the course, the students were interviewed on the necessity of further introductions of such courses, the academic achievement results were analyzed. The obtained results evidenced about high effectiveness of the special training course both in relation to the high academic achievement of the students and students’ altruistic attitude development. The subsequent research may concern introduction of deontological training during teaching foreign languages the students under the Mastership program and during their course preparation for the PhD qualifying examinations. The author also proposes to include the course into the postgraduate education academic curriculum.
Key words: Altruistic attitude, formation, special course, training exer cises, medical students, interpersonal interaction, doctor, patient.
In the given article it has been provided the study of specific existential relationships of an adult personality with childhood psychotraumatic experience of family genesis. Existential relationships typology has been defined along with existential relationships psychological structure presentation, namely «life view», «dynamic» and «qualitative» components. It has been grounded the typology of existential relationships of an adult personality and also, the criteria for their type establishing have been defined (subjective ethical dimension of life view position, the rate of personality mindfulness, dynamics, constructiveness). According to the given criteria an instrumental typological model of existential relationships was developed together with typology contents. The paper highlights empirically obtained results on the specifics of adults’ existential relationships with childhood psychotraumas of family genesis as well as their typology: «ethically-oriented» type – psycho traumatic experience of one parent loss; «ethically-deficient» – experience of destructive parental relationships; «unethically-oriented» – traumatic experience of parents’ autodestructive behavior. It has been discussed the rehabilitative correction program aimed at negative affect mitigation and life creation potential revival of adults with childhood traumas of family genesis.
Key words: traumatic experience, childhood traumas, existential relationships, typology, destructive parental relationships, autodestructive parents’ behavior, constructive potential.
- Y. Liashyn
A difficult life situation can be characterized by three features: human’s abilities and skills are seriously tested; there are no ready-made decisions or they cannot be used; consequences cannot be forecasted. The widespread human behavior conceptions aimed at conflict solving are shown. It is noticed that coping hasn’t been integrally studied as a strategy of conflict solving. The main theoretical approaches to the study of coping in foreign psychology are N.Haan and T.Kroeber’s theory, in which coping is considered as a specific ego-process, Moose’s theory, who claimed that coping is a relatively stable personal characteristics, and cognitive-phenomenological Lazarus and Folkman’s theory, who studied issue of concept of threat mental designing in contact with stressor. It is necessary to highlight at L.I.Bozhovich’s conception of «search activity» and A.A.Nalchadzhian’s theory of defence-adaptive mechanisms among domestic researchers. Possibility of consideration of coping as a strategy of conflict solving is stated from the point of view of listed theories. Coping resources and correlation of coping strategies choice in conflict with person’s self-efficacy have been considered. We came to the conclusion that strategies of behavior in conflict can be related with coping strategies pointed out in different coping theories, and personality’s belief in his/her ability to influence the outside world and events is the central coping resource.
Key words: coping, conflict, difficult life situation, personality, individual characteristics, adaptation, coping-strategies, stress.
There have been identified and characterized the dominant types of coping strategies of teenagers with mental retardation in the article. It was established that teenagers with mental retardation had formed coping behavior. Specific coping strategies that give reasons to prevent the formation of inefficient forms of coping behavior of teenagers with mental retardation are defined and specified. It is proved that coping behavior of teenagers with mental retardation, is a form of behavior with the basic psychological mechanisms of isolation, addiction and projection; determined by psychic infantilism, weak cognitive activity, without formation of abilities to realize and differentiate life situations and the choice of adequate forms of response to them. It is experimentally determined the range of typical life circumstances being described by teenagers as difficult life situations. The typical kinds of situations are investigated and compared. The specificity of complicated life situations of mentally retarded teenagers is analyzed. The most common coping strate gies of teenagers, namely destructive, constructive and mixed are defined and established. The destructive and constructive coping behaviors are characterized as components of coping behavior of mentally retarded teenagers, and the comparative analysis is made. The features of coping behavior of teenagers with mental retardation are defined. The results of diagnostic techniques that determine the dominant coping strategies of mentally retarded teenagers are analyzed. The comparative analysis of the dominant coping strategies, including a strategy to solve the problem, a search for social support strategy, a strategy of avoidance is showed. A psychological background of coping behavior of mentally retarded teenagers is defined as personality’s characteristics presented by properties and conditions that determine the appearance of coping behavior of teenagers, regardless of the nature (constructive or destructive).
Key words: coping behavior, coping strategies, coping resources, mental retardation, teenagers with mental retardation, dominant coping strategies, constructive, destructive, mixed.
The author studied that the psychological specificity of non-psychotic disorders is expressed in: over-intensive, inadequate, inappropriate emotional reaction to the strength of stimulation, provoking behavioral disorders, accompanied with neurotic and psychopathic symptoms; cognitive disorders which do not reach the level of pathology, but have a significant impact on the behavior, adaptive capabilities of the personality and the nature of the interaction with others; violation in the system of personality relations: to oneself, to other people and to the world in a whole. It is established that the purpose of psychotherapy influence in the clinic of non-psychotic disorders is to achieve sanogenic effect through the activation of the basic mechanisms of personal transformation of the patient, which is due to a specific psychotherapeutic interventions and influences. It is concluded that the mechanisms of therapeutic effects of psychotherapy are the internal conditions of psychotherapeutic situation, which provide the factorization of all sanogenic influences in the process of psychotherapy, and serve as explanatory models of the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic effects. It is found that the overall psychological mechanism of somatogenic disorders consists in the fact that in the context of affective symptoms caused by the psychotraumatic situation, there are somatic disorders, which are focused by the patient, because they cause suffering.
Key words: psychological specificity of non-psychotic personality disorders, patient, stimulation, emotional response, behavioral disorders, neurotic and psychopathic symptoms, psychotherapeutic situation, somatic disorders.
UDC 159. 922.7: 376.3
The article is devoted to scientific-theoretical analysis of counseling as a leading form of psychological help with problems, which belong to the parents – children sphere. The specificity of psychological and pedagogical counseling has been analysed, main stages of its realization have been defined, as well as the objectives for each stage have been defined. General objectives of psychological and pedagogical counseling have been defined; they include the psychological development control of a child on the basis of notions about the normative content and age periodisation of the process. Following the traditions of L.S. Vyhotsky’s cultural and historical conception, the component of social situation development, principle of systemic analysis of the whole complex of peculiarities of child’s history, hierarchy of activities as well as the psychological neoplasm were the basis for psychological and pedagogical counseling. It has been established that counseling directed into the future is considered as an attitudinal change of parents to themselves, to the child, as well as to the problem and ways of its solution. Generalised algorithm of individual counseling of parents, based on the notions of Carl Rogers’ person-centred psychotherapy, has been described. The unconditional positive regard to client, empathic understanding of client’s frame of reference, belief in personal powers and abilities of the client are the basic principles of this approach. The conclusion has been made that parents’ counseling in modern society becomes common cultural practice because it regards the most important aspect of human relationships – the between parents and children, between child and its surrounding. Parental position, as usual, is dynamic, even when it tends to conservatism. In the context of counseling, the parents decentration is meant, which plays an important role among the reasons of child’s development difficulty.
Key word: counselling practice, mental development, mental health, age, developmental psychology, life situation, behavioural disorders, motivation, prevention of the development (of).
In this article empathy and empathic abilities as a foundation of professional empathy and a component of professional intelligence of future social sphere specialists are analysed. The essence of empathy as a phenomenon is revealed. It is generalised that empathy is a conscious mutual compassion of mental states and feelings of another person and ensures the ability of efficient interaction with the partner. The features of interpretation of the meaning of the phenomenon of empathy and approaches to determine the types and components of empathy in various psychological studies are revealed. It is shown that empathy plays an important role in the professional activity of social sphere specialists, because it determines the ability to show professional empathy which is an important foundation of professional interaction and providing social and psychological care for different categories of social sphere clients. It is justified that the standards and professional ethics in the social sphere determine specific for this professional group professional intellectual and personal properties in the system in which empathy is included as a component and a prerequisite of professional intelligence formation of future social sphere specialists. As the result of conducted empirical research the dominance of low and middle levels of expressiveness of specific empathic abilities and integral level of empathy among future social sphere professionals-students was revealed. It was justified that the registered low and middle expressiveness levels dominance of different types of empathy and the integral empathy index as the foundation of professional intelligence determine certain risks of professional intelligence formation, because low future social sphere specialists ability to express professional empathy considerably hinders with their future understanding and establishing constructive interaction between them and different groups of clients, and efficient professional activity performance. The conclusion about the appropriateness of ensuring a system of special social and psychological formation conditions of the empathy as a component of professional intelligence of future social sphere specialists was made: the formation of professional cognitive culture, the involvement of students to social and psychosocial care for different categories of clients, the facilitating of personal and intellectual and personal resources development of the students, the active socio-psychological training. Key words: professional training, professional intelligence of future social sphere specialists, empathy, empathic abilities, professional empathy, the rational empathy channel, the emotional empathy channel, the intuitive empathy channel, socio-psychological empathy development.
The scientific and theoretical analysis of the development of the problem on the impact of intercourse between parents and children on the formation of personality-based qualities of a child is presented in the article. Every form of communication is established to influence the children’s mental development in its own way: emotional and practical form encourages them to identify initiatives and it enriches the range of emotional experiences; situational and business form contributes to personality’s development, self-consciousness, curiosity, courage, optimism, creativity; out-of-situational and business, and out-of-situational and personal ones form the ability to notice a self-sufficient personality in the partner, take into account his thoughts and feelings. It is proved that adults play a leading role in the development of a child’s personality, teach a child the rules of behavior that help to organize a child in everyday affairs, customize into positive actions. It is noted that intercourse with adults serves as a source and driving force of a child’s mental development, it defines an internal plan of child’s actions, sphere of his / her emotional experience, cognitive activity, arbitrariness and freedom, self-esteem and self-consciousness, intercourse with children of the same age. It is noted that in the process of intercourse with parents a child receives information about objects, phenomena of the world, get acquainted with their properties and functions, and acquires knowledge to the cognition. It is stated that the style of intercourse between parents and children influences the formation of preschooler’s psychological characteristics. It is proved that the child’s intercourse with native adults and children of the same age is not only a condition but also the basis for the formation of attitude towards oneself, others, the objective world, that is those relationships that constitute the backbone component of the personality. It is concluded that the development of the child’s specifically human mental functions, his personal formation is impossible beyond the intercourse. Thus, the search for the causes of violations of the child’s personal development must necessarily relate to the research of various aspects of communication, the violation of which is the cause of various problems in the child’s personal development.
Key words: child, parents, personality, intercourse, preschool age, family, emotional sphere, mental development.
The article analyzes foreign and native theoretical foundations of psychology understanding of the formation of motivational-value sphere of a personality. The essence of the concepts of motive, motivation, values and motivational-value sphere of the personality is charaterized. It describes the main approaches to the understanding of this phenomenon in terms of psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic theories and national approach. It is described the structure of motivational-value sphere of a future psychologist getting the second higher education, which includes key elements such as needs, motives, values and life purport orientations. According to this structure it was implemented and analyzed empirical study the features of the motivational-value sphere of a student-psychologist who gets the second higher education. It is studied the correlation between primary (needs for safety and confidence in the future) and secondary (needs for affiliation and demand, respect, recognition of others and the needs of self-expression, the realization of one’s potential) needs of a student-psychologist who gets the second higher education. It is analyzed the ratio of their internal motivational factors (responsibilities and job content, career, opportunity to achieve personal success) and external hygiene factors (financial motives, public recognition, collaboration in teams and relationships with management). The level of these motives development is studied. The significance of value types (hedonism, achievement, power, self-determination, and stimulation, etc.) is investigated. The indicators of life purport orientations (goals of life, the process of life, the impact of life, locus of control – I, locus of control – life and general indicator of awareness of life) are revealed. It is established the correlations according to these factors.
Key words: motive, motivation, values, the motivational-value sphere, a psychologist, the second higher education.
The article is dedicated to the important problem of personality’s prosocial activity as essentially dialogical. A prosocial interaction’s definition is formed, including the reciprocate influence process, aimed at the good of one, several or all interaction participants. Such forms of prosocial interaction, as help, altruistic deeds, care, nurturing, sharing, facilitation, empathic listening, volunteering, donation, charity are described. The philosophical and psychological characteristic traits of the interpersonal dialogue are outlined. Three conditions of true, developing and productive prosocial interaction are named: 1) dialogueness, 2) the understanding of the necessity to act prosocially in a specific life situation, 3) personality’s activity. It is shown that personal morality and personality’s prosocial activity are two multitudes, which intersect and have a significant common area. The results of the empirical research are published. The «sweet candy» effect was revealed, according to which the candy becomes sweeter if one shares with the other and thus acts prosocially. Grounding on the analysis of respondents’ essays on the topic «What does it mean to bonify to others?» such types of understanding the sense of prosocial activity were distinguished: theoretical-synthetical (the highest), eudemonic (aimed at pleasure, enjoyment), egocentric (the understanding of one’s profit from other’s good), awarealtruistic, others-oriented, critical-analytical, emotional. The empirical results based on «The Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality» technique (by T. Leary, modification by L.N. Sobchik) before and after the experimental interactions proved the experiment participants’ response modifications, although the experiment itself continued for approximately two academic hours. The conclusion is driven that the personality’s prosocial activity is a complex multicomponent phenomenon, deeply dialogical in its essence.
Key words: prosocial activity, interaction, dialogue, help, personality’s activity, «sweet candy» effect, altruism, understanding.
The theoretical generalization and new solution of the problem on psychologically important determinants of future socionomic specialists’ professional maturity has been made in the article. The phenomenon of professional maturity of a socionomic specialist was considered by the author. The professional maturity was mentioned to be the characteristic of personality’s development that was reflected in the high degree of professional constructive activity and professional functional productivity of a person. The theoretical principles of future socionomic specialists’ personal maturity are the principles of humanistic psychology and dispositional approach, according to which personal maturity was considered as a dynamic phenomenon being the result of continuous and natural desire of the personality to achieve self-actualization and personal maturity. The structure of the significant characteristics of future socionomic specialists’ professional maturity includes characteristics of intrapersonal constructive activity, expressing manifestations of improving the structure and functions of the personality (self-regulation, independence, creativity, intelligence); improving methods of interpersonal interaction and constructive personal effects (communication, empathy, morality, responsibility); manifestations of improving the structure of self-identity (Ego-identity, self-actualization). The problem of self-development and self-realization is noted to be significant in many modern concepts of human development. The urgent need for self-development, self-improvement is valuable and it is a determinant of personal maturity and at the same time the condition of its achievement. It is concluded that constant desire for self-development makes the success in professional activities and promotes professional life longevity of the personality. The professionalism and professional competence are emphasized to be important factors in social development of the personality, as well as they are the integral components of psychological maturity.
Key words: theoretical and methodological principles, professional maturity, personality, development, future specialists of socionomic professions, professional activities, professional competence, professionalism, psychological maturity.
The article explains the main stages of the life and creative work of the famous Japanese social and public figure, prominent sportsman, founder of the modern kiokushinkai karate Masutatsy Oyama (1923-1994). The accent is put on the study of the existential periods of the life creativity of the prominent karatist, originality of his training and competitive processes, uniqueness of the psycho-pedagogical system of preparation of the high-quality sportsmen. The complex of the favorite exercises of M. Oyama and classical systems of the Eastern wrestling is also represented. They played the extremely important role in the process of formation of the unique master’s actional world, efficient and firm, moral and responsive one, with the man being always in the centre of attention. The complex represented in the given article contributed to the uprising of the popularity of the kiokushinkai karate: different combinations of kata (formal exercises of karate), tameshiwari (breaking the solid objects to pieces) and testing the endurance (the most difficult task for experienced karatists who have powerful positive potentiality in the process of tempering the volitional qualities and true karatist’s personality becoming). The life of M. Oyama is diverse and productive, majestic and contradictory, from deep calming silence and self-centration, self-realization of one’s own «Me», the sense of harmony in oneself and nature to the stormy fateful momentary on the borderline between life and death. M. Oyama went through different stages in his life: military service as a pilot during World War II, tense trainings, masterly shifting of heavy things, fights with bulls with his bare hands, fierce duels on tatami, precious experience of Shaolin monastery abundant in the spiritual and moral-psychological traditions of meditations and self-improvement, perception of people and world.
Key words: Masutatsy Oyama, master, life and creative work, act of existence, kiokushinkai karate, karatist, training process, competitive process, fights on tatami, psychological mechanism of defense.
UDC 159.923:821.161.2 «19»
The psychological skylines of the actional world in the literary work of V.A.Romenets and its psycho-pedagogical potential are considered in the article. The author represents the classification of actions created by the scientist. The following modifications of actions are detailed: developed and reduced ones, those that are coming into life, and those that are disappearing. V.A. Romenets noted that action is the kind of important centre of human activity and it expresses the way of human existence on the Earth, it appears to be the key source of the historical forms of life, becomes the link that unites the personality with the world. He stressed that action may be defined as the transformation of the moral situation by the man; because action in its full value is at the same time the action of the person’s coming into being, as well as the creation of moral values. That’s why it is necessary to call one’s doing an action that leads to the wide psychological and moral skylines. The action in which the psychological aspect is strongly reduced, atomized and turned into custom, was called by the psychologist as the moral action. The analysis of the psychological peculiarities of the literary works of V.A. Romenets allowed us to single out the main types of the hero’s actions and to detail the system of the psychological mechanisms of defense: projection, identification and psychological mechanisms of the development of the motivation in achievement: motivational switching to, motivational conditioning, motivational shifting and positive supporting. The processes of ambivalence and polarization of the behavioral lines and actional world of the main characters can be distinctly traced in the literary works. In the process of the development of the plot the characters are involved into the mighty dialogical circle; their world outlook and disposition are tempered in this circle and this also contributes to the moral-psychological coming into being of the rising generation. The schoolchildren are drawn into the process of moral tempering of a personality. Key words: V.A. Romenets, action, good action, actional circle, actional world, literary works, tale, story, psychological mechanism of defense, school pupils.
In the article it is presented a scientific and theoretical survey of native and foreign researches, dedicated to the problem of aggression as a phenomenon in the system of youth subcultures, as a determination of aggressive behavior formation in the youth surrounding. It is explored the essence and interconnection between the motives of aggressive behavior, their displays and youth subcultures. An attempt of the motives and mechanisms of aggressive behavior determination under the conditions of personality inclusion into the subcultural space is done, that will provide effective diagnostic and opportune purposeful prevention measures for the social deviation overcoming. The psychological peculiarities of subcultures are studied as one of the motive forces of personal socialization. The mechanisms of youth subcultures formation are discovered , and also it is analyzed the position of the youth in the society as a driving force of main social problems reflection. The analysis of social deviations of the personal behavior is done, which are formed under the influence of youth subcultural groups, and also the analysis of the theory of the deviation rise causes. It is carried into the practice the analysis of aggression as a phenomenon and social factor, that is created under the effect of subculture to what one belongs. Presented analysis provides systematical conception of aggressive behavior motives among the youth included into the youth subcultures space and exploration of cause and effect analysis of aggressive influence of the youth surrounding on the personal setting and development. It is discovered the problem of the youth aggressive behavior display and mechanisms of its formation under the influence of inclusion into the subcultural space.
Key words: the youth, youth subculture, subcultural peculiarities, the phenomenon of aggression, aggressive behavior, personal socialization.
The author of the article describes system of providing social help and support to the separate individuals and families functioning in Poland; enumerates basic laws concerning social help and work, possible organizations, establishments and services which help families to manage with various problems. Modern reality is filled with a great number of dangers and threats for a personality and a family which consequently are capable of bringing to the social pathology character behavior, social dysfunctions, marginalization and social exception. Mentioned threats and dangers constitute obstacles for proper functioning of the state, society, social groups and separate individuals. The author presents the basic areas of social services work that are directed at the improvement of the social functioning of public structure of the country. The different forms of providing social help and support are described, such as «helper of family» that is support aimed at the facilitation of difficulties in a family in the field of implementation of paternal tutorial-educational roles. The author underlines the important role of social worker who must perform his functions and tasks realizing social politics of the state on all structural levels, but also cooperate with resocialization establishments and tutorialeducational institutions. In conclusions the author affirms, that social institutions and services become more and more important components of the activities aimed at fighting with threats of the appropriate functioning of personalities and families in society, and providing of social help and activity of social worker play meaningful role in this process.
Key words: social assistance, support, social work, public and social dangers, institutions of social assistance.
Civic identity is considered by us as a complex multifaceted formation that embodies the identification of the individual with the community of citizens of a country and exists at the level of consciousness and the unconscious, including cognitive (knowledge of belonging to a given social community), valueemotional (positive, negative or ambivalent attitude to independence, its acceptance or rejection), behavioral (public stance in communication and activities, civic engagement, participation in social activities that have social significance) and image-semiotic (signs, symbols) components. Civic identity in the perception of surveyed students is manifested in patriotism, active public stance, opportunity for personal and professional realization in the state and «anti-sovietic». It is stated that young people regard the «Soviet identity» category as the opposite pole of the desired identity, a sort of anti-identity. Various types of the students’ civic identity have been discovered, namely «protest», «uncertain», «patriotic» identity. We have found connections between the general civic identity parameter and peculiarities of value-motivational sphere of the students and their psychological well-being parameter. It is established that with the decrease in the level of psychological well-being of students, pessimism about the prospects for development in the country is increasing, while the desire to be an active citizen is decreasing. We propose to use the projective technique to identify unconscious manifestations of civic identity of students, including orientations and motives related to the desire to travel abroad for permanent residence. Emigration sentiments demonstrate the readiness of the Ukrainian students «to give up» their identity, replace it with some other identity which means that the Ukrainian lifestyle, Ukrainian values, social relations, etc are insignificant for them.
Key words: identification, civic identity, students, emigration, state, self-realization, patriotism, consciousness, unconscious.
The article focuses on the problem of predicting and optimizing human behavior in stress situations. The «critical» point of overcoming or deepening stress influence is defined to be the time of making individual decision to act by one way or another. Considering the position of total time organization of any existing phenomenon it was suggested the possibility of creating conditions of reducing the impact of stressors on humans using knowledge of the patterns of laws of connections between the personality’s psychological time and the process of decision-making.
The detailed procedure of conducting the laboratory experiment designed to prove or disprove the existence of the above mentioned connection was described:
1) the basic principles of efficient organization of the laboratory experiment were highlighted and empirically analyzed;
2) a number of interrelated phases of the comprehensive study on the subject of scientific research was defined;
3) the legitimacy of using computer modeling as a tool in the study of decision-making was grounded;
4) the features of practical applying the method of computer modeling along with detailed program of its conductting were shown;
5) the practical laboratory experience of using a stressor as a means of punishment to generate stress response on the side of the experiment participant was described;
6) a number of auxiliary techniques required for in-depth analysis of the phenomenon was identified.
The prospects of the further scientific search in testing and covering the programme of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the described procedure of psychological studying the relation between individual psychological time and decision-making in stressful situations were defined.
Key words: stress, overcoming, making decisions, psychological time, laboratory experiment, computer modeling, punishment, research procedure.
The theoretical and practical achievements of domestic and foreign scientists concerning the problem of personality’s experiences during decision-making are analyzed in the article. Experiences are determined as a special form of activity that allows the personality in critical life situations to endure difficult events, to gain the meaningful existence due to revaluation of values. The psychological content of experiences is considered in the meaning of decision-making context. The experiences of the personality in the process of strategic life decision-making (regarding professional self-determination, choice of a life partner and determination of own life position) are caused, first of all, by their features, such as long term in time, increased responsibility for the impact on the entire life way and existance of previous (not final) decision. The main factor of the experiences is conscience, which during the reflection causes the feeling of guilt, doubt, fear and inadequate responsibility. The main psychological mechanisms of experiences in the process of strategic life decision-making of personality include the presence of psychic rotation as a unit of psychic activities, which always re-launches the mechanism of recrudescent choice, the intellectual and personal reflection as generic mechanisms of consciousness, and conscience as a factor of experiences in different forms of emotional and volitional reactions and feelings of the personality. It is empirically determined that the emotional experiences of students in the process of strategic life decision-making are accompanied with a low reflection, high level of anxiety, overwhelming intolerance to uncertainty, underdeveloped willpower, particulary, such personal qualities as independence, determination, purposefulness and desire to predict the future.
Key words: experiences, decisions, decision-making, strategic life decisions, students, subject of activities.
The article deals with application of the expectations theory in strategy of productivity of organization, goal-setting and motivation, organizational collaboration, decision-making system, career choice, predicting the performance ability (O.Behling, G.De Sanctis, R.J.House, J.Lawler, F.C.Lunenburg, R.S.Schuler, F.A.Starke etc.). The social content of expectations in the context of group dynamic processes, interactive effect between perception and motivational skills, implementation of expected duration theory was analyzed (J.Butler, T.Connolly, L.E.Miller, G.Wolf). There were the works in which researchers concluded that refixing of violence promotes development of aggressive personality through the formation of hostile expectations (C.A.Anderson, B.J.Bushmann). It is shown how with the help of expectancy theory it can be explained by the use and abuse of alcohol (A.R.Baldwin, T.P.S.Oei). It is concluded that a large part of modern applied research is based on a combination of motivational expectancy theories (E.E.Lawler, H.Peak, W.Porter, V.H.Vroom). It is noted that the expectancy theory allows not only to investigate the relationship between motivation and intentions of bloggers, but actually coordinate it (H.Liao, S.Liu, Y.Zeng). It is indicated that pharmacological placebo effects in human body are fully mediated by expectations (J.Podd, S.Stewart-Williams). It was established that most of the studies of expectations with applied nature is based on generally accepted expectancy theories and often a test, denial or complement of the scientific achievements of predecessors and scientific researches are partly aimed at solving applied problems of today and actual social problems.
Key words: expectations, social expectations of personality, retrospective analysis, hostile expectations, expectancy, placebo-effects, expected behavior.
On the base of the analysis of scientific sources and literature it is found that the establishing process of science is associated with the formation of its paradigm, and the development of science is a revolutionary process, the essence of which is expressed in the changing of the paradigms. It is determined that T.Kuhn, one of the most authoritative researchers of the development problems of scientific knowledge, identifies the following stages in the development of science: preparadigm, the stage of paradigm formation, the stage of «normal science», the stage of extraordinary science, the stage of scientific revolution. Taking it into account it is studied that the formation of psychology of a family is associated with the formation of a communicative paradigm in the 1950s by the researchers from Palo Alto. It is concluded that the researchers studied the family system as a set of the communicative processes and cybernetic relations; stage of «normal science» coincides with 1950–1960s and the merit of this group is the development of double relations concept, the development of roles complementarity theory and its application to the family, justification of the necessity of work not with dyadic relationships, but with triads. It is established that the stage of extraordinary science, according to T. Kuhn, began when S. Minuhin came to the conclusion that it leads to the changes in family structure while studying the changing of the communication patterns. At the same time M. Bowen realized that microdynamics study in order to understand the processes that the family is having is not enough and became the first to investigate intentionally the factor of family system’s macrodynamics – family history and family scenario for generations. It is concluded that in the 1970s the stage of scientific revolution took place, which resulted in the formation of new paradigms of psychology of the family.
Key words: communicative paradigms, double relations concept, complementarity theory, microdynamics, macrodynamics, family system.
The concept of «intensification of the executive authorities’ activities concerning the reaction to rumours in extreme situations» is substantiated in the article. The author of the article examined the social and psychological conditions which encouraged people to take rumours; described the psychological results of the spread of rumours on the population in emergency situations. The role of the executive authorities in counteracting rumours and methods of intensification of the executive authorities’ activities concerning the reaction to rumours in the event of an emergency are determined in the article. The author of the article proved that the measures of combating the spread of rumours (both spontaneous and deliberate) could be divided into two groups: preventive measures and active countermeasures, which included: forecasting of potential and study of procedural and emotional components of spreading rumours; indoctrination («inoculation from the rumours»), that is, to undertake preventive actions; gain people’s confidence by official sources of information and by the use of psychological mechanisms; by the support of effective leadership at all levels and the increase of the credibility of the authorities and confidence to them. The article lists the main measures that are appropriate to be carried out by the executive authorities concerning the reaction to rumours in the event of extreme situations, as well as preventive and counteraction measures. The ways and conditions of counteraction to rumours are substantiated in the article; the peculiarities of individual behaviour of this counteraction are defined. The author of the article proved that the activities of the executive authorities in extreme situations could be considered as an indicator that checked the strength of the existing social order and therefore the purpose of this activity should be a change of nature of coverage of emergency in the media, so that the relevant information did not traumatize the population, and mobilized to combat the consequences of the situation.
Key words: countering rumours, ways and conditions of rumours’ counteraction, extreme situations, intensification of the executive authorities’ activities, preventive measures, socio-psychological conditions, the media, behaviour of the population.
In the article it is empirically analyzed the tendency of programmers to workaholism, and also revealed the peculiarities of its manifestation. As a result, the theoretical analysis of scientific papers, devoted to the human factor in programming, determine if there is a form of professional deformation of motivational sphere of programmers, which is manifested on excessive enthusiasm in professional field with a decrease in interest in other spheres, i.e. workaholism. As a result, regression and correlation analysis found an association on programmers’ workaholism with self-esteem personal growth in the profession and the desire to meet the professional standards. A comparison of symptoms of depression, depending on the level of programmers’ workaholism was conducted. Statistically significant difference by the scale of «depressiveness» for programmers with low and high levels of workaholism is established. According to the results of cluster and variance analysis, there are distinguished treee clusters: «persons prone to workaholism», «persons not prone to workaholism» and «workaholics.» The features of the internal conflict and professional self-attitude are identified in three clusters. Also there is established the tendency of programmers-workaholics to internal contradictions, ambivalence of professional self-attitude, thinking of oneself as an obstacle for productive employment and career fulfillment, as well as the objective inconsistency of professional requirements with individual abilities. It is found statistically significant differences in the manifestations of neuroticism, irritability and emotional lability of programmers, and workaholics prone to workaholism manifestation programmers. The data are summarized and presented in the form of graphs and charts. An interesting for further study is the question of programmers’ workaholism depending on styles of thinking and orientation of the individual.
Key words: programmer, workaholism, self-assessment of personal growth in the profession, self-blame, self-abasement, inner conflicts, depression, neuroticism, aggressiveness, emotional stability.
The features of a psychologist’s professional stereotypes at different stages of professional formation, development of personal, professional and interpersonal qualities are analyzed in the article. They form the image of a psychologist, and in the process of learning and practical activities they contribute to develop and successfully implement a chosen professional activity. The image of a psychologist career is analyzed which is formed in the process of learning and practice and is a kind of mechanism that can form individual professional representation as well as stereotypical image of the profession. The professional stereotypes which reflect the structure of the profession of «psychologist» (cognitive, behavioral and affective components) are defined. The validity and reliability of the author’s methodology, internal consistency through the use of psychometric tests are established. The descriptive statistics for each methodology are studied. It is clarified that all paragraphs of the method were chosen correctly. The most popular professional stereotype among the respondents and in turn, the least popular stereotype is presented in the article. The individual perceptions of the stereotypical image of a psychologist in the process of professional formation in a statistically significant increase are found. This trend applies to all components of occupational stereotypes. The trends of transformation in the learning process and professional activities of certain professional stereotypes are determined. The professional stereotypes of a psychologist in the process of learning and practice are empirically investigated.
Key words: social stereotype of the profession, the image of a psychologist, personal qualities, professional qualities, interpersonal qualities, professional development, professional stereotype, components of professional stereotypes.
- V. Syzonenko
The various theoretical approaches to the definition of gender stereotypes are considered in the article. The content of the major classification of gender stereotypes is revealed. The basic types of gender stereotypes associated with masculinity and femininity; with consolidation of family and professional roles according to gender; with gender differences in the content of work are described. The basic psychological mechanisms of normative and information pressure that provide submission to gender stereotypes are highlighted in the article. There are also the basic forms of behavior (compliance, internalization, identification), which display this submission. The positive and negative effects of gender stereotypes on the social side of both sexes’ life were revealed. The reasons of the negative impact of gender stereotypes on the social and psychological aspects of men and women’s life are outlined. On the basis of psychological and pedagogical literature the main functions of gender stereotypes such as the function of behavior regulation, retransmission function and function of justifying and protecting the status quo are highlighted. The psychological factors that contribute to changing stereotypes are outlined. In particular, there is communication and joint activities with object of knowledge; bringing people together to achieve the universal goal; increasing knowledge about the object of communication; the factors of group dynamics resulting in group interaction; some personal qualities (flexibility, critical, open new experience); strong emotional impression. It is concluded that the existing gender stereotypes in society and traditional gender roles can actually negatively affect the mental health of men and women, cause stress, anxiety, limiting their personality development and self-realization. It assumes the possibility of correcting the influence of gender stereotypes on the life of the personality by awareness of them and keeping these psychological conditions and factors that contribute to changing gender stereotypes.
Key words: sex, gender, stereotype, gender stereotype, gender role, masculinity, femininity, identity, social norm, function of gender stereotypes.
- Solinska, A. Yurchak
It is stated that people, who work on professions where contact with another person is important, are especially exposed to the complex of the professional burnout. The authors of the article concentrated on the professional burnout that became apparent among teachers. In particular the reasons of stress in teachers’ work and stereotypes concerning this profession are described in the article. The researchers describe the phenomenon of the professional burnout, its symptoms and reasons; enumerate many factors related to the discussed problem from the prospects of individual and extra personal conditionality; present the consequences of the professional burnout among teachers, referring to actual empiric researches. The professional burnout influences on quality and efficiency of the teacher activity, taking into account the numerous limitations caused by stress in the workplace and surplus of duties. It is shown that opposition is an effective teacher who in elastic and stimulating way serves students to solve their daily problems, assisting their intellectual, public and emotional development. The research shows that exhausted professionally teachers are characterized by the higher level of fear, aggression, and have the understated self-respect and confidence. In conclusions authors affirm that these factors can influence on insufficient approach towards a student and can result in violation of relations such as teacher – student, teacher – teacher, teacher – parents. The authors present ranging techniques and preventive facilities useful in teachers work.
Key words: professional burnout, teacher, education, stress.
Deviant behaviour is investigated in the social context through the neuropsychological approach. Mechanisms of congenital disadaptive patterns of behavior in different social and cultural contexts, which provoke the appearance of deviations, are described. Neuropsychological mechanisms of the process of change awareness and understanding of a cause-end-effect connection are investigated. The functional features of cognitive processes, which cause limit cognition of the world and erroneous interpretation of received information, are found. The phyllogenetic explanation of the appearance of some forms of deviant behavior is given. The neuropsychological basis of change some patterns of behavioral repertoire from adaptive to disadaptive is exposed. The influence of society on change of own idea and behaviour of people is shown. It’s proposed to use some neuropsychological resources (like cognitive abilities and development of speech culture) to overcome the congenital limits. It’s also proposed to use the achievements of cybernetics, sociology, logics and social neuropsychology and create some new models of making decisions, which make a person resistant to the social influence. Analysis of the design of the human brain during evolution showed the importance of the brain part such as the cerebellum and its functions in mental processes – sequence. Further direction of research of neuropsychological features of people which fight against the social opinion are determined, and how smaller part of group can inflict on bigger part is determined too.
Key words: deviant behavior, neuropsychology, evolutionary approach, personality, society, frontal brain areas, cerebellum.
In the article the urgency of studying the issue of psychological support for specialists who render psychological assistance to the persons aggrieved as a result of crisis traumatic events is proved. The theoretical analysis of the scientific literature dealing with the problem is carried out. The low degree of scientific development of the methodological field of psychological science with regard to psychological support for crisis specialists is highlighted. The over view of the history of scientific views on a problem of psychic burn out of the specialists of helping professions is carried out. The analysis of different models of a phenomenon of psychic burnout is conducted. The psychological content of the phenomena of specialist’s «psychic burnout» and «secondary traumatisation» is revealed and their differences are defined. The features of emergence of the specialists’ secondary traumatisation in the course of rendering psychological assistance are defined. The specifics of practical activities of the crisis specialists that determine the emergence of burnout are analysed. The features of professional stress which leads to psychic burnout are defined. The overview of the features of professional activity of specialists involved in rendering primary psychological assistance after the traumatic event and in defining the erroneous circles («a circle of omnipotence» and «a circle of powerlessness») where the specialist can get within his/her practical activities is presented. The detailed analysis of dynamics of the course of psychic burnout of the specialists of helping professions is submitted and the main factors of its emergence are defined. It is emphasized that ignoring by the specialists their own negative psychic manifestations may result in the loss of professional working capacity for a long time. The main approaches to solving the problem of psychological support and the prevention of burnout of specialists involved in dealing with crisis situations and overcoming their consequences are analysed. The content and functions of supervision and intervision support for the specialists of helping professions are revealed. The basic rules for the specialists’ activities the observance of which reduce the risk of psychic burnout are offered. It is proved that psychological support for the specialists involved in organizing and rendering psychological assistance in the conditions of public crises is one of the key aspects that have to be the focus for the professional activities of crisis psychologists.
Key words: crisis situations, traumatic events, psychic burnout, secondary traumatisation of specialists, professional stress, supervision, intervision.
UDC 159.923: 612.017
Actual problem of interconnection of psychological protections and self-actualization of women from the crisis families, divorced women and women from ordinary families is studied in this article. It is made a conclusion that research of psychological protections mechanisms in a context of women self-realization, who are at the crisis states, i.e. the question connected with women activity at the situation of mentally-psychological stress, is actual and meaningful. The comparative analysis of psychological protection connections with scales of self-actualization of studied women at the age of 29-56 years and total quantity of 454 persons is shown in the article. The excerption includes 224 women from the crisis families, and 104 divorced women. The group of comparison consists of 126 women from ordinary families. The analysis of studying showed the existence of meaningful correlations between psychological protections and scales of selfactualization in studied groups of women. The largest quantity of connections was defined at the group of women from the crisis families. The significant interconnections of self-actualization with suppression mechanism are absent. The correlations are noticed with all scales of selfactualization. It is noticed that connections with scales of self-actualization of regression mechanisms, hyper compensation, negation and projection are prevailing at the group of divorced women but quantity of such connections is less than at the group of women from the crisis families. It is shown that divorced women have correlations of all psychological protections with all scales of self-actualization, excepting the scale of aggression acceptance. The least quantity of meaningful connections was established to be revealed at the group of women from ordinary families. However, the connections were noticed with such scales of self-actualization as competence in time, behavioural flexibility, sensitiveness, self-respect, self-acceptance, cognitive needs and creativity.
Key words: life style index, mechanisms of psychological protections, personality, self-realization, self-actualization, negative life circumstances, chronic stress, crisis families, divorced women.
This article shows the role of situational psychological readiness in professional simulator training in future air traffic controllers on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis. The specifics of professional activities of air traffic controllers was defined taking into regard the main tendencies of technical and scientific progress. The main problematic aspects of professional activities of air traffic controllers were characterized. Three main types of psychological tasks in professional everyday activities of air traffic controllers were named. A definition of psychological readiness was given. The characteristics of psychological readiness was presented including a description of its key components in accordance with approaches to its definition, including the references to the main researches of individual and functional approaches. The main role and meaning of psychological readiness in professional activities were defined. The definition and characteristics of long-term psychological readiness were presented. The definition of situational psychological readiness in risky environments was given. The main characteristics of situational psychological readiness in professions related to high risk and responsibility were offered. The structure of situational psychological readiness in air traffic controllers was presented. The research on the influence of situational psychological readiness on the quality of completing exam simulator tasks by the future air traffic controllers was conducted. The level of situational psychological readiness was investigated using the questionnaires developed for the students and experts/ instructors in simulator training. The quality of completion of the training tasks by the students was evaluated by experts/instructors. The collected data were analyzed using the statistics methods and the results were presented. The main correlation between situational psychological readiness and the quality of completed simulator tasks by the future air traffic controllers was found.
Key words: psychological readiness, situational psychological readiness, air traffic control (ATC), simulator training, professional training, air traffic control student, activities in special conditions, selfregulation.
In this paper, the problem of internal emotional state of parents of children with disabilities, namely guilt, is envisaged. The attention is paid to the problem of this feeling’s influence on the interpersonal relations in the family. The works of foreign and domestic scientists are theoretically analyzed. The attention to the emotional state of the mother is paid. It is concluded that mothers who are depressed and deeply experiencing negative feelings such as guilt, shame, fear, despair, in most cases, deprive the child emotionally, which in turn leads to corresponding problems of education and development of the child as a personality. The results of a study on a guilt on the basis of which we can say that the majority of parents have a high rate of addiction to this feeling, which is a state of discomfort as the emotional reaction of the person to violate their own moral standards, the negative evaluation of their behavior, which is accompanied by stress, remorse and regret, and it motivates a person to redeem or to correct actions. However, it has been found that parents often do not take care from the environment (the phenomenon of rejection aid). In this paper we analyzed the correlation between the internal emotional state of the parents and the peculiarities of the psychological state of a child with disabilities. We consider that in the rehabilitation of children the main factor is to work with the family, to mobilize its potential in working together with the doctors. It was concluded that harmonization of both the parents’ personalites and the surrounding area, necessary to optimize the treatment process, rehabilitation and development of the child.
Key words: guilt, personality, child, emotional state, mentality, adaptation, integration.
This article examines the complexity of the officer’s thinking under specific conditions. Many domestic and foreign scientists analyze practical thinking and its distinctive features, development and functioning in their research. The analysis of their research was given. Outstanding characteristics of the military expert’s thinking and their significance in the performing the professional military tasks were considered. The latest information technology was found as the newest tool to develop the officer’s practical thinking and opportunity to practice professional tasks and behavior under extreme conditions. Simulation capabilities and its benefits during computer-assisted exercises were determined. Besides practical thinking computer simulations develop such higher mental processes as imagination and volitional qualities. Emotional and behavioral reactions are analyzed through the concept of the sanogenic and pathogenic thinking as the important components of the human intellect. It is concluded that the complexity of the extreme events requires developed practical thinking and learning a «culture of thinking» of the past and the present. Serious obstacles to this statement are: standard methods of solution, conformity, fear to make a mistake, overestimation or underestimation of their ideas, a high level of anxiety. JCATS (Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation) is one of the most advanced simulation tools. It is used for civil/military simulations and humanitarian assistance/disaster relief scenarios. A training audience conducts a scenario or event to practice their ability to coordinate various staff functions. Using simulation systems provides officers with the opportunity to overcome stereotypes and develop the ability to take risks; to show the variety and diversity of knowledge and skills that focus the thinking on new approaches.
Key words: practical thinking, computer assisted exercises, extreme conditions, information technology, sanogenic thinking, pathogenic thinking, constructive simulation, modeling and simulation.
The article analyzes the differentiation of science into the language-speech, where language is seemed to be the system organization, and speech is defined as something individual, transient and unstable. It has recently become exposed to sufficient correction, especially by psychologists. It is mentioned that it had not (and sometimes has not even now) really matter for traditional linguists, because the only object worthy for scientific study they considered was the language. It is noted that language and speech are closely connected in their origin and functioning, speech exists only on the basis of language. It is stated that mental process, as well as language is linked with all other mental processes that have traditionally been viewed as cognitive: sensory feelings and perception, attention and memory, thinking and imagination, that is, the processes including language functioning and development, and a person learns the world through them. It is proved that the language ability, referring to the phenomenon of speech is one of the mental functions of a man. As well as all other mental functions language is capable to development, which is associated both with innate instincts and external factors, such as human interaction with the environment and education. Its development does not finish with the completion of age-related changes, and under favorable conditions can last for life. Mentioning the genetic conditions of language ability, it is described a phylogeny (historical development), as well as genetics, heredity, providing language ability with individual differences: in spite of the common way and principles for the development of language skills, different kids and different people master language with varying degrees of ease and different pace, not to mention other features of each individual. It is proved that language ability is formed and developed through social process of intercourse and learning. This study describes one of those ways.
Key words: language, foreign speech, mental processes, psychological theory, active methods, training, language ability, personality.
The peculiarities of conflict on communicative and behavioral component of teenagers subjected to deviant behavior are analyzed in the article. It is studied that conflict trend in behavior, signs of confrontation in communication and aggression in relationships are the most expressive elements of high conflict on communicative and behavioral component. It is mentioned that getting the quantitative values of such indicators as signs of confrontation in communication, conflict trend in behavior, aggressiveness in the relationships, frequency and severity of interpersonal conflicts allowed to determine the level of communicative and behavioral component of conflict of younger teenagers subjected to deviant behavior. It is empirically established that there are statistically confirmed differences in the levels of conflict on communicative and behavioral component among three subgroups of the studied teenagers, namely with high, medium and low levels of inclination to deviant behavior. It is showed that conflict of teenagers on communicative and behavioral component increases with the increase of their inclination to deviant behavior. It is concluded that personal features of aggressiveness, signs of confrontation in the intercourse between teenagers subjected to deviant behavior are the factors of conflict and determine conflict behavior in the interpersonal relationships. It is established that correction of teenagers’ conflict on communicative and behavioral component involves weakening of confrontation signs, conflict trend of behavior, aggressiveness in relationships, reduction of the frequency and severity of conflicts.
Key words: personality, conflict, interpersonal conflicts, teenagers, intercourse, interaction, communicative and behavioral component, aggressiveness.
The theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of the influence of parents’ relations on the development of the child’s personality are analyzed in the article. The definition of the concept of «parents’ relations» is specificated. The peculiarities of personality-based development of the child in teenage and early adolescence are characterized. The formation of such personal entities as outlook, professional interests, self-consciousness, values and ideals takes place at this period of a child’s development. Based on the theoretical analysis we have chosen the criteria of a child’s personality development in teenage and early adolescence and a psychological set of instruments to study the indicators of a child’s personality development. There have been defined the characteristics of a child’s personality value orientations study in teenage and early adolescence through the use of test in purport orientations. The main aspects of the study of identity characteristics, characteristics of personal perception of oneself in the structure of Meconcept of the child’s personality in teenage and early adolescence are characterized through the use of psychological techniques «Who am I?». It is outlined that opportunity to study the problem of professional selfdetermination is possible through the use of methods of studying status of professional identity and methods of «Professional Readiness».
Key words: parents’ relations, development of the child’s personality, harmonious relations of parents, disharmonious relations of parents, teenage and early adolescence, values of personality, identity, Me-concept, professional self-determination.
In the article the theoretical and methodological analysis of the phenomenon of experience is realized, it has been the subject of study of many branches of scientific knowledge, such as philosophy, psychology, pedagogy, medicine. Scientist’s theoretical approaches to the interpretation of the concept of experience as psychological category in the context of different directions in psychological science are proved. Content, dynamic and functional characteristics of experience as the emotional phenomenon are characterized. In the process of analysis of scientific sources on the problem of the study it has been found that psychologists consider experience, on the one hand, as a form of emotional reflection, expression of man’s attitude to a particular situation, holistic mental act that reflects the whole completeness of human being; on the other hand, as a systemically formative factor of the human psyche (L.S. Vyhotskyi); a central component of the inner world of the personality (S.D. Maksymenko); content-rich basis of empathy processes (L.P. Zhuravliova); phenomenological level of emotions (T.S. Kyrylenko). It enables us to consider experience as systemically formative factor in the structure of emotional intelligence, which we define as an integral feature of personality that represents the cognitive ability of a person to understand not only one’s own emotions, but also the emotions of other people and control them through cognitive processing of emotional information providing the success of social interaction and communication. It is found that if the cognitive sphere of a personality represents objects and phenomena of the objective world in the form of images, the emotional sphere represents man’s attitude to these objects, phenomena, other people, as well as the internal state of a human in the form of experiences. They characterize the content and process features of emotional intelligence and they are its main dynamic structural unit.
Key words: experience, emotions, feelings, emotional intelligence, emotional state, personality.
The controversy of the personality and the essence of a man are considered in the «conflict – balance» continuum, the mediator and the ratio of internal and external Self of personality are assumed to be its resources. A resource is defined as motivational and spiritual dynamic condition, designing human nature. The empirical descriptor of the inner self is the Person, the empirical descriptor of the external Self of personality is the self-concept. It is established that the factors of the overall level of psychological resourcefulness and the Person are such components as self-concept, authoritarianism, aggressiveness, selfishness. We determined that Person consists of such components as knowledge of their own resources, the resource of kindness to others, the resource of the pursuit of wisdom, the resource of self-realization in the profession, the resource of self-confidence; the components of authoritarianism as a component of self-concept is the resource of self-confidence; the components of altruism as a component of self-concept are the resource of faith in goodness and the ability to update resources. Individuals with a high level of Person are characterized by a high level of all psychological resources, a high level of self-sufficiency, semitransparent, and high authoritarianism and low level of suspicion. People with a high level of selfishness are characterized by a higher level of resources of work and self-realization in the profession. The analysis of the links between the components of the empirical structure of personality gives reason to believe that the main resources that determine the balance between essence and personality of a man are «confidence», «desire for wisdom», «self-realization in the profession». The balance is provided by such mechanisms of psychological resourcefulness as knowledge of person`s resources and the ability to update and maintain these resources.
Key words: psychological resources, personality, essence, self-concept, Person, balance of internal and external Self, compensation of internal and external Self, congruence.
T.D. Scherban, V.V. Hoblyk
The discussion of theoretical and methodological problems of analysis of professional activity have been considered in the research. The structure of training, formation of professional thinking, difficulties of professional formation, the ways and conditions of organization of future professionals training of their reflexive ability to solve professional problems have been revealed. Based on the examined structure components, professionalism can be defined as a creative synthesis of a peculiar professional knowledge and practical experience of the personality, which leads to an optimal strategy and tactics of activity and provides high efficiency of its implementation. Therefore, the psychological foundations of professional training have been examined. The results of research of the professionals activities have been set that the main features of a professional personality formation include: development of the functional content of professional activities; overcoming the contradictions between training and real work; harmonization of the relations between people; supporting the self-assertive ambition; courage in decisions making; overcoming the usual stereotypes and perceptions of the profession. As a result of research it has been set that the level of preparedness of specialists to solve professional problems does not depend on the experience of professional work. Professional activities may be carried on the empirical and conscious levels. The compensation of lack of experience may be, as shown in our research, activation of self-reflection as deep analysis of the events that are stored in a person in the form of sensitive and intuitive knowledge.
Key words: psychological concept, training, professional activities, professionalism, psychological principles, professional tasks, professional thinking, professional assignment, reflection.
T.A. Yanovska, Y.I. Kaliuzhna
The problem of formation of a human being as a personality is considered; the psychological characteristics of conflict as a socio-psychological phenomenon, seen as a contradiction associated with acute emotional distress as a collision of oppositely directed goals, interests, attitudes, opinions, attitudes to subjects of interaction are given. Psychological features of difficulties in adolescence as an important phase of development of the individual are characterized. The features of adolescence conflicts between children and adults, and between pupils, namely: interpersonal, between the individual and the groups, intergroup are considered. The socio-psychological aspects of prevention of conflicts in the work of social worker are analyzed. Social and psychological prevention is a system of measures aimed at protecting mental health; warning of trouble in the formation of a person, a group, soci-ety; creating psychological conditions favorable for this development. The content of preventive work of social worker on conflicts among teenagers is prediction and prevention of conflicts. The results of empirical research of adolescent’s conflict behavior strategies, assessment of the conflict level of the individual are analyzed. The results of experimental research indicate that for teenagers the most typical is the middle level of conflict, the more typical reaction strategy in the conflict – competition and compromise, the least common strategy is cooperation. Adolescents with low levels of conflict choose such conflict response strategy as avoidance and compliance, or even they try to avoid conflict resolution, established, or seeking to withdraw from the conflict by ignoring their own interests and concessions to the other side. Adolescents with middle level of conflicts demonstrate different ways of behavior in conflict situations from avoid to rivalry, from cooperation to adaptation. But the most typical style of them is a compromise that attempts to partially satisfy both their own interests and the interests of the others. For teenagers with a high level of conflict is inherent style of competition to the conflict that they make active efforts to meet their needs and achieve victory in this situation.
Key words: a conflict, conflict prevention, conflict situation, strategy of behavior, a social worker, an adolescent, competition, compromise, cooperation, adaptation.
The article deals with the problem that a lot of pre-school children have differences in the development of their psychological functions. There are kids with formed functions and with being formed ones. Some of children are standing behind. From one hand, such peculiarities of children development should not be a problem and make their individual differences. From the other hand, if there are unfavorable conditions of social environment, they can interfere with the full value development. The psychologist of a kindergarten faces the choice problem. They should choose the direction of psychological maintenance of these kids. It is stated that the most valuable approach is neuropsychological one among other conceptual approaches. Currently, children neuropsychology has enough scientific facts and practical works. There are given the main theoretical theses of O.R. Lurii’ followers in the article. They open the content; determine the main principles and tasks; draw the directions of the usage. It is determined that neuropsychological methods of diagnosis, especially syndrome analysis, are adequate means of finding strong and weak points of functional systems. The observation of the individual development dynamics allows to find primary and secondary suffering processes, to determine functional analysis and to organize correctional and developmental work, taking into account weak and strong parts of cognitive activity of a child. The conclusion is made that the interconnection of science and practice is a great diagnosis, prognostic, correctional and developmental mean in hands of kindergarten practical psychologist.
Key words: neuropsychologist, upper psychological functions, syndrome analysis, functional analysis, individual neuropsychological correction.